Super 1 ad CorinthiosCommentary on 1 CorinthiansProoemiumPrologueSapientia 6:24Wisdom 6:226:22 Quid est autem sapientia, et quemadmodum facta sit, referam, et non abscondam a vobis sacramenta Dei: sed ab initio nativitatis investigabo, et ponam in lucem scientiam illius, et non praeteribo veritatem.6:22 Now what wisdom is, and what was her origin, I will declare: and I will not hide from you the sacraments of God, but will seek her out from the beginning of her birth, and bring the knowledge of her to light, and will not pass over the truth.1. Sacramenti nomen dupliciter accipi consuevit. Nam quandoque sacramentum dicitur quodcumque secretum, et praecipue de rebus sacris; quandoque sacramentum dicitur sacrae rei signum, ita quod et eius imaginem gerat, et causa existat, secundum quod nos dicimus septem sacramenta Ecclesiae, scilicet baptismus, confirmatio, Eucharistia, poenitentia, extrema unctio, ordo et matrimonium. In qua quidem significatione sacramenti etiam prima significatio continetur; nam in his Ecclesiae sacramentis, divina virtus secretius operatur salutem, ut Augustinus dicit.1. The word ‘sacrament’ can be taken in two senses: sometimes it means something secret, particularly in regard to sacred things; and sometimes it means the sign of a sacred thing, in the sense of being its image and cause. It is in this second sense that we speak of the seven sacraments: baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony. Furthermore, the first sense is then included in this second sense, for a divine power is secretly at work in these sacraments of the Church, as Augustine says.2. Haec igitur sacramenta Dei praelatus, seu doctor Ecclesiae, fidelibus Christi non debet abscondere sed manifestare, propter tria.2. Consequently, these sacraments of God should not be concealed but laid bare to Christ’s faithful by their teachers and prelates for three reasons.Primo quidem, quia hoc pertinet ad honorem Dei, secundum illud Tob. XII, 7: sacramentum regis abscondere bonum est, opera autem Dei revelare et confiteri honorificum est.First, because this redounds to God’s honor: it is good to hide the secret of the king, but honorable to reveal and confess the works of the Lord (Tob 12:7).Secundo, quia hoc pertinet ad salutem hominum, qui per horum ignorantiam in desperationem labi possent, sicut de quibusdam dicitur Sap. II, 22 quod nescierunt sacramenta Dei, nec speraverunt mercedem iustitiae, quia per sacramenta homines purificantur, ut sint praeparati ad recipiendum mercedem iustitiae.Second, because this is needed for the salvation of men, who could lapse into despair from not knowing them, for Wisdom says that some men did not know the secret purposes of God, nor hope for the wages of holiness (Wis 2:22), because men are purified by the sacraments and prepared for receiving the wages of holiness.Tertio quia hoc pertinet ad debitum officium praelati vel doctoris, secundum illud Eph. III, 8: mihi omnium sanctorum minimo data est gratia haec, illuminare omnes quae sit dispensatio sacramenti absconditi a saeculis in Deo.Third, because this is a duty of teachers and prelates as pointed out by the Apostle: to me, though I am the very least of the saints, this grace was given, to make all men see what is the plan of the mystery hidden for ages in God (Eph 3:8).Sic ergo praedicta verba demonstrant nobis materiam huius epistolae, in qua Apostolus agit de sacramentis Ecclesiae.Thus the above text discloses to us the subject matter of this epistle, in which the Apostle discusses the sacraments of the Church.Cum enim in epistola ad Romanos gratiam Dei commendasset, quae in sacramentis Ecclesiae operatur: hic, scilicet in prima epistola ad Corinthios, de ipsis Ecclesiae sacramentis agit; in secunda vero de ministris sacramentorum.For since in the epistle to the Romans he had discussed God’s grace, which works in the seven sacraments, here in the first epistle to the Corinthians he discusses the sacraments themselves and in the second epistle to the Corinthians the ministers of the sacraments.Videamus ergo primo textum.Let us turn, therefore, to the text.Caput 1Chapter 1Introductio et AdmonitionesIntroduction and AdmonitionsLectio 1Lecture 1Salutatio et actio gratiarumGreeting and thanksgiving1:1 Paulus vocatus apostolus Jesu Christi per voluntatem Dei, et Sosthenes frater, [n. 3]1:1 Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes a brother, [n. 3]1:2 Ecclesiae Dei, quae est Corinthi, sanctificatis in Christo Jesu, vocatis sanctis, cum omnibus qui invocant nomen Domini nostri Jesu Christi, in omni loco ipsorum et nostro. [n. 7]1:2 To the church of God that is at Corinth, to them who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all who invoke the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in every place of theirs and ours. [n. 7]1:3 Gratia vobis, et pax a Deo Patre nostro, et Domino Jesu Christo. [n. 9]1:3 Grace to you and peace, from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ. [n. 9]1:4 Gratias ago Deo meo semper pro vobis in gratia Dei, quae data est vobis in Christo Jesu: [n. 11]1:4 I give thanks to my God always for you, for the grace of God that is given you in Christ Jesus: [n. 11]1:5 quod in omnibus divites facti estis in illo, in omni verbo, et in omni scientia. [n. 13]1:5 That in all things you are made rich in him, in all utterance and in all knowledge; [n. 13]1:6 Sicut testimonium Christi confirmatum est in vobis: [n. 14]1:6 As the testimony of Christ was confirmed in you, [n. 14]1:7 ita ut nihil vobis desit in ulla gratia, exspectantibus revelationem Domini nostri Jesu Christi, [n. 15]1:7 So that nothing is wanting to you in any grace, waiting for the manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ. [n. 15]1:8 qui et confirmabit vos usque in finem sine crimine, in die adventus Domini nostri Jesu Christi. [n. 17]1:8 Who also will confirm you unto the end without crime, in the day of the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. [n. 17]1:9 Fidelis Deus: per quem vocati estis in societatem Filii ejus Jesu Christi Domini nostri. [n. 18]1:9 God is faithful: by whom you are called unto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord. [n. 18]3. Dividitur ergo haec epistola in partes duas.3. This epistle is divided into two parts:In prima parte ponit epistolarem salutationem;in the first he sends his greeting;in secunda prosequitur suam intentionem, ibi gratias ago Deo meo.and in the other his message, at I give thanks to my God.4. Circa primum tria facit.4. As to the first he does three things:Primo ponit personas salutantes;first, he mentions the persons who send the greeting;secundo, personas salutatas ecclesiae Dei, etc.;second, the persons greeted, at to the church of God;tertio bona salutifera optat, ibi gratia vobis et pax.third, he wishes them well, at grace to you and peace.4. Circa primum duo facit.4. As to the first he does two things.Primo ponit personam principalem quam describit ex nomine, dicens Paulus, de quo quidem nomine satis dictum est in epistola ad Romanos. Hic autem sufficiat dicere quod hoc nomen praemittit in signum humilitatis; nam Paulus idem est quod modicus, quod ad humilitatem pertinet. I Reg. XV, 17: cum esses parvulus in oculis tuis, caput in tribubus Israel factus es. Matth. XI, 25: abscondisti haec a sapientibus et prudentibus, et revelasti ea parvulis.As to the first he mentions the principal person first and describes him from his name, Paul. Enough had been said about this name in the epistle to the Romans. Suffice it to say here that this name is mentioned as a token of humility, for ‘Paul’ means a small amount, which pertains to humility: though you are little in your own eyes, are you not the head of the tribes of Israel? (1 Sam 15:17); you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding and revealed them to babes (Matt 11:25).5. Consequenter describit eam a dignitate.5. Then he describes himself from his dignity.Et primo ponit modum adipiscendae dignitatis, cum dicit vocatus, secundum illud Hebr. V, 4: Nemo sumit sibi honorem, sed qui vocatur a Deo tamquam Aaron.First, he mentions how a dignity should be obtained when he says, called, since it is stated in Hebrews: one does not take the honor upon himself, but is called by God, as Aaron was (Heb 5:4).