530. Deinde cum dicit haec autem omnia in figura, etc., habito quod propter nos praedicta facta sunt, hic ostendit, quod propter nos etiam scripta sunt. Et primo quod in significatione, secundo quod in correctione, ibi scripta sunt autem, et cetera. Dicit ergo: haec autem, etc.; quasi dicat: ista contigerunt illis, et hoc non tantum propter sua peccata, non autem pro se, sed omnia in figura, nostri scilicet, contingebant illis: erat enim tunc tempus figurarum. 530. Next he says now all these things happened to them in figure, and having held that the events mentioned were done for our sake, he here shows that for our sake also they were written. And first, what it is in signification; second, what it is in correction, at and they were written. Therefore he says: now all these things, as though saying: those things happened to them, and not only on account of their sins, and not for themselves, but all these things happened to them in figure, of us that is: for that was the time of figures. 531. Deinde cum dicit scripta sunt autem ad correptionem, tangit quod scripta sunt ad correctionem nostram. Ubi implicantur tria incitantia ad correctionem nostram. Primo antiquorum exempla, quae notantur in Scripturis; secundo exemplorum causa, quae est correctio nostra; tertio, aetas novissima, quae est finis saeculorum. 531. Next when he says and they are written for our correction, he mentions that they were written for our correction. There he develops three things working toward our correction. The first is the examples of the ancients, which are noted in the Scriptures; the second is the reason for their examples, which is our correction; the third is the last age, which is the end of the world. Dicit ergo scripta sunt autem ad correptionem nostram, quia quaecumque scripta sunt, ad nostram doctrinam scripta sunt, Rom. XV, 4. Nos, dico, in quos fines saeculorum devenerunt, id est, sexta aetas, quae est ultima aetas laborantium. I Io. II, 18: filioli mei, novissima hora est. Quia ergo in ultima saeculi aetate sumus, tot exemplis priorum corrigi debemus. Vel in quos fines saeculorum devenerunt, id est, in quibus per fidem et amorem Christi finita est saecularitas, quia Phil. III, 20 dicitur: conversatio nostra in caelis est. Unde temporalia non promittuntur tempore gratiae, sicut tempore legis. Unde nec in pactum deducuntur, sed adiiciuntur. Matth. VI, 33: primum quaerite regnum Dei, et cetera. Sed antiquitus erant in pactum. Is. I, 19: si volueritis, et audieritis, et cetera. Therefore he says and they were written for our correction, because whatever things were written, were written for our instruction (Rom 15:4). We, I say, upon whom the ends of the world are come, that is, the sixth age, which is the last age of those laboring (I John 2:18). My little children, it is the last hour. Because, therefore, we are in the last age of the world, we should be corrected by so many examples of those who went before. Or upon whom the ends of the world are come, that is, in whom by the faith and love of Christ, there is an end to secularity, for it is said: our conversation is in heaven. For which reason temporal things are not promised in the time of grace, like in the time of the Law. Wherefore neither are people marrying or given in marriage: seek first the kingdom of God (Matt 6:33). But our ancestors were marrying. If you are willing and will hear (Isa 1:19). Ecce ergo exempla certa, quia scripta sunt; utilia, quia ad correctionem nostram; durabilia, quia in quos fines, et cetera. Thus here we have sure examples, which are written; useful ones, because they are for our correction; and lasting ones, because upon whom the ends of the world are come. Lectio 3 Lecture 3 Nullus tentatio supra id quod potestis No temptation beyond strength 10:12 Itaque qui se existimat stare, videat ne cadat. [n. 532] 10:12 Wherefore, he who thinks that he stands, let him take heed lest he fall. [n. 532] 10:13 Tentatio vos non apprehendat nisi humana: fidelis autem Deus est, qui non patietur vos tentari supra id quod potestis, sed faciet etiam cum tentatione proventum ut possitis sustinere. [n. 534] 10:13 Let no temptation take hold on you, except such as is human. And God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able: but with the temptation will also make the success, so that you may be able to bear it. [n. 534] 532. Habita primo Iudaeorum punitione, secundo punitionis ratione, hic tertio concludit, quod exemplo eorum debent a malo cavere; ubi 532. Having established first the punishment of the Jews, and second the reason for the punishment, here he concludes third, that by their example they should be careful about evil. primo monet, ut caveant casum; He first warns that they be careful of falling; secundo cavendi docet modum, ibi vos non apprehendat, etc.; second, he teaches them how to be careful at let no temptation take hold on you; tertio promittit firmum adiutorium, ibi fidelis autem Deus est, et cetera. third, he promises firm help at and God is faithful. 533. In primo implicat quatuor sollicitantia sapientem, scilicet multitudinem cadentium, cum dicit itaque, incertitudinem stantium, cum subdit qui se existimat stare, etc., necessitatem cautelae, cum addit videat, facilitatem ruinae, cum dicit ne cadat. 533. In the first, he lays out four things troubling the wise, namely, the great number of those falling, when he says, wherefore; the uncertainty of those standing, when he adds, he who thinks that he stands; the necessity of caution, when he adds, let him take heed; and the ease with which ruin comes, when he says, lest he fall. Dicit ergo itaque, etc., quasi dicat: illi et si beneficiis Dei usi sunt, nihilominus propter peccata perierunt. Itaque ex eorum consideratione, qui existimat, aliqua coniecturatione, se stare, id est quod sit in gratia et caritate, videat, diligenti attentione, ne cadat, peccando, vel alios faciendo peccare. Is. XIV, 12: quomodo cecidisti, Lucifer? Ps. XC, 7: cadent a latere tuo mille, et cetera. Ideo Eph. V, 15: videte quomodo caute ambuletis. Therefore he says, wherefore, as if saying: even those who have enjoyed the benefits of God, nevertheless have perished for their sins. Wherefore, from consideration of them, he who thinks by some conjecture that he stands, which is to say, that he is in grace and charity, let him take heed, by diligent attention, lest he fall by sinning or by making others sin. How did you fall, Lucifer? (Isa 14:12) A thousand fall at your side (Ps 91:7). Thus see how you walk carefully (Eph 5:15). 534. Deinde cum dicit tentatio vos non apprehendat, etc., docet modum cavendi causam, scilicet cavendo tentationem. Ubi primo docet aliquam tentationem fugiendam; secundo aliquam sustinendam, ibi nisi humana. Primo notificat, quia pulsat ut introeat: unde dicitur tentatio; secundo quia impugnat, ut praevaleat; unde subditur non vos apprehendat. 534. Next when he says let no temptation take hold on you, he teaches the manner of being wary, namely, by being careful of temptation. There he first teaches which temptation to flee; second, which one to endure, at except such as is human. First he makes known, for it knocks that it may enter: for this reason temptation is said; second because it attacks so that it might prevail; wherefore it is added, let it not take hold on you. Dicit ergo tentatio, etc., quasi diceret: ne cadatis, tentatio, scilicet peccati, non vos apprehendat, trahendo in consensum peccati, nisi humana. Therefore he says temptation, as though he had said: lest you fall, let no temptation, namely of sin, take hold on you, drawing you into consenting to sin, except such as is human. Hoc dupliciter exponitur. Uno modo de tentatione interiori mala, et tunc est permissio; quasi dicat: nulla peccati dilectio vos apprehendat, nisi forte de malis, sine qua vita humana non ducitur. Non enim est homo, qui semper faciat bonum et non peccet, III Reg. VIII, 46 et II Paralip. VI, 36. This is explained in two ways. One way concerns an interior evil temptation, and then there is the consent; as though he said: let no love of sin take hold on you, except perhaps concerning those evils without which human life cannot be lived. For there is no man who always does good and does not sin (1 Kgs 8; 2 Chr 6:36). Alio modo exponitur de tentatione exterioris boni. Et tunc est exhortatio, sic: tentatio vos non apprehendat, nisi humana, scilicet tribulationum praesentium propter Christum tolerantia. Augustinus: propter Christum pati humana tentatio est. Tob. XII, v. 13: quia acceptus eras Deo, necesse fuit, ut tentatio probaret te. In another way it can be explained about the temptation of an exterior good. And then there is an exhortation, as follows: let no temptation take hold on you, except such as is human, namely, tolerance of present tribulations for Christ’s sake. Augustine says: human temptation is to be suffered for Christ’s sake: because you had been accepted by God, it was necessary that temptation should test you (Tob 12:13). 535. Deinde cum dicit fidelis Deus, ostendit paratum adiutorium in tentatione. Ubi commendat Deum adiutorem, quia dat nobis resistendi potentiam, quod notatur ibi sed faciet cum tentatione, etc.; perseverantiam, quod notatur ibi ut possitis sustinere, vere fidelis Deus, qui dat potentiam, ne vincamur, gratiam ut mereamur, constantiam ut vincamus. 535. Next when he says God is faithful, he shows the ready help in temptation. He commends God as help, because he gives us the power to resist, which is noted at but with the tempation will also make the success; he also gives us perseverance, which is noted at so that you may be able to bear it; truly faithful is God, who gives us power so that we may not be vanquished, grace so that we may merit, constancy so that we may conquer. Dicit ergo fidelis etc., quasi diceret: vos ad hoc hortor et moneo, quod potestis: fidelis Dominus in omnibus verbis suis, qui non patietur vos tentari supra id, quod potestis: quod utique posset diabolus, si permitteretur, quia non est potestas super terram, quae ei comparetur, Iob XLI, 24. Therefore he says faithful, as though he were saying: I urge you and I advise you for this, what you are able to do: the Lord is faithful in all his words, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able: because the devil certainly could, if he were permitted, because there is no power upon the earth that compares to him (Job 41:24). Et Is. XL, 29: dat lasso virtutem. Ideo Iac. I, 2: omne gaudium existimate, fratres, cum in varias tentationes incideritis. Augustinus: qui dat diabolo tentandi licentiam, ipse dat tentatis misericordiam. Proventum, inquam, ita ut possitis sustinere, ne deficiatis in lucta, sed vincatis: quod fit per humilitatem, ut dicit Augustinus. Illi enim non crepant in fornace, qui non habent ventum superbiae. And he gives strength to the weary (Isa 40:29). Therefore consider it all joy, brothers, when you meet with various temptations (Jas 1:2). Augustine says: he who gives the devil permission to tempt, is the very one who gives mercy to the tempted. The success, I say, so that you might be able to bear it, so that you may not sink in grief, but rather you may overcome: which is done by humility, as Augustine says. For they do not crackle in the furnace who do not have the wind of pride. 536. Notandum est super illud qui se existimat stare, etc., quod ad casum impellunt nos primo debilitas virium, sicut cadunt pueri, decrepiti, infirmi, Is. XL, 30: in infirmitate cadent, quod contingit per tepiditatem bene operandi et instabilitatem. 536. It should be noted concerning he who thinks that he stands, that we are impelled to fall first by the feebleness of our strength, in the way that children, the aged, and the weak fall: they will fall in their weakness (Isa 40:30), which happens by instability and a lukewarmness for acting well. Secundo onus peccatorum sicut cadunt asini sub onere nimio, Ps. XXXV, 13: ceciderunt qui operantur iniquitatem, quod contingit per negligentiam poenitendi: quia peccatum, quod per poenitentiam, et cetera. Second, by the burden of sins, in the way that donkeys fall under burdens too heavy: those who work iniquity have fallen (Ps 36:12), which happens by neglecting repentance: because sin, which by penance, etc. Tertio multitudo trahentium, sicut arbor vel domus multis trahentibus deorsum cadit, supra: neque fornicemur, etc., quod contingit per impulsum hostium. Third, by the great number of people pulling us down, in the way that a tree or a house falls by many people pulling on it, as said above: neither let us commit fornication, which happens by the incitement of the enemy. Quarto lubricitas viarum, sicut incauti cadunt in lubrico, Eccli. XXVIII, 30: attende ne forte labaris in lingua, et cadas, et in conspectu, etc., quod contingit per incautam custodiam sensuum. Fourth, by the slipperiness of the path, in the way that the careless fall on a slippery floor: take heed lest perhaps you slip with your tongue, and fall and in the sight of your enemies (Sir 28:30), which happens by careless guarding of the senses. Quinto varietas offendiculorum, sicut avis capta in medio laqueorum, Prov. XIX, 8: hi in curribus, et cetera. Prov. XXIV, 16: septies in die cadit iustus, quod contingit per corruptionem creaturarum. Fifth, by different kinds of stumbling blocks, in the way that a bird is caught in the middle of many snares: some trust in chariots (Ps 20:7). The just man falls seven times a day (Prov 24:16), which happens by the corruption of creation. Sexto ignorantia agendorum, sicut caeci cadunt de facili, Matth. XV, 14: si caecus caeco ducatum praestet, etc., quod contingit per negligentiam addiscendi necessaria. Sixth, by the ignorance of what should be done, in the way that the blind fall easily: if the blind lead the blind (Matt 15:14), which happens by neglecting to learn the necessary things. Septimo exempla cadentium, sicut angeli ad exemplum Luciferi, Ps. XC, 7: cadent a latere tuo mille, et cetera. Prov. XXV, 26: fons turbatus pede et vena corrupta iustus cadens coram impio, quod contingit per imitationem malorum. Seventh, by the example of others falling, in the way that the angels fell after the example of Lucifer: a thousand fall at your side (Ps 91:7). A just man falling down before the wicked is a fountain stirred up by the foot, and a ruined spring (Prov 25:26), which happens by the imitation of the wicked. Octavo ponderositas corporum, corpus enim quod corrumpitur aggravat animam, sicut lapis in collo natantis, Iob XIV, 18: mons cadens defluit, quod contingit per carnis fomentum superfluum. Eighth, the weightiness of bodies, for the body that is corrupted drags down the soul, in the way that a stone around the neck of someone swimming does: a mountain falling melts away (Job 14:18), which happens by excess tinder in the flesh. Lectio 4 Lecture 4 Unus panis, unum corpus One bread, one body 10:14 Propter quod, carissimi mihi, fugite ab idolorum cultura: [n. 537] 10:14 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from the service of idols. [n. 537] 10:15 ut prudentibus loquor, vos ipsi judicate quod dico. [n. 539] 10:15 I speak as to the prudent: you yourselves judge what I say. [n. 539] 10:16 Calix benedictionis, cui benedicimus, nonne communicatio Sanguinis Christi est? et panis quem frangimus, nonne participatio Corporis Domini est? [n. 541] 10:16 The chalice of benediction which we bless, is it not the communion of the Blood of Christ? And the bread which we break, is it not the partaking of the Body of the Lord? [n. 541] 10:17 Quoniam unus panis, unum corpus multi sumus, omnes qui de uno pane participamus. [n. 542] 10:17 For we, being many, are one bread, one body: all that partake of one bread. [n. 542] 537. Superius ex consideratione Iudaeorum poenae monuit abstinere a perpetratione peccatorum similium, hic specialiter monet cavere a comestione idolis immolatorum. Ubi 537. Above, by the consideration of the punishment of the Jews, he warned them to refrain from committing similar sins; here he warns them especially to be careful about eating the foods sacrificed to idols.