Assidua, ut in omni tempore et in omni loco. Et dicit volo, quia bonum est quod homo oret, et ego doctor volo viros orare in omni loco, non in Ierusalem tantum, ut Iudaei, nec in monte Garizim, ut Samaritani Io. IV, 21. In omni loco potest homo spiritualiter et mentaliter orare. Soph. II, 11: adorabunt eum viri de loco suo; omnes insulae gentium, et cetera.
assiduous, because it should take place at all times and in every place. And he says, I will, because it is good for a man to pray; and I, your teacher, will that men pray in every place and not only at Jerusalem, as the Jews, or not only on Mount Garizim, as the Samaritans (John 4:20–21). For a man can pray spiritually and mentally everywhere: they shall adore him, every man from his own place, all the islands of the gentiles (Zeph 1:11).
Sed quomodo Dominus reprehendit Pharisaeos stantes in angulis, Matth. VI, 5? Respondeo. Oratio mentalis ubique potest fieri, sed signa orationis exterius non debent fieri in omni loco, quia homo non debet singularis apparere in exterioribus, quia propter hoc posset haberi inanis gloria.
But why does the Lord rebuke the Pharisees for praying as they stood on the street corners? (Matt 6:5). The answer is that mental prayer can be performed anywhere; but the external signs of prayer should not be performed everywhere, because a man should not appear singular in his outward actions because of the danger of doing them out of vain glory.
Sed quare nunc sunt factae ecclesiae? Respondeo. Non quod locus sit de necessitate orationi, sed ad bene esse ei; quia oratio requirit solitudinem et quietem.
But why do people build churches? I answer that it is not because the place is necessary for prayer, but for the convenience of the one who prays, i.e., to have solitude and quiet.
72. Item pura. Ideo dicit levantes puras manus. Augustinus: quod exterius orando agimus, facimus ut affectus noster interius excitetur. Genuflexiones enim et huiusmodi non sunt per se acceptae Deo, sed quia per haec tamquam per humilitatis signa homo interius humiliatur, sicut elevatio manus significat elevationem cordis. Thren. III, v. 41: levemus corda nostra cum manibus ad Dominum in caelo. Levantes, etc., id est, orantes cum devotione cordis. Iob VIII, v. 5 s.: si diluculo consurrexeris ad Deum, et Omnipotentem fueris deprecatus, si mundus et rectus incesseris, statim evigilabit ad te, et pacatum reddet habitaculum iustitiae tuae.
72. Prayer should be pure; hence he says, lifting up pure hands. As Augustine says: whatever we do externally when we pray is done for the sake of stirring up our affections. For genuflections and the like are not of themselves pleasing to God, but only because by them, as by signs of humility, a man is internally humble; just as lifting the hands indicates that the heart has been lifted up: let us lift up our heart with our hands to the Lord in the heavens (Lam 3:41). Lifting up pure hands, i.e., praying with a devout heart: yet if you will arrive early to God and will beseech the Almighty; if you will walk clean and upright, he will presently wake unto you and will make the dwelling of your justice peaceable (Job 8:5).
73. Item quieta. Ideo dicit sine ira et disceptatione.
73. Prayer should be quiet, i.e., without anger and contention.
Et ponit duo. Primo, ut scilicet mens sit sine ira, quae animum inquietat ad inferendum nocumentum proximo, a qua oportet liberum esse animum orantis. Eccli. XXVIII, 3: homo homini servat iram, et a Deo quaerit medelam.
And he mentions these two things: first, that the mind be without anger which disquiets the soul to inflict harm upon one’s neighbor, whereas the mind of the one praying should be free of this: man to man reserves anger, and does he seek remedy of God? (Sir 28:3).
Item liber debet esse homo a disceptatione, quod potest intelligi dupliciter. Uno modo, secundum Glossam, ut non disceptemus contra Deum increduli verbis eius, et murmurando contra eius ordinationem. Rom. IX, v. 20: O homo, tu quis es qui respondeas Deo, et cetera. Item contra proximum, ut non rumpamus pacem cum eo, quod fit per disceptationem. Pax enim est necessaria oranti. Matth. XVIII, 19: si duo ex vobis consenserint super terram, de omni re quam petierint, fiet illis a Patre meo.
Prayer should be free of contention which can mean two things: first, according to a Gloss, that we not contend against God, disbelieving his words and murmuring against his commandments: O man, who are you who replies against God (Rom 9:20). Second, that we not contend against our neighbor, or break the peace with him through contention; for peace is necessary to the man who prays: if two of you shall consent upon earth concerning anything whatsoever they shall ask, it shall be done to them by my Father (Matt 18:19).
74. Deinde cum dicit similiter et mulieres, ordinat mulieres, et
74. Then when he says, in like manner, women also, he instructs the women:
primo quantum ad orationem,
first, in regard to prayer;
secundo quantum ad doctrinam, ibi mulieres in silentio.
second, as to doctrine, at let the women learn in silence.
Item primo ostendit quid requiratur a muliere orante;
In regard to the first he does two things: first, he shows what is required of a woman praying;
secundo exponit quae dixerat, ibi non in tortis.
second, he explains what he had said, at not with plaited hair.
75. Circa primum sciendum est quod omnia quae requiruntur ad virum orantem, requiruntur et ad mulieres. Et ideo dicit similiter et mulieres; quasi dicat: omnia servent quae dicta sunt. Sed addit duo, scilicet ornamenta et verecundiam, dicens in habitu ornato cum verecundia, cuius ratio est, quia naturale est quod sicut mulieres sunt mollioris corporis quam viri, ita et debilioris rationis. Rationis autem est ordinare actus, et effectus uniuscuiusque rei. Ornatus vero consistit in debita ordinatione et dispositione. Sic in interiori decore nisi sint omnia ordinata ex dispositione per rationem, non habent pulchritudinem spiritualem. Et ideo quia mulieres deficiunt a ratione, requirit ab eis ornatum.
75. In regard to the first it should be noted that all things required of men praying are required also of women; that is why he says, in like manner, women also. As if to say: let them observe all that I have said. But he adds two things, namely, ornaments and modesty, saying, in decent apparel: adorning themselves with modesty. The reason for this is that since it is natural for women to be softer of body than men, so too they are weaker in reason. But it pertains to reason to arrange the acts and effects of each thing. Now decency consists in being ordained and disposed in due order. Thus, in regard to internal decency, unless everything is properly arranged by reason, they do not have spiritual beauty. Consequently, because women are short on reason, he requires external decency of them.
Item verecundia est de turpi actu, et ideo est laudabilis in illis qui facile solent declinare in actus turpes, cuiusmodi sunt iuvenes et mulieres, et ideo hoc in eis laudatur, non autem senes et perfecti. Eccli. XXVI, 19: gratia super gratiam mulier sancta et pudorata.
Likewise modesty is concerned with a base act; therefore, it is laudable in those who are inclined toward base actions, such as women and children. Hence this is praised in them but not in old men and in the perfect: a holy and shamefaced woman is grace upon grace (Sir 26:19).
Item sobrietatem requirit; unde sequitur et sobrietate. Quia enim in mulieribus ratio est debilis, sobrietas autem conservat virtutem rationis, ideo in mulieribus maxime reprehenditur ebrietas. Unde antiquitus apud Romanos eis non dabatur vinum.
Likewise, he demands sobriety, when he continues, and sobriety. For since reason is weak in women, whereas sobriety conserves reason’s vigor; nothing is more reprehensible in them than drunkenness. Hence it was the custom among the Romans not to give them wine.
76. Non in tortis crinibus, et auro, et cetera. Exponit quod dixerat, et primo de ornatu, secundo de verecundia, ibi sed quod decet. Circa primum, primo excludit ornatum corporalem; secundo ponit spiritualem, ibi sed quod decet.
76. Not with plaited hair, or gold, or pearls or costly attire. Here he explains what he had said: first, in regard to apparel; second, in regard to shamefacedness, at but, as it becomes women. In regard to the first he rejects bodily adornment; second, he proposes the spiritual, at but, as it becomes women.
Circa primum dicit: quod dixi de habitu ornato, non intelligo de exteriori, quia non in tortis crinibus, id est, non ornato capite vel toto corpore.
In regard to the first he says: what I have said about decent apparel is not to be understood of external apparel, because not with plaited hair, i.e., not with the head adorned or the whole body.
Sed praecipue mulieres ornant caput, quod est naturale mulieri, ut dicitur I Cor. XI, 15. Et ideo ornamenta in capite habent.
But women in particular adorn their hair, and this is natural for them (1 Cor 11:15). And therefore they have adornments on their heads.
In capite vero est duplex velamentum. Unum est naturale, scilicet capilli, ut dicitur I Cor. XI, 5, item artificiale, et in utrisque se ornant, quia capillos torquent. Unde dicit non in tortis, id est, in crispatis. Is. III, 24: erit pro crispanti crine calvitium. Item artificialia prohibet, cum dicit aut auro, aut margaritis. I Petr. III, 3: non extrinsecus capillatura, aut circumdatio auri, aut indumenti, aut vestimentorum cultus, et cetera. Vel non in tortis crinibus, et auro, id est, non habentes crines tortos auro, vel margaritis.
But there are two coverings of the head: one is natural, namely, the hair, as it is said (1 Cor 11:5); the other is artificial, and in regard to both coverings they adorn themselves, because they plait their hair; hence he says, not with plaited hair, i.e., curls: instead of curled hair, baldness (Isa 3:24). He also forbids artificial adornment, when he says, or gold, or pearls: whose adorning let it not be the outward plaiting of the hair or the wearing of gold, or the putting on of apparel (1 Pet 3:3). Or not with plaited hair and gold, i.e., not having the hair curled with gold and pearls.
Quantum vero ad totum corpus dicit vel veste pretiosa, hoc enim damnat Apostolus hic, et Is. III, 17.
In regard to the whole body he says, or costly attire. The Apostle condemns this as does Isaiah: the Lord will make bald the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion (Isa 3:17).
77. Sed numquid hoc est peccatum?
77. But is this a sin?
Respondeo. Dicendum est quod secundum Augustinum duo sunt consideranda in ornatu mulierum, scilicet simplex ornatus et fucatus. Simplex ornatus, puta in veste, et in auro, et huiusmodi, quod potest fieri cum peccato tribus modis: scilicet ex prava intentione, ut si intendant commotionem concupiscentiae, ostentationem, vel inanem gloriam. Prov. VII, 10: praeparata ad capiendas animas. Secundo si fiat praeter consuetudinem patriae, quod fit diversimode. Quod enim excedit modum consuetum patriae, hoc ex levitate animi est. Tertio si conditionem sui status excedit. Sed servata recta intentione, consuetudine patriae, et conditione status, non est peccatum. De fucato autem semper est peccatum. Mulieribus enim non permittitur ornari nisi propter viros, et viri nolunt decipi, ut fucatae eis appareant.
The answer, according to Augustine, is that two things must be considered in regard to woman’s adornment, namely, simple adornment and paint. She is adorned simply by her attire, and gold, and such of the kind. But there can be sin associated with this for three reasons: first, from an evil intention; for example, if she intends to arouse concupiscence, make a display, or seek vainglory: a woman in harlot’s attire is prepared to deceive souls (Prov 7:10). Second, if it is done beyond the customs of the country; for that which is beyond the customs of the country proceeds from levity of mind. Third, if she goes beyond the condition of her state. But if it is done with the right intention in accordance with the customs of the country and with the condition of her state, there is no sin. In regard to paint, however, it is a sin. For women are not permitted to be decorated except for men; and men do not wish to be deceived, when women in paint appear before them.
Sit ergo non talis ornatus, sed qualis decet mulieres, promittentes pietatem. Exteriora enim opera hominis sunt quasi quaedam professio interioris hominis, sicut religiosi ad hoc habent habitum, et clerici similiter. Unde nisi concordet interior cum exteriori, est fictio. Ita etiam de aliis operibus interioribus. Interius enim debemus colere pietatem, id est, cultum Dei habere, exterius vero promittere et praestare per bona opera, quae concordant pietati; et similiter habere interius, sicut ostendimus exterius.
Therefore, let there be no such adornment but as becomes women professing godliness. For the outward acts of a man are a clue to the inner man, as the habits of religious and clerics testify to their state. Hence if the external does not agree with the internal, there is pretense; and the same is true of other internal works. For internally we should cultivate godliness, i.e., the worship of God; but externally to show by good works what is conformed to godliness; and to present ourselves externally as we are internally.
Vel, dico, quod debent se ornare non exterius, sed secundum quod decet eas promittentes, id est, quae promittere debent, pietatem per opera bona. Eccli. XIX, 27: amictus corporis, et risus dentium, et ingressus hominis annuntiant de illo.
Or, I say that women should not adorn themselves outwardly except as becomes women professing godliness, i.e., who ought to profess their godliness by good works: the attire of the body, and the laughter of the teeth, and the gait of the man, show what he is (Sir 19:27).
2:11 Mulier in silentio discat cum omni subjectione. [n. 78]
2:11 Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. [n. 78]
2:12 Docere autem mulieri non permitto, neque dominari in virum: sed esse in silentio. [n. 80]
2:12 But I do not suffer a woman to teach, nor to use authority over the man: but to be in silence. [n. 80]
2:13 Adam enim primus formatus est: deinde Heva: [n. 81]
2:13 For Adam was first formed; then Eve. [n. 81]
2:14 et Adam non est seductus: mulier autem seducta in praevaricatione fuit. [n. 83]
2:14 And Adam was not seduced; but the woman, being seduced, was in the transgression. [n. 83]
2:15 Salvabitur autem per filiorum generationem, si permanserit in fide, et dilectione, et sanctificatione cum sobrietate. [n. 85]
2:15 Yet she shall be saved through childbearing; if she continue in faith and love and sanctification with sobriety. [n. 85]
78. Superius Apostolus ordinavit mulieres quo ad orationem, hic ordinat eas quantum ad doctrinam, et
78. Above, the Apostle instructed women in regard to prayer; here he instructs them in regard to doctrine:
primo ponit suam ordinationem circa earum doctrinam;
first, he lays down his own law regarding their teaching;
secundo rationem ordinationis assignat, ibi Adam enim primus;
second, he gives the reason for this law, at for Adam was first formed;
tertio respondet tacitae quaestioni, ibi salvabitur autem.
third, he answers a tacit question, at yet she shall be saved.
Item primo ostendit quid mulieribus conveniat;
In regard to the first he does two things: first, he shows what is suitable for women;