868. Unde notandum est quod, Deut. c. XII, 5, Dominus mandavit dicens: ad locum quem elegerit Dominus Deus vester de cunctis tribubus vestris, ut ponat nomen suum ibi et habitet in eo, venietis et offeretis in illo loco holocausta et victimas vestras. Tamen ante aedificationem templi permittebatur populo, ut in diversis locis altaria construeret ad cultum divinum; quod quia erat contra legem, aedificato iam templo, Ezechias rex piissimus omnia huiusmodi altaria destrui fecit. Et hoc est quod dicitur IV Reg. c. XVIII, 22: nonne iste est Ezechias, qui abstulit excelsa et altaria, et praecepit Iudae et Ierusalem: ante altare hoc adorabitis in Ierusalem? Quod ergo Ezechias fecit ex pietate, hoc fecit Achab et Iezabel ex impietate, volentes cultum Dei totaliter extirpare.868. Here it should be noted what the Lord commanded, saying: you shall seek the place which the Lord your God will choose out of all your tribes to put his name and make hia habitation there; thither you shall go, and thither you shall bring your burnt offerings and sacrifices (Deut 12:5). However, before the temple was built, the people were allowed to build altars in various places for divine worship; but because this became illegal after the temple had been built, the pious king Hezekiah destroyed all such altars. And that is what it says in 2 Kings: is it not he whose high places and altars Hezekiah has removed, saying to Judah and to Jerusalem: you shall worship before this altar in Jerusalem? (2 Kgs 18:22). Therefore, what Hezekiah did in a spirit of piety, Achab and Jezebel did in a spirit of impiety in their desire to root out the worship of God entirely.869. Tertio, allegat contra eos impietatem quam facere intendebant, dicens et relictus sum ego solus, scilicet in cultu unius Dei; quod quidem dixit Elias, eo quod alii non ita aperte manifestabant se esse Dei cultores. Dicitur enim de eo Eccli. c. XLVIII, 1: surrexit Elias propheta quasi ignis, et verbum illius quasi facula ardebat. Et quaerunt animam meam, scilicet ut auferant eam. Miserat enim Iezabel ad Eliam, IV Reg. XIX, 2, dicens: haec mihi faciant dii, et haec addant, nisi hac hora cras posuero animam tuam sicut animam unius ex illis, scilicet prophetis Baal, quos occiderat Elias.869. Third, he alleges against them the impiety they intended to do, saying: and I am left alone, namely, to worship the one God, because the rest did not show very clearly that they were God’s worshippers. For it says of him: and Elijah the prophet stood up, as a fire, and his word burnt like a torch (Sir 48:1). And they seek my life, namely that they might carry him away. For Jezebel had sent word to Elijah, saying: so may the gods do to me, if I do not make your life as the life of one of them (1 Kgs 19:2), namely of the prophets of Baal whom Elijah had killed.870. Deinde, cum dicit sed quid dicit, etc., ponit divinum responsum, dicens: sed quid dicit Scriptura ibidem, scilicet dixisse, illi, scilicet Eliae, responsum divinum? Hoc inquam, quod sequitur: reliqui mihi, id est in cultu meo non permittendo eos cadere in peccatum, septem millia virorum, ponitur certum pro incerto propter perfectionem septenarii et miliarii, qui non curvaverunt genua ante Baal id est qui cultum Dei non deseruerunt. Is. XLVII, v. 7: omnem qui invocat nomen meum, in gloriam meam creavi, et cetera.870. Then when he says but what does, he gives the divine reply, saying: but what does the divine answer say to him, i.e., to Elijah. It is this: I have left me, i.e., for my worship by not permitting them to fall into sin, seven thousand men (this definite number is put in place of the uncertain number, because seven and thousand are perfect numbers), that have not bowed their knees to Baal, i.e., who have not abandoned the worship of God: all who call on my name, whom I created for my glory (Isa 43:17).871. Deinde, cum dicit sic ergo, etc., adaptat quod dixerat ad propositum.871. Then when he says, even so then, he adapts all this to the present situation.Et primo ponit adaptationem, dicens sic ergo et in hoc tempore, in quo videtur multitudo populi deviasse, reliquiae, id est multi qui sunt relicti ab illo excidio, salvae fient, vel salvae factae sunt secundum electionem gratiae Dei, id est secundum gratuitam electionem Dei. Io. XV, 16: non me elegistis, sed ego elegi vos.First, he sets out the adaptation, saying: even so then, at this present time also, in which a multitude of people seems to have gone astray, there is a remnant saved according to the election of God’s grace, i.e., according to the gratuitous choice of God: you have not chosen me, but I have chosen you (John 15:16).Secundo ex hoc infert conclusionem, dicens si autem gratia, salvi facti sunt, iam non ex operibus eorum. Tit. III, 5: non ex operibus iustitiae quae fecimus nos, sed secundum suam misericordiam salvos nos fecit.Second, he draws the conclusion from this: and if by grace they have been saved, it is not now by works: he saved us, not because of deeds done by us in justice, but in virtue of his own mercy (Titus 3:5).Tertio ostendit sequi conclusionem ex praemissis, dicens alioquin, scilicet si gratia est ex operibus, iam non est gratia, quae dicitur ex eo quod gratis datur. Supra III, 24: Iustificati gratis per gratiam ipsius.Third, that this conclusion follows from the premises is shown when he says: otherwise, i.e., if grace is in virtue of works, grace is no more grace, which is so called because it is freely given: being justified freely by his grace (Rom 3:24).872. Deinde, cum dicit quid ergo, etc., infert conclusionem intentam.872. Then when he says, what then, he draws the conclusion he intended.Et, primo ponit eam, dicens quid ergo secundum praemissa dicemus? Hoc scilicet, quod Israel, quantum ad maiorem multitudinem populi, non est consecutus quod quaerebat, scilicet iustitiam. Et hoc modo intelligendum est quod supra IX, 31 dictum est Israel sectando legem iustitiae, in legem iustitiae non pervenit. Io. VII, 34: quaeretis me, et non invenietis.And first he sets it out, saying what then shall we say follows from what has been said? This, namely, that Israel, as far as the greater part of its people was concerned, has not obtained that which it sought, namely, justice. This is the way one must interpret what was said above: but Israel, by following after the law of justice, is not come unto the law of justice (Rom 9:31). You shall seek me, and shall not find me (John 7:34).Ita tamen quod electio, id est electi ex Iudaeis, consecuta est iustitiam, Eph. I, 4: elegit nos in ipso, ut essemus sancti, caeteri vero, id est alia pars populi, excaecati sunt propter suam malitiam. Sap. II, 21: excaecavit eos malitia eorum.Nevertheless, the election, i.e., the elect of the Jews, has obtained it: he chose us in him, that we should be holy (Eph 1:4). But the rest, i.e., the remainder of the people, have been blinded because of their malice: their own malice blinded them (Wis 1:22).873. Secundo, ibi sicut scriptum est, etc., manifestat conclusionem quantum ad ultimam partem.873. Then when he says, as it is written, he clarifies the first part of the conclusion:Et primo per auctoritatem Isaiae;first, on the authority of Isaiah;secundo, per auctoritatem David, ibi et David dicit.second, of David, at and David says.874. Circa primum notandum quod Apostolus componit auctoritatem ex duabus. Legitur enim Is. XIX, 10: miscui vobis spiritum soporis. Et quantum ad hoc dicit dedit Deus illis spiritum compunctionis, quod pertinet ad perversitatem affectus.874. In regard to the first it should be noted that the Apostle bases himself on two passages from Isaiah. For it says in Isaiah: the Lord has poured out upon you a spirit of deep sleep (Isa 29:10). In regard to this he says: God has given them the spirit of compunction, which has to do with a perversity of emotion.Compunctio enim importat quamdam cordis punctionem sive dolorem. Est ergo quaedam bona compunctio qua quis dolet de propriis peccatis, secundum illud Ps. LIX, 5: potasti nos vino compunctionis. Est autem et mala compunctio, scilicet invidiae, qua quis dolet de bonis aliorum.For compunction implies a puncturing of the heart or sorrow. Hence there is good compunction by which one grieves over his own sins, as it says in a psalm: you have made us drunk with the wine of compunction (Ps 60:3). There is also evil compunction, i.e., the compunction of envy, by which one grieves over the goods of another.Hunc ergo compunctionis, id est invidiae, spiritum eis dedit Deus, non quidem immittendo malitiam sed subtrahendo gratiam, sicut supra dictum est X, 19: ego ad aemulationem adducam vos in non gentem.Therefore God gave them this spirit of compunction, i.e., envy, not by instilling malice but by withdrawing grace, as was said above: I will provoke you to jealousy by that which is not a nation (Rom 10:19).875. Item legitur Is. VI, 10: excaeca cor populi huius, et aures eius aggrava, et oculos eius claude: ne forte videat oculis suis, et auribus suis audiat. Et quantum ad hoc designans defectum cognitivae virtutis, subdit oculos, ut non videant, scilicet per seipsos quantum ad miracula, quae Christus, eis videntibus, fecit, et aures, ut non audiant, scilicet fructuose doctrinam Christi et apostolorum. Is. XLII, 20: qui vides multa, nonne custodies? Qui apertas aures habes, nonne audies?875. Likewise it says in Isaiah: make the heart of this people fat, and their eyes heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes and hear with their ears (Isa 6:10). And in regard to this he designates their weakened power of knowing, when he adds eyes that they should not see the miracles which Christ performed in their presence, and ears that they should not hear fruitfully the teachings of Christ and the apostles: you that see many things, will you not observe them? You that have ears open, will you not hear? (Isa 42:20).Addit autem Apostolus de suo usque in hodiernum diem, quia in fine mundi videbunt et audient, quando convertentur corda filiorum ad patres eorum, ut dicitur Malach. Ult.To this the Apostle adds on his own: until this present day, because they will see and hear at the end of the world, when the hearts of the children will be converted to the hearts of their fathers, as it says in Malachi (Mal 4:5).876. Deinde cum dicit et David dicit, etc., ponit ad idem auctoritatem David.876. Then when he says, and David says, he presents the authority of David on the same point.In qua, primo, tangit occasionem defectus Iudaeorum, dicens fiat mensa eorum, id est malitia qua peccatores reficiuntur. Iob XX, v. 12: cum dulce fuerit in ore eius malum, abscondet illud sub lingua sua. Quae quidem mensa est coram ipsis quando ex certa malitia peccant. Hoc quidem fit in laqueum quando ex ea paratur tentatio ad peccandum, Is. XXIV, 18: qui explicaverit se de fovea, tenebitur laqueo, et in captionem, quando delectationi succumbit per consensum, Is. c. VIII, 15: capientur et irretientur, et in scandalum, id est in pactionem casus quando ruunt de peccato in peccatum, Ps. CXVIII, v. 165: pax multa diligentibus legem tuam, et non est illis scandalum, et in retributionem illis quando scilicet punientur pro suis peccatis. Vel quia hoc ipsum est retributio delictorum, quia Deus eos permittit sic cadere. Ps. XCIII, 2: redde retributionem superbis.First, he touches on the things which occasioned the fall of the Jews, saying let their table, i.e., the malice with which sinners are nourished: though wickedness is sweet in his mouth, though he hides it under his tongue (Job 20:12). This table is before them, when they sin from malice aforethought and it becomes a snare, i.e., a temptation to sin: he who comes out of the pit shall be caught in the snare: (Isa 24:18), and a trap, when they succumb to the pleasure of the temptation: they shall be trapped and taken (Isa 8:15), and a stumbling block, when they fall from one sin into another: much peace to those who love your law, and it is not a stumbling block to them (Ps 119:165), and a retribution unto them, namely, when they will be punished for their sins. Or because the very fact that God permits them so to fall is itself a retribution for their sins: render to the proud their deserts (Ps 94:2).Vel mensa est Sacra Scriptura Iudaeis apposita. Prov. IX, 2: proposuit mensam suam. Quae quidem fit in laqueum, quando occurrit aliquod ambiguum, in captionem, quando male intelligitur, in scandalum, quando ruit in pertinaciam erroris, et retributionem, ut supra.Or the table is the Sacred Scripture put before the Jews: she has set forth her table (Prov 9:2). It becomes a snare, when something ambiguous occurs; a trap, when it is not correctly understood; a stumbling block, when it falls into obstinate error; and a retribution, as explained above.877. Secundo ponit ipsum defectum quantum ad cognitivam virtutem, cum dicit obscurentur oculi eorum ne videant, quod magis praenuntiando quam optando dicitur. Eph. IV, 18: tenebris obscuratum habentes intellectum. Et quantum ad effectum cum dicit et dorsum eorum, id est liberum arbitrium quod portat ad bona et ad mala, semper incurva, id est incurvari permitte ab aeternis ad temporalia, a rectitudine iustitiae ad iniquitatem. Is. LI, 23: incurvare ut transeamus.877. Second, he mentions the weakening of their power to understand when he says: let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, which is said more as a prediction than as a desire: having their understanding darkened (Eph 4:18). And he mentions the effect when he says, and their backs, i.e., free choice, which carries something for good or for evil, bow down always, i.e., bend from eternal things to temporal things, from the path of justice to iniquity: bow down, that we may pass over (Isa 51:23).Lectio 2Lecture 2Delictum Judaeorum pro salvationem gentiumThe Jews’ offense is for the salvation of the gentiles11:11 Dico ergo: numquid sic offenderunt ut caderent? Absit. Sed illorum delicto, salus est gentibus ut illos aemulentur. [n. 878]11:11 I say then: have they so stumbled, that they should fall? God forbid! But by their offense salvation is come to the gentiles, that they may be emulous of them. [n. 878]11:12 Quod si delictum illorum divitiae sunt mundi, et diminutio eorum divitiae gentium: quanto magis plenitudo eorum? [n. 883]11:12 Now if the offense of them be the riches of the world and the diminution of them the riches of the gentiles, how much more the fullness of them? [n. 883]11:13 Vobis enim dico gentibus: quamdiu quidem ego sum gentium Apostolus, ministerium meum honorificabo, [n. 885]11:13 For I say to you, gentiles: as long indeed as I am the apostle of the gentiles, I will honor my ministry, [n. 885]11:14 si quomodo ad aemulandum provocem carnem meam, et salvos faciam aliquos ex illis. [n. 888]11:14 If, by any means, I may provoke to emulation them who are my flesh and may save some of them. [n. 888]11:15 Si enim amissio eorum, reconciliatio est mundi: quae assumptio, nisi vita ex mortuis? [n. 890]11:15 For if the loss of them be the reconciliation of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead? [n. 890]11:16 Quod si delibatio sancta est, et massa: et si radix sancta, et rami. [n. 891]11:16 For if the firstfruit be holy, so is the lump also: and if the root be holy, so are the branches. [n. 891]878. Postquam Apostolus ostendit quod casus Iudaeorum non est universalis, hic incipit ostendere quod casus eorum non est inutilis neque irreparabilis.878. After showing that the fall of the Jews is not universal, the Apostle now begins to show that their fall was neither useless nor irreparable.Et circa hoc duo facit.In regard to this he does two things:Primo ostendit casum Iudaeorum esse utilem et reparabilem;first, he shows that the fall of the Jews is useful and reparable;secundo excludit gloriam gentilium Iudaeis insultantium, ibi quod si aliqui ex ramis, et cetera.second, he disputes the gentiles’ boasting against the Jews, at and if some of the branches (Rom 11:17).Circa primum duo facit.In regard to the first he does two things:Primo proponit quaestionem;first, he asks a question;