Super ad GalatasCommentary on GalatiansProoemiumPrologueLeviticus 26:10Leviticus 26:1026:10 Comedetis vetustissima veterum, et vetera novis supervenientibus projicietis.26:10 You shall eat the oldest of the old store, and, new coming on, you shall cast away the old.Haec verba competunt praesenti epistolae, in qua Apostolus redarguit Galatas, qui intantum seducti fuerant a pseudo, ut simul servarent legalia et Evangelium, quod Apostolus improperat eis in verbis praemissis, dicens vetera, novis supervenientibus, proiicietis.These words befit the present epistle in which the Apostle reproves the Galatians who had been so deceived by false teachers as to observe at once the rites of the law and those of the Gospel. For this the Apostle rebukes them with the above words: the new coming on, you shall cast away the old.In quibus verbis innuit Dominus quadruplicem vetustatem. Prima vetustas est erroris, de qua Is. XXVI, 3: vetus error abiit, et haec remota est per novitatem doctrinae Christi. Mc. I, 27: quae est haec nova doctrina?In these words the Lord suggests a fourfold oldness. First, the oldness of error: the old error is passed away (Isa 26:3). This is removed by the newness of the doctrine of Christ. What is this new doctrine? (Mark 1:27).Secunda vetustas est figurae, de qua Hebr. c. VIII, 8: consummabo super domum David, et super Iuda testamentum novum, non secundum testamentum quod feci patribus eorum. Ubi primo ostendit primum testamentum esse vetustum, et hoc renovari per novitatem gratiae, seu veritatis praesentiae Christi. Ier. XXXI, 22: novum faciet Dominus super terram, et cetera.The second oldness is that of figure: behold, the days shall come, says the Lord: and I will perfect, unto the house of Israel and unto the house of Judah, a new testament not according to the testament which I made to their fathers (Heb 8:8). Here he shows first of all that the first testament is old and that it is made new by the newness of grace or of the reality of Christ’s presence. The Lord has created a new thing upon the earth (Jer 31:22).Tertia est vetustas culpae, de qua Ps. XXXI, v. 3: quoniam tacui (confitendo scilicet peccata mea), inveteraverunt, et cetera. Et haec renovatur per novitatem iustitiae. Rom. VI, 4: in novitate vitae ambulemus, et cetera.The third is the oldness of guilt: because I was silent (not confessing my sins), my bones grew old (Ps 31:3). And this is made new by the newness of justice. So we may walk in newness of life (Rom 6:4).Quarta est vetustas poenae. Thren. III, 4: vetustam feci pellem meam. Et haec renovabitur per novitatem gloriae, de qua novitate Is. ult.: ecce ego creo caelum novum, etc.; Apoc. XXI, 21: dixit, qui sedebat in throno: ecce nova facio omnia.The fourth is the oldness of punishment. My skin he has made old (Lam 3:4). And this will be made new by the newness of glory, of which newness it is said: behold I will create a new heaven and a new earth (Isa 66:22). And he who sat on the throne said: behold, I make all things new (Rev 21:5).Caput 1Chapter 1Vita PauliLife of PaulLectio 1Lecture 1SalutatioGreetingPaulus, apostolus non ab hominibus, neque per hominem, sed per Jesum Christum, et Deum Patrem, qui suscitavit eum a mortuis: [n. 2]Paul, an apostle, not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead: [n. 2]et qui mecum sunt omnes fratres, ecclesiis Galatiae.And all the brethren who are with me: to the churches of Galatia.Gratia vobis, et pax a Deo Patre, et Domino nostro Jesu Christo, [n. 10]Grace be to you, and peace from God the Father and from our Lord Jesus Christ, [n. 10]qui dedit semetipsum pro peccatis nostris, ut eriperet nos de praesenti saeculo nequam, secundum voluntatem Dei et Patris nostri, [n. 14]Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present wicked world, according to the will of God and our Father: [n. 14]cui est gloria in saecula saeculorum. Amen. [n. 15]To whom is glory forever and ever. Amen. [n. 15]Scribit ergo Apostolus Galatis hanc epistolam, in qua ostendit, quod, veniente gratia Novi Testamenti, debet proiici Vetus Testamentum, ut impleta veritate deseratur figura, quibus duabus, scilicet gratia et veritate, adeptis, perveniatur ad veritatem iustitiae et gloriae. Acquiruntur autem illa duo, si observantia legalium dimissa, observantiae Evangelii Christi ferventer insistamus.The Apostle therefore writes the Galatians this epistle in which he shows that with the coming of the grace of the New Testament, the Old Testament should be cast out, so that with the fulfillment of the truth, the figure may be abandoned, and with the attainment of these two, namely, grace and truth, one may arrive at the truth of justice and glory. And these two are acquired, if, abandoning the observance of the legalia, we concentrate fervently on observing the Gospel of Christ.Ordo autem huius epistolae congruus est, ut post duas epistolas ad Corinthios, in quarum prima agitur de sacramentis Ecclesiae, in secunda de ministris horum sacramentorum, necessarie sequatur epistola ad Galatas, in qua agitur de cessatione sacramentorum Veteris Testamenti.The order of this epistle is fitting in that, after the two epistles to the Corinthians, in the first of which it is a question of the sacraments of the Church, and in the second, of the ministers of these sacraments, there should necessarily follow the epistle to the Galatians, treating of the termination of the sacraments of the Old Testament.Dividitur autem haec epistola in duas partes, in salutationem, et epistolarem narrationem, ibi miror quod, et cetera.This epistle is divided into two parts: namely, into a greeting, and the setting forth of the epistle, at I wonder that you are so soon removed (Gal 1:6).In salutatione autemIn the greeting, however:primo ponitur persona salutantis;first, the person who sends the greeting is mentioned;secundo ponuntur personae salutatae, ibi ecclesiis Galatiae, etc.;second, the persons greeted are mentioned, at to the churches of Galatia;tertio bonum optatum, ibi gratia vobis, et cetera.third, the good he wishes them, at grace be to you.Circa primum, primo, ponitur persona salutans principaliter, quae describitur ex nomine et ex auctoritate.As to the first, mention is made first of the person principally sending the greeting; and he is described by his name and his authority.Ex nomine quidem cum dicit Paulus, quod congruit humilitati suae, quia interpretatur humilis. Unde dicitur I Cor. XVI, 9: ego sum minimus apostolorum, et cetera.By his name, indeed, when he says Paul which, because it means ‘humble’, accords with his humility. Hence it is said: I am the least of the apostles, who am not worthy to be called an apostle (1 Cor 15:9).Item congruit officio suo, quia secundum alium modum interpretatur os tubae, in quo specialiter est officium praedicationis significatum. Is. LVIII, 1: quasi tuba exalta vocem tuam, et cetera.Furthermore, it accords with his office, because in another sense it means ‘the mouth of the trumpet’, in which the office of preaching is specially signified. Lift up your voice like a trumpet (Isa 58:1).Ex auctoritate autem describitur, cum dicitur apostolus. Ubi duo ponuntur, scilicet eius auctoritas, et auctoritatis origo.He is described by his authority, when he says, an apostle. Here two things are mentioned, namely, his authority and its source.Auctoritas, quia apostolus, qui idem est quod missus.Authority, because he says apostle, which is the same as ‘sent’.Sciendum est autem, quod Apostolus in quibusdam epistolis scribit se servum, ostendens nomen humilitatis, ut in Epistola ad Romanos; in quibusdam vero scribit se apostolum, ostendens auctoritatem suam. Cuius ratio est, quia Romani superbi erant, et ideo Apostolus, ut inducat eos ad humilitatem, scribit se servum, in exemplum humilitatis. Galatis vero, quia stulti erant et superbi, ut frangat eos, nominat se apostolum; et ideo hic ponit auctoritatem suam.Now it should be noted that the Apostle in some epistles calls himself servant, thereby showing a spirit of humility, as in the Epistle to the Romans; in others he calls himself apostle, thereby showing his authority. The reason for this is that the Romans were proud, and so the Apostle, in order to induce them to humility, calls himself a servant as an example of humility. But to the Galatians, who were stupid and proud, he calls himself an apostle in order to break them down; hence he here sets forth his authority.Originem autem auctoritatis suae describit, cum dicit non ab hominibus, et cetera. EtHe describes the source of his authority when he says, not of men.primo removet originem aestimatam;First, he removes what is, according to their opinion, the source;secundo assignat veram, ibi sed per Iesum Christum, et cetera.second, he presents the true source, at but by Jesus Christ.Origo autem aestimata erat, quia intantum Galatae seducti erant a pseudo, quod crederent Apostolum non esse eiusdem auctoritatis qua alii apostoli erant, quia non fuit doctus a Christo vel conversatus cum eo, sed esset missus ab eis, quasi minister eorum. Opinionem ergo istam removet, cum dicit non ab hominibus, et cetera.The source in their opinion was in keeping with the fact that the Galatians had been so deceived by false teachers as to believe that the Apostle did not enjoy the same authority as the other apostles, as having neither been taught by Christ nor lived with him, but sent by them as their minister. He therefore removes this opinion when he says, not of men, neither by man.Quidam enim mittebantur a toto collegio apostolorum et discipulorum. Et ideo ostendens se non esse ab eis missum, dicit non ab hominibus. Quidam enim mittebantur ab aliquo apostolorum speciali, sicut Paulus aliquando mittebat Lucam et Titum. Et ideo ostendens, quod nec sic missus sit, dicit neque per hominem, id est, per aliquem apostolorum in speciali, sed per Spiritum Sanctum, qui dicit, Act. XIII, 2: segregate mihi, et cetera.For some had been sent by the whole college of apostles and disciples; hence, to show that he had not been sent by them, he says, not of men. Others had been sent by some particular apostle, as Paul sometimes sent Luke and Titus. Therefore, to show that he had not been sent in that manner, he says, neither by man, i.e., not by any apostle in particular, but by the Holy Spirit, who says: separate for me Saul and Barnabas, for the work to which I have taken them (Acts 13:2).