Caro idolis sacrificatur
Meat sacrificed to idols
8:1 De iis autem quae idolis sacrificantur, scimus quia omnes scientiam habemus. Scientia inflat, caritas vero aedificat. [n. 421]
8:1 Now concerning those things that are sacrificed to idols: we know we all have knowledge. Knowledge puffs up: but charity edifies. [n. 421]
8:2 Si quis autem se existimat scire aliquid, nondum cognovit quemadmodum oporteat eum scire. [n. 424]
8:2 And if any man thinks that he knows any thing, he has not yet known as he ought to know. [n. 424]
8:3 Si quis autem diligit Deum, hic cognitus est ab eo. [n. 426]
8:3 But if any man loves God, the same is known by him. [n. 426]
8:4 De escis autem quae idolis immolantur, scimus quia nihil est idolum in mundo, et quod nullus est Deus, nisi unus. [n. 428]
8:4 But as for the meats that are sacrificed to idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world and that there is no God but one. [n. 428]
8:5 Nam etsi sunt qui dicantur dii sive in caelo, sive in terra (siquidem sunt dii multi, et Domini multi): [n. 430]
8:5 For although there are those that are called gods, either in heaven or on earth (for there are many gods and many lords): [n. 430]
8:6 nobis tamen unus est Deus, Pater, ex quo omnia, et nos in illum: et unus Dominus Jesus Christus, per quem omnia, et nos per ipsum.
8:6 Yet to us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things, and we unto him: and one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through him.
8:7 Sed non in omnibus est scientia. Quidam autem cum conscientia usque nunc idoli, quasi idolothytum manducant: et conscientia ipsorum cum sit infirma, polluitur. [n. 431]
8:7 But there is not knowledge in every one. For some, being hitherto with conscience of the idol, eat as a thing sacrificed to an idol: and their conscience, being weak, is defiled. [n. 431]
8:8 Esca autem nos non commendat Deo. Neque enim si manducaverimus, abundabimus: neque si non manducaverimus, deficiemus. [n. 432]
8:8 But meat does not commend us to God. For neither, if we eat, shall we have the more: nor, if we eat not, shall we have the less. [n. 432]
421. Excluso errore circa correctionem criminum, cap. V et VI; item circa virginitatem et matrimonium, cap. VII, hic excludit errorem circa esum et abstinentiam ciborum, cap. isto, IX et X, loquens de his quae idolis immolabantur, a quibus, quamvis in se licitis, abstinere monet,
421. Having excluded an error regarding the correction of sins in chapters five and six, and again regarding virginity and marriage in chapter seven, here he excludes an error regarding consumption of and abstinence from food in this chapter and in chapters nine and ten, speaking about those foods which were offered to idols, from which, although in themselves licit, he advises one to abstain.
primo allegando eis scandalum infirmorum, cap. isto;
First, he does this by laying before them the scandal to the weak, in this chapter;
secundo exemplum sui, qui propter alios abstinet a receptione sumptuum licitorum, cap. IX;
second, the example of himself, who for the sake of others abstains from licit reimbursement from others, in chapter nine;
tertio exemplum poenae Iudaeorum post tanta beneficia Dei in deserto prostratorum, cap. X.
third, the example of the punishment of the Jews brought low in the desert after so great benefits of God, in chapter ten.
Ergo propter scandalum proximi, exemplo Apostoli, non propter timorem supplicii debemus abstinere a cibis aliquando licitis. In
Therefore we should sometimes abstain from licit foods on account of scandal to neighbors, and the example of the Apostle, not account of fear of punishment.
primo ostendit quod in se licita est comestio idolothitorum;
First he shows that the eating of food offered to idols is in itself licit.
secundo monet nihilominus abstinere propter scandalum fratrum infirmorum, ibi videte ne forte, et cetera.
Second, he nonetheless advises abstinence from these foods on account of the scandal thereby occasioned to weak brethren, at take heed lest perhaps (1 Cor 8:9).
In the first part,
primo proponit quod maiores eorum habent scientiam de idolothitis;
he first lays down that the greater men among them have knowledge concerning things offered to idols;
secundo ostendit qualem scientiam habent de eis, ibi de escis autem quae idolis immolantur, etc.;
second, he shows what kind of knowledge they have concerning them, at but as for the meats which are offered to idols;
tertio quod quidam infirmi hac scientia carent, ibi sed non in omnibus est scientia, etc.;
third, that certain weak persons lack this knowledge, at but there is not knowledge in everyone;
quarto quod alii coram eis idolothita edere non debent, ibi esca autem nos non commendat Deo.
fourth, that the others should not eat foods offered to idols in their presence, at but meat does not commend us to God.
In the first part,
primo dicit, quod de idolothitis scientiam habent;
he first says that they have knowledge concerning things offered to idols;
secundo quod eam sine caritate inutiliter habent, ibi scientia autem inflat, etc.;
second, that having this knowledge is useless for them without charity, at knowledge puffs up;
tertio ostendit a quibus habeatur haec scientia insufficienter, ibi si quis autem existimat;
third he shows who has this knowledge in an insufficient manner, at if any man thinks;
quarto a quibus sufficienter, ibi si quis autem diligit, et cetera.
fourth who has this knowledge sufficiently, at but if anyone loves.
422. Dicit ergo de his autem, etc., quasi dicat: de praedictis quaesivistis a me, scilicet de pertinentibus ad matrimonium: de aliis autem, ut de immolatis idolo, non fuit necesse quaerere; quia omnes scitis super hoc veritatem. Et hoc est quod dicit de his autem quae idolis sacrificantur, an liceat edere vel non, scimus ego et vos, quod liceat ea comedere secundum illud ad Tit. I, 15: omnia munda mundis. Scimus quia omnes scientiam habemus, ego scilicet et vos perfecti inter alios, id est, scientiam de Creatore et creaturis; et ideo minus excusabiles si male facimus.
422. He says, therefore, concerning those things, as though to say, about the aforesaid matters you asked of me, namely about those things pertaining to marriage; but about the others, as about things offered to an idol, it was not necessary to ask, since you all know the truth concerning this matter. And so he says, concerning those things that are sacrificed to idols, whether it is licit to eat them or not, you and I both know that it is licit to eat them: all things are clean to the clean (Tit 1:15). We know that we all have knowledge, namely I and you who are perfect in comparison with others, have knowledge that is about the Creator and creatures, and therefore we are less excusable if we do evil.
423. Deinde cum dicit scientia autem inflat, etc., hic ostendit quomodo sine caritate scientiam inutiliter habent, quasi dicat: habetis quidem scientiam, sed non valet vobis, quia inde superbitis contra ignaros; scientia autem si sola est, inflat. Eccle. I, 18: in multa sapientia, multa est indignatio. Act. c. XXVI, 24: multae litterae te faciunt insanire. Haec enim fuit plaga Aegyptiorum, id est, sapientium huius mundi, vesicae turgentes, Ex. IX, 9. Caritas vero aedificat infirmos, quae quod eis obesse potest, dimittit, quia non quaerit quae sua sunt.
423. Then when he says, knowledge puffs up, he shows how without charity having knowledge is useless to them, as though to say: you have knowledge, but it does not profit you, because you pride yourselves in it over the ignorant, and knowledge, if it is alone, puffs up. In much wisdom there is much indignation (Eccle 1:18). Much learning is driving you mad (Acts 26:24). For this the plague of the Egyptians, i.e., of the wisemen of this world, was swelling blains (Exod 9:9). But charity edifies the weak, as it renounces the things that can hurt them, because it does not seek its own.
Unde addenda est scientiae caritas. Augustinus: addite ergo scientiae caritatem, et utilis erit scientia. Per se quidem est inutilis, ex caritate vero utilis. Philosophus: scire aut nihil, aut parum prodest ad virtutem.
Hence charity must be added to knowledge. Augustine says: add therefore charity to knowledge, and knowledge will be useful. Of itself it is useless, but due to charity it is useful. The Philosopher says: knowing is of little or no value for virtue.
424. Deinde cum dicit si quis autem existimat, etc., hic ostendit a quibus haec scientia habetur insufficienter, quia ab illis, qui ea utuntur in nocumentum proximi. Et est sua ratio talis: quicumque habet scientiam et non modum utendi ea, habet scientiam insufficienter; sed qui habet scientiam sine caritate est huiusmodi: ergo qui habet scientiam sine caritate, habet insufficienter scientiam.
424. Then when he says, if any man thinks, he shows who have knowledge in an insufficient manner—by those who use it in a manner harmful to their neighbor. And his reasoning is as follows: whoever has knowledge and not the measure to use it, has knowledge in an insufficient manner, but he who has knowledge without charity is such, therefore he who has knowledge without charity, has knowledge in an insufficient manner.
Primo ergo supponit scientiam sine caritate; secundo ostendit insufficientiam talis scientiae, ibi nondum cognovit, etc.; tertio rationem insufficientiae, ibi quemadmodum oporteat, et cetera.
He supposes first, therefore, knowledge without charity; second he shows the insufficiency of such knowledge, at he has not yet known; third the reason for the insufficiency, at as he ought.
Dicit ergo si quis autem, etc., quasi dicat: habetis scientiam, sed non sufficientem, quia si quis vestrum existimat se scire, habens scientiam sine caritate, aliquid scit, scilicet quod liceat comedere idolothita. Nondum tamen cognovit, quia non se cognoscere facto ostendit, quomodo oporteat eum scire, id est, qualiter debeat uti scientia, quia in aedificationem, non in nocumentum aliorum.
He says, therefore, if any man, as though to say: you have knowledge, but not sufficient, because if any of you thinks that he knows, having knowledge without charity, he knows something, namely that it is licit to eat food offered to idols. He has not yet known, since he does not show by deed that he knows, as he ought to know, i.e., how he ought to use his knowledge—in a manner that builds up, rather than harming others.
425. Scire autem contingit dupliciter, scilicet habere scientiam et uti scientia: sicut videre, habere visum, et uti visu.
425. Now there are two ways of knowing: having knowledge, and making use of knowledge, just as there are two ways of seeing: to have sight, and to make use of sight.
Glossa Bernardi: hic non approbat Apostolus multa scientem, si modum sciendi nescierit. Modus enim sciendi est, ut scias quo ordine, quo studio, quo fine scire quaeque oporteat: quo ordine, ut id prius quod maturius ad salutem; quo studio, ut id ardentius quod efficacius est ad amorem; quo fine, ut non ad inanem gloriam vel curiositatem velle aliquid, sed ad aedificationem tui et proximi.
Bernard’s Gloss says: here the Apostle does not approve of one who knows many things, if he does not know the measure of knowing. The measure of knowing is that you know in what order, with what eagerness, and with what end you ought to know anything: in what order, that what leads more speedily to salvation comes first; with what eagerness, that you have more ardor for that which is more efficacious for love; with what end, that you not want to know anything for vain glory or curiosity, but for the building up of yourself and your neighbor.
Sunt namque qui scire volunt eo fine tantum, ut sciant, et curiositas est; quidam ut sciantur, et vanitas est; quidam ut scientiam vendant, et turpis quaestus est; quidam ut aedificentur, et prudentia est; quidam ut aedificent, et caritas est.
There are namely those who want to know for that end, that they may know, and this is curiosity; some that they may be known, and this is vanity; some that they may sell knowledge, and this is shameful profit; some that they may be built up, and this is prudence; some that they may build others up, and this is charity.