De illis solet esse quaestio, utrum resurrexerint iterum morituri, vel non morituri. Constat aliquos resurrexisse, ut post morerentur, ut Lazarus. Sed de istis potest dici quod surrexerunt non iterum morituri, quia surrexerunt ad manifestationem resurrectionis Christi. Certum autem est quod Christus resurgens ex mortuis, iam non moritur. Item si surrexissent, non esset eis beneficium exhibitum, sed potius detrimentum; ideo surrexerunt tamquam intraturi cum Christo in caelum.
There is usually a question about these people, whether they rose again and died again, or did not die. It is agreed that some have arisen and later died, like Lazarus. But one can say about these people that they rose and did not die again, because they rose for the manifestation of Christ’s resurrection, and it is certain that Christ rising again from the dead, dies now no more (Rom 6:9). Also, if they had risen only to die again, it would not have been a kindness shown them but rather an injury; therefore they rose to enter into heaven with Christ.
2396. Et exeuntes de monumentis post resurrectionem eius, venerunt in sanctam civitatem. Et notandum quod licet istud dictum sit in morte Christi, tamen intelligendum est per anticipationem esse dictum, quia post resurrectionem actum est; quia Christus primogenitus mortuorum, Apoc. I, 5.
2396. And coming out of the tombs after his resurrection, came into the holy city. And one should note that although this was said in the description of Christ’s death, yet one should understand that it was said by way of anticipation, because it was done after the resurrection; for Christ is the first begotten of the dead (Rev 1:5).
Et venerunt in sanctam civitatem, non quod modo esset sancta, sed quia ante fuerat; Is. c. I, 21: quomodo facta est meretrix civitas fidelis, plena iudicii? Vel dicitur sancta, quia sancta ibi tractabantur. Vel, secundum Hieronymum in sanctam civitatem, scilicet caelestem, quia cum Christo venerunt in gloriam. Et apparuerunt multis. Sicut enim Christus potestatem habet se manifestandi quibus vult, sic intelligendum de corporibus glorificatis.
And they came into the holy city, not because it was holy now, but because it had been before; how is the faithful city, that was full of judgment, become a harlot? (Isa 1:21). Or, it is called holy because holy things were done there. Or, following Jerome, into the holy city, namely the heavenly city, because they went with Christ into glory. And appered to many. For just as Christ has the power of manifesting himself to whom he wishes, so it should be understood with glorified bodies.
2397. Centurio autem et cetera. Hic agitur de effectu miraculorum. Et
2397. Now the centurion. Here he treats of the effect of the miracles. And
primo in gentibus;
first, on the gentiles;
secundo in mulieribus, ibi erant autem ibi mulieres multae.
second, on the women, at and there were there many women afar off.
2398. Circa primum tria facit. Primo ponitur diligens consideratio; secundo timor; tertio vera confessio fidei proveniens ex timore.
2398. Concerning the first, he does three things. First, their diligent consideration is set down; second, their fear; third, their true confession of the faith, which came from fear.
Dicit ergo centurio autem et qui cum eo erant custodientes Iesum, viso terraemotu et his quae fiebant, timuerunt valde.
It says therefore, now the centurion and they who were with him watching Jesus, having seen the earthquake, and the things that were done, were much afraid.
In Luca dicitur quod iste territus fuit ex hoc quod Christus clamans expiravit; hic autem dicitur, quod viso terraemotu. Et dicitur Augustinus quod non esset facile solvere nisi diceret et his quae fiebant. Iste autem signabat gentilem populum, qui salubri timore confessi sunt Dominum; unde Os. II, 24: dicam non populo meo: populus meus es tu. Et ipse dicet: Deus meus es tu. Vocabo gentem meam, non gentem meam. Is. XXVI, 18: a facie tua, Domine, concepimus, et peperimus spiritum salutis.
In Luke, it says that this man was terrified by the fact that Christ expired while crying out (Luke 23:42); but here it says that it was after having seen the earthquake. And Augustine says that this would not be easy to resolve if it did not say, and the things that were done. Now, this man signified the gentile people, who confessed the Lord with a healthy fear; hence, I will say to that which was not my people: you are my people: and they will say: you are my God (Hos 2:24). We have conceived by your face, O Lord, and we have born a spirit of salvation (Isa 26:18).
Deinde ponitur vera confessio, ibi vere Filius Dei erat iste. In hoc confunditur Arius, qui eum existentem in caelo non confitetur esse vere Filium Dei, quem centurio in morte confitetur; I Io. V, 20: hic est vere Filius Dei, et vita aeterna.
Then the true confession is set down, at indeed this was the Son of God. By this Arius is confounded, who does not confess that he is truly the Son of God while he is in heaven, whom the centurion confessed while he was dead; this is the true God and life eternal (1 John 5:20).
2399. Sequitur devotio mulierum erant autem ibi mulieres multae et cetera.
2399. There follows the women’s devotion: and there were there many women.
Et primo describuntur quoad praeterita, et quoad praesentia. In quo considerandum quod populis recedentibus, mulieres adhaeserunt, ita quod impletum est quod dicitur Is. l, 2: non remansit vir mecum.
And first, they are described with respect to the past, and with respect to the present. In which one should consider that when the people drew back, the women clung to him, so that what is said in Isaiah was fulfilled: I came, and there was not a man (Isa 50:2).
2400. Sed considerandum, quod hic dicitur quod steterunt a longe. Io. autem XIX, v. 25 dicit quod stabant iuxta crucem et cetera. Augustinus dicit quod potest dici quod aliae mulieres essent quae prope, et quae longe; nisi diceretur utrobique, quod Maria Magdalena erat una.
2400. But one should consider that it says here that they stood afar off. Now, John says that they stood by the cross (John 19:25). Augustine says that one can say that there were some women there who were near, and some who were at a distance; except it says it of both, because Mary Magdalen was one of them.
Ideo aliter dicendum quod sicut multum et paucum dicuntur relative, sic prope et longe: et sicut idem potest dici multum et paucum respectu diversorum, sic prope et longe. Sic considerandum quod centurio et gentiles iuxta crucem erant; sed mulieres post eos, turbae vero magis a longe. Unde secundum diversam comparationem erant longe et prope: longe comparando ad centurionem et gentiles; prope comparando ad turbas.
So one should say otherwise, that just as many and few are said relatively, so are near and far: and just as the same thing can be called many and few with respect to different things, so it can be called near and far with respect to different things. Thus one should consider that the centurion and the gentiles were next to the cross; but the women were after them, and the crowds indeed further off. Hence they were near and far, according to different comparisons: far off in comparison to the centurion and the gentiles, but near in comparison to the crowds.
Vel potest dici quod primo steterunt prope, sed cum emisit spiritum, steterunt longe.
Or one can say that at first they stood near, but when he sent forth the spirit, they stood at a distance.
2401. Item notate quod dicit quod secutae erant eum a Galilaea ministrantes ei. Ipse enim, cui Angeli ministrabant, permisit ut ministraretur ei a mulieribus. In hoc dedit documentum apostolis sequentibus, quod reciperent temporalia, ab his, quibus ministrarent spiritualia. Et haec erat consuetudo antiquitus, quod doctores recipiebant necessaria a bonis, quos docebant. Sed Paulus, quia gentibus praedicabat, inter quos non erat haec consuetudo, ne videretur quod pro pecunia praedicaret, recipere nolebat.
2401. Also, notice that it says that they had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to him. For he to whom angels were ministering permitted that the women minister to him. By this he gave an example to the apostles who were following that they should accept temporal things from those to whom they were ministering spiritual things. And this was an ancient custom, that teachers received the necessary things from the good people whom they taught. But Paul, since he preached to the gentiles, among whom there was not this custom, did not wish to accept anything, lest it seem that he preached for money.
2402. Inter quas erat Maria Magdalena, et Maria Iacobi et cetera. Ex isto verbo Elvidius assumpsit occasionem erroris, qui dixit Iesum esse natum ex semine Ioseph. Ad hoc dicit Hieronymus quod duo fuerunt Iacobi: Maior, qui dicitur frater Ioannis, et Minor, qui fuit filius Alphaei, cuius mater erat mater etiam Ioseph. Unde illa quae fuit mater Iacobi Maioris, non fuit mater Iacobi Minoris: quia statim additur et mater filiorum Zebedaei.
2402. Among whom was Mary Magdalen, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph. Helvidius took an occasion for error from these words, who said that Jesus was born from the seed of Joseph. Jerome says to this that there were two Jameses: the Greater, who is called the brother of John, and the Lesser, who was the son of Alpheus, whose mother was also the mother of Joseph. Hence the woman who was the mother of James the Greater was not the mother of James the Lesser, for it immediately adds and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.
2403. Sed quid est quod dicitur: Maria Cleophae, et Maria Alfaei? Solvit Hieronymus quod potuit esse quod illa Maria habuit virum, qui fuit binomius; unde vocabatur Cleophas et Alphaeus. Vel potest dici quod primo Cleophae nupsit, et mortuo illo nupsit Alphaeo. Vel potest dici quod Cleophas fuit pater, et mater fuit vocata Salome, quia Marcus dicit: et Salome, unde Salome est nomen mulieris.
2403. But why does it say, Mary of Cleophas, and Mary of Alpheus? Jerome resolves it, that it could have been that this Mary had a husband who had two names: hence he was called Cleophas and Alpheus. Or, one can say that first she married Cleophas, and when he died she married Alpheus. Or, one can say that Cleophas was the father, and the mother was called Salome, because Mark says, and Salome (Mark 15:40); hence Salome is the name of a woman.
Unde patet error magistri in Glossa super secundo capitulo ad Galatas, quod fuit nomen viri. Et magistri in historia, quia in Graeco habetur Salomei, quae est terminatio foeminea, quae nullo modo invenitur in masculino.
Hence the error of the teacher in the Gloss on the second chapter of Galatians is clear, that it was the name of a man. And also the error of the teacher in the histories, because in Greek it has Salomei, which is a feminine ending, which is never found in the masculine.
2404. Cum sero autem factum esset etc. In parte ista,
2404. And when it was evening. In this part,
primo agitur de sepultura;
first, he treats of the burial;
secundo de veneratione;
second, of the veneration;
tertio de custodia.
third, of the watch.
Secunda ibi accepto corpore, involvit illud in sindone munda; tertia ibi altera autem die etc.
The second is at and Joseph taking the body, wrapped it up in a clean linen cloth; the third, at and the next day.
Concerning the first,
primo conditio ponitur sepelientis;
first, he sets down the condition of the one who buried him;
secundo eius petitio.
second, his request.
2405. Conditiones ponuntur quatuor; unde cum sero factum esset, quia oportebat quod removeretur, ut non in Sabbato remaneret, venit quidam homo dives ab Arimathaea. Et describitur ex facultate, quia dives; Eccli. XXXI, 8: beatus dives, qui inventus est sine macula, et qui post aurum non abiir, nec speravit in pecuniae thesauris.
2405. Four conditions are set down; hence when it was evening, for it was necessary that the body be removed, so it would not remain on the Sabbath, there came a certain rich man of Arimathea. And he is described by resources, rich; blessed is the rich man who is found without blemish: and who has not gone after gold, nor put his trust in money nor in treasures (Sir 31:8).
Sed quare dicit eum divitem? Dicendum quod hoc non dicit propter eius laudem vel iactantiam, sed ad hoc quod potuit impetrare a Pilato quod non potuisset unus pauper.
But why does he call him rich? One should say that he does not say this for the sake of his praise or boasting, but in this connection, that he was able to obtain the body from Pilate, which one poor man could not have done.
Item describitur a patria, quia ab Arimathaea, quod idem est quod Ramatha, quae fuit Samuelis. Et signat ‘excelsum,’ et iste excelsus fuit. Item ex nomine, quia Ioseph, qui ‘accrescens’ signatur.
Likewise, he is described by homeland, of Arimathea, which is the same as Rama, which was Samuel’s city of residence. And it means ‘exalted,’ and this man was exalted. Likewise by name, Joseph, which means ‘increasing.’
Item ex religione, quia et ipse discipulus erat Iesu, quia ex fide non excidetat; Io. XIII, v. 31: si vos manseritis in sermone meo, vere discipuli mei eritis.
Likewise, by religion, who himself was also a disciple of Jesus, for he had not fallen away from the faith; if you continue in my word, you will be my disciples indeed (John 8:31).
2406. Tunc agitur de impetratione; et primo ponitur petitio; secundo impetratio. Hic accessit ad Pilatum, et petiit corpus Iesu. Et commendatur quia accessit. Sequitur impetratio tunc Pilatus iussit reddi corpus.
2406. Then he treats of the obtaining; and first the request is set down, second the obtaining. He went to Pilate, and asked for the body of Jesus. And he is commended, for he went. There follows the obtaining: then Pilate commanded that the body should be delivered.
2407. Sequitur de sepultura: et accepto corpore, Ioseph involvit illud in sindone munda. Et agitur de cultu et sepultura.
2407. There follows the description of the burial: and Joseph, taking the body, wrapped it up in a clean linen cloth. And he treats of the veneration, and the burial.
De cultu: fuit simplex cultus, quia simplici sindone. Et ideo, secundum. Hieronymum, vituperatur cultus nimius sepulturae.
Of the veneration: it was simple veneration, for it was a simple linen cloth. And for this reason, according to Jerome, veneration with excessively big sepulchres is censured.
Per istam sindonem secundum mysterium tria signantur. Primo signatur caro Christi munda: fit enim de lino, quod per multam pressuram dealbatur; sic caro Christi per multam pressuram ad candorem resurrectionis pervenit; Lucae ult., 46: sic oportuit Christum pati, et resurgere a mortuis tertia die.
According to a mystery, this linen cloth signifies three things. First, it signifies the clean flesh of Christ: for it comes from flax, which is whitened by great pressure; thus the flesh of Christ through great pressure arrived at the radiance of the resurrection; thus it is written, and thus it behooved Christ to suffer, and to rise again from the dead (Luke 24:46).
Vel signat Ecclesiam non habentem maculam neque rugam: et hoc signatur per istud linteum, quod ex diversis filis est contextum.
Or, it signifies the Church, which has neither spot nor wrinkle (Eph 5:27): and this is signified by the linen, which is woven together out of various fibers.