Articulus 6 Article 6 Utrum voluntas concordans rationi erranti, sit bona Whether the will is good when it abides by erring reason? Ad sextum sic proceditur. Videtur quod voluntas concordans rationi erranti, sit bona. Sicut enim voluntas discordans a ratione tendit in id quod ratio iudicat malum; ita voluntas concordans rationi, tendit in id quod ratio iudicat bonum. Sed voluntas discordans a ratione, etiam errante, est mala. Ergo voluntas concordans rationi, etiam erranti, est bona. Objection 1: It would seem that the will is good when it abides by erring reason. For just as the will, when at variance with the reason, tends to that which reason judges to be evil; so, when in accord with reason, it tends to what reason judges to be good. But the will is evil when it is at variance with reason, even when erring. Therefore even when it abides by erring reason, the will is good. Praeterea, voluntas concordans praecepto Dei et legi aeternae, semper est bona. Sed lex aeterna et praeceptum Dei proponitur nobis per apprehensionem rationis, etiam errantis. Ergo voluntas concordans etiam rationi erranti, est bona. Obj. 2: Further, the will is always good, when it abides by the commandment of God and the eternal law. But the eternal law and God’s commandment are proposed to us by the apprehension of the reason, even when it errs. Therefore the will is good, even when it abides by erring reason. Praeterea, voluntas discordans a ratione errante, est mala. Si ergo voluntas concordans rationi erranti sit etiam mala, videtur quod omnis voluntas habentis rationem errantem, sit mala. Et sic talis homo erit perplexus, et ex necessitate peccabit, quod est inconveniens. Ergo voluntas concordans rationi erranti, est bona. Obj. 3: Further, the will is evil when it is at variance with erring reason. If, therefore, the will is evil also when it abides by erring reason, it seems that the will is always evil when in conjunction with erring reason: so that in such a case a man would be in a dilemma, and, of necessity, would sin: which is unreasonable. Therefore the will is good when it abides by erring reason. Sed contra, voluntas occidentium apostolos erat mala. Sed tamen concordabat rationi erranti ipsorum, secundum illud Ioan. XVI, venit hora, ut omnis qui interficit vos, arbitretur obsequium se praestare Deo. Ergo voluntas concordans rationi erranti, potest esse mala. On the contrary, The will of those who slew the apostles was evil. And yet it was in accord with the erring reason, according to Jn. 16:2: The hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you, will think that he doth a service to God. Therefore the will can be evil, when it abides by erring reason. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut praemissa quaestio eadem est cum quaestione qua quaeritur utrum conscientia erronea liget; ita ista quaestio eadem est cum illa qua quaeritur utrum conscientia erronea excuset. Haec autem quaestio dependet ab eo quod supra de ignorantia dictum est. Dictum est enim supra quod ignorantia quandoque causat involuntarium, quandoque autem non. Et quia bonum et malum morale consistit in actu inquantum est voluntarius, ut ex praemissis patet; manifestum est quod illa ignorantia quae causat involuntarium, tollit rationem boni et mali moralis; non autem illa quae involuntarium non causat. Dictum est etiam supra quod ignorantia quae est aliquo modo volita, sive directe sive indirecte, non causat involuntarium. Et dico ignorantiam directe voluntariam, in quam actus voluntatis fertur, indirecte autem, propter negligentiam, ex eo quod aliquis non vult illud scire quod scire tenetur, ut supra dictum est. I answer that, Whereas the previous question is the same as inquiring whether an erring conscience binds; so this question is the same as inquiring whether an erring conscience excuses. Now this question depends on what has been said above about ignorance. For it was said (Q6, A8) that ignorance sometimes causes an act to be involuntary, and sometimes not. And since moral good and evil consist in action insofar as it is voluntary, as was stated above (A2); it is evident that when ignorance causes an act to be involuntary, it takes away the character of moral good and evil; but not, when it does not cause the act to be involuntary. Again, it has been stated above (Q6, A8) that when ignorance is in any way willed, either directly or indirectly, it does not cause the act to be involuntary. And I call that ignorance directly voluntary, to which the act of the will tends: and that, indirectly voluntary, which is due to negligence, by reason of a man not wishing to know what he ought to know, as stated above (Q6, A8). Si igitur ratio vel conscientia erret errore voluntario, vel directe, vel propter negligentiam, quia est error circa id quod quis scire tenetur; tunc talis error rationis vel conscientiae non excusat quin voluntas concordans rationi vel conscientiae sic erranti, sit mala. Si autem sit error qui causet involuntarium, proveniens ex ignorantia alicuius circumstantiae absque omni negligentia; tunc talis error rationis vel conscientiae excusat, ut voluntas concordans rationi erranti non sit mala. Puta, si ratio errans dicat quod homo teneatur ad uxorem alterius accedere, voluntas concordans huic rationi erranti est mala, eo quod error iste provenit ex ignorantia legis Dei, quam scire tenetur. Si autem ratio erret in hoc, quod credat aliquam mulierem submissam, esse suam uxorem, et, ea petente debitum, velit eam cognoscere; excusatur voluntas eius, ut non sit mala, quia error iste ex ignorantia circumstantiae provenit, quae excusat, et involuntarium causat. If then reason or conscience err with an error that is involuntary, either directly, or through negligence, so that one errs about what one ought to know; then such an error of reason or conscience does not excuse the will, that abides by that erring reason or conscience, from being evil. But if the error arise from ignorance of some circumstance, and without any negligence, so that it cause the act to be involuntary, then that error of reason or conscience excuses the will, that abides by that erring reason, from being evil. For instance, if erring reason tell a man that he should go to another man’s wife, the will that abides by that erring reason is evil; since this error arises from ignorance of the Divine Law, which he is bound to know. But if a man’s reason, errs in mistaking another for his wife, and if he wish to give her her right when she asks for it, his will is excused from being evil: because this error arises from ignorance of a circumstance, which ignorance excuses, and causes the act to be involuntary. Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, sicut Dionysius dicit in IV cap. de Div. Nom., bonum causatur ex integra causa, malum autem ex singularibus defectibus. Et ideo ad hoc quod dicatur malum id in quod fertur voluntas, sufficit sive quod secundum suam naturam sit malum, sive quod apprehendatur ut malum. Sed ad hoc quod sit bonum, requiritur quod utroque modo sit bonum. Reply Obj. 1: As Dionysius says (Div. Nom. iv), good results from the entire cause, evil from each particular defect. Consequently in order that the thing to which the will tends be called evil, it suffices, either that it be evil in itself, or that it be apprehended as evil. But in order for it to be good, it must be good in both ways. Ad secundum dicendum quod lex aeterna errare non potest, sed ratio humana potest errare. Et ideo voluntas concordans rationi humanae non semper est recta, nec semper est concordans legis aeternae. Reply Obj. 2: The eternal law cannot err, but human reason can. Consequently the will that abides by human reason, is not always right, nor is it always in accord with the eternal law. Ad tertium dicendum quod, sicut in syllogisticis, uno inconvenienti dato, necesse est alia sequi; ita in moralibus, uno inconvenienti posito, ex necessitate alia sequuntur. Sicut, supposito quod aliquis quaerat inanem gloriam, sive propter inanem gloriam faciat quod facere tenetur, sive dimittat, peccabit. Nec tamen est perplexus, quia potest intentionem malam dimittere. Et similiter, supposito errore rationis vel conscientiae qui procedit ex ignorantia non excusante, necesse est quod sequatur malum in voluntate. Nec tamen est homo perplexus, quia potest ab errore recedere, cum ignorantia sit vincibilis et voluntaria. Reply Obj. 3: Just as in syllogistic arguments, granted one absurdity, others must needs follow; so in moral matters, given one absurdity, others must follow too. Thus suppose a man to seek vainglory, he will sin, whether he does his duty for vainglory or whether he omit to do it. Nor is he in a dilemma about the matter: because he can put aside his evil intention. In like manner, suppose a man’s reason or conscience to err through inexcusable ignorance, then evil must needs result in the will. Nor is this man in a dilemma: because he can lay aside his error, since his ignorance is vincible and voluntary. Articulus 7 Article 7 Utrum bonitas voluntatis dependeat ex intentione finis Whether the goodness of the will depends on the intention of the end? Ad septimum sic proceditur. Videtur quod bonitas voluntatis non dependeat ex intentione finis. Dictum est enim supra quod bonitas voluntatis dependet ex solo obiecto. Sed in his quae sunt ad finem, aliud est obiectum voluntatis, et aliud finis intentus. Ergo in talibus bonitas voluntatis non dependet ab intentione finis. Objection 1: It would seem that the goodness of the will does not depend on the intention of the end. For it has been stated above (A2) that the goodness of the will depends on the object alone. But as regards the means, the object of the will is one thing, and the end intended is another. Therefore in such matters the goodness of the will does not depend on the intention of the end. Praeterea, velle servare mandatum Dei, pertinet ad voluntatem bonam. Sed hoc potest referri ad malum finem, scilicet ad finem inanis gloriae, vel cupiditatis, dum aliquis vult obedire Deo propter temporalia consequenda. Ergo bonitas voluntatis non dependet ab intentione finis. Obj. 2: Further, to wish to keep God’s commandment, belongs to a good will. But this can be referred to an evil end, for instance, to vainglory or covetousness, by willing to obey God for the sake of temporal gain. Therefore the goodness of the will does not depend on the intention of the end. Praeterea, bonum et malum, sicut diversificant voluntatem, ita diversificant finem. Sed malitia voluntatis non dependet a malitia finis intenti, qui enim vult furari ut det eleemosynam, voluntatem malam habet, licet intendat finem bonum. Ergo etiam bonitas voluntatis non dependet a bonitate finis intenti. Obj. 3: Further, just as good and evil diversify the will, so do they diversify the end. But malice of the will does not depend on the malice of the end intended; since a man who wills to steal in order to give alms, has an evil will, although he intends a good end. Therefore neither does the goodness of the will depend on the goodness of the end intended. Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, IX Confess., quod intentio remuneratur a Deo. Sed ex eo aliquid remuneratur a Deo, quia est bonum. Ergo bonitas voluntatis ex intentione finis dependet. On the contrary, Augustine says (Confess. ix, 3) that God rewards the intention. But God rewards a thing because it is good. Therefore the goodness of the will depends on the intention of the end. Respondeo dicendum quod intentio dupliciter se potest habere ad voluntatem, uno modo, ut praecedens; alio modo, ut concomitans. Praecedit quidem causaliter intentio voluntatem, quando aliquid volumus propter intentionem alicuius finis. Et tunc ordo ad finem consideratur ut ratio quaedam bonitatis ipsius voliti, puta cum aliquis vult ieiunare propter Deum, habet enim ieiunium rationem boni ex hoc ipso quod fit propter Deum. Unde, cum bonitas voluntatis dependeat a bonitate voliti, ut supra dictum est, necesse est quod dependeat ex intentione finis. I answer that, The intention may stand in a twofold relation to the act of the will; first, as preceding it, second as following it. The intention precedes the act of the will causally, when we will something because we intend a certain end. And then the order to the end is considered as the reason of the goodness of the thing willed: for instance, when a man wills to fast for God’s sake; because the act of fasting is specifically good from the very fact that it is done for God’s sake. Wherefore, since the goodness of the will depends on the goodness of the thing willed, as stated above (AA1,2), it must, of necessity, depend on the intention of the end. Consequitur autem intentio voluntatem, quando accedit voluntati praeexistenti, puta si aliquis velit aliquid facere, et postea referat illud in Deum. Et tunc primae voluntatis bonitas non dependet ex intentione sequenti, nisi quatenus reiteratur actus voluntatis cum sequenti intentione. On the other hand, intention follows the act of the will, when it is added to a preceding act of the will; for instance, a man may will to do something, and may afterwards refer it to God. And then the goodness of the previous act of the will does not depend on the subsequent intention, except insofar as that act is repeated with the subsequent intention. Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, quando intentio est causa volendi, ordo ad finem accipitur ut quaedam ratio bonitatis in obiecto, ut dictum est. Reply Obj. 1: When the intention is the cause of the act of willing, the order to the end is considered as the reason of the goodness of the object, as stated above. Ad secundum dicendum quod voluntas non potest dici bona, si sit intentio mala causa volendi. Qui enim vult dare eleemosynam propter inanem gloriam consequendam, vult id quod de se est bonum, sub ratione mali, et ideo, prout est volitum ab ipso, est malum. Unde voluntas eius est mala. Sed si intentio sit consequens, tunc voluntas potuit esse bona, et per intentionem sequentem non depravatur ille actus voluntatis qui praecessit, sed actus voluntatis qui iteratur. Reply Obj. 2: The act of the will cannot be said to be good, if an evil intention is the cause of willing. For when a man wills to give an alms for the sake of vainglory, he wills that which is good in itself, under a species of evil; and therefore, as willed by him, it is evil. Wherefore his will is evil. If, however, the intention is subsequent to the act of the will, then the latter may be good: and the intention does not spoil that act of the will which preceded, but that which is repeated. Ad tertium dicendum quod, sicut iam dictum est, malum contingit ex singularibus defectibus, bonum vero ex tota et integra causa. Unde sive voluntas sit eius quod est secundum se malum, etiam sub ratione boni; sive sit boni sub ratione mali; semper voluntas erit mala. Sed ad hoc quod sit voluntas bona, requiritur quod sit boni sub ratione boni; idest quod velit bonum, et propter bonum. Reply Obj. 3: As we have already stated (A6, ad 1), evil results from each particular defect, but good from the whole and entire cause. Hence, whether the will tend to what is evil in itself, even under the species of good; or to the good under the species of evil, it will be evil in either case. But in order for the will to be good, it must tend to the good under the species of good; in other words, it must will the good for the sake of the good. Articulus 8 Article 8 Utrum quantitas bonitatis in voluntate, dependeat ex quantitate bonitatis in intentione Whether the degree of goodness in the will depends on the degree of good in the intention? Ad octavum sic proceditur. Videtur quod quantitas bonitatis in voluntate, dependeat ex quantitate bonitatis in intentione. Quia super illud Matth. XII, bonus homo de thesauro bono cordis sui profert bona, dicit Glossa, tantum boni quis facit, quantum intendit. Sed intentio non solum dat bonitatem actui exteriori, sed etiam voluntati, ut dictum est. Ergo tantum aliquis habet bonam voluntatem, quantum intendit. Objection 1: It would seem that the degree of goodness in the will depends on the degree of good in the intention. Because on Mt. 12:35, A good man out of the good treasure of his heart bringeth forth that which is good, a gloss says: A man does as much good as he intends. But the intention gives goodness not only to the external action, but also to the act of the will, as stated above (A7). Therefore the goodness of a man’s will is according to the goodness of his intention. Praeterea, augmentata causa, augmentatur effectus. Sed intentionis bonitas est causa bonae voluntatis. Ergo quantum quis intendit de bono, tantum voluntas est bona. Obj. 2: Further, if you add to the cause, you add to the effect. But the goodness of the intention is the cause of the good will. Therefore a man’s will is good, according as his intention is good. Praeterea, in malis quantum aliquis intendit, tantum peccat, si enim aliquis proiiciens lapidem, intenderet facere homicidium, reus esset homicidii. Ergo, pari ratione, in bonis tantum est bona voluntas, quantum aliquis bonum intendit. Obj. 3: Further, in evil actions, a man sins in proportion to his intention: for if a man were to throw a stone with a murderous intention, he would be guilty of murder. Therefore, for the same reason, in good actions, the will is good in proportion to the good intended. Sed contra, potest esse intentio bona, et voluntas mala. Ergo, pari ratione, potest esse intentio magis bona, et voluntas minus bona. On the contrary, The intention can be good, while the will is evil. Therefore, for the same reason, the intention can be better, and the will less good. Respondeo dicendum quod circa actum et intentionem finis, duplex quantitas potest considerari, una ex parte obiecti, quia vult maius bonum, vel agit; alia ex intensione actus, quia intense vult vel agit, quod est maius ex parte agentis. I answer that, In regard to both the act, and the intention of the end, we may consider a twofold quantity: one, on the part of the object, by reason of a man willing or doing a good that is greater; the other, taken from the intensity of the act, according as a man wills or acts intensely; and this is more on the part of the agent. Si igitur loquamur de quantitate utriusque quantum ad obiectum, manifestum est quod quantitas actus non sequitur quantitatem intentionis. Quod quidem ex parte actus exterioris, contingere potest dupliciter. Uno modo, quia obiectum quod ordinatur ad finem intentum, non est proportionatum fini illi, sicut si quis daret decem libras, non posset consequi suam intentionem, si intenderet emere rem valentem centum libras. Alio modo, propter impedimenta quae supervenire possunt circa exteriorem actum, quae non est in potestate nostra removere, puta, aliquis intendit ire usque Romam, et occurrunt ei impedimenta, quod non potest hoc facere. Sed ex parte interioris actus voluntatis, non est nisi uno modo, quia interiores actus voluntatis sunt in potestate nostra, non autem exteriores actus. Sed voluntas potest velle aliquod obiectum non proportionatum fini intento, et sic voluntas quae fertur in illud obiectum absolute consideratum, non est tantum bona, quantum est intentio. Sed quia etiam ipsa intentio quodammodo pertinet ad actum voluntatis, inquantum scilicet est ratio eius; propter hoc redundat quantitas bonae intentionis in voluntatem, inquantum scilicet voluntas vult aliquod bonum magnum ut finem, licet illud per quod vult consequi tantum bonum, non sit dignum illo bono. If then we speak of these respective quantities from the point of view of the object, it is evident that the quantity in the act does not depend on the quantity in the intention. With regard to the external act this may happen in two ways. First, through the object that is ordained to the intended end not being proportionate to that end; for instance, if a man were to give ten pounds, he could not realize his intention, if he intended to buy a thing worth a hundred pounds. Second, on account of the obstacles that may supervene in regard to the exterior action, which obstacles we are unable to remove: for instance, a man intends to go to Rome, and encounters obstacles, which prevent him from going. On the other hand, with regard to the interior act of the will, this happens in only one way: because the interior acts of the will are in our power, whereas the external actions are not. But the will can will an object that is not proportionate to the intended end: and thus the will that tends to that object considered absolutely, is not so good as the intention. Yet because the intention also belongs, in a way, to the act of the will, inasmuch, to wit, as it is the reason thereof; it comes to pass that the quantity of goodness in the intention redounds upon the act of the will; that is to say, insofar as the will wills some great good for an end, although that by which it wills to gain so great a good, is not proportionate to that good. Si vero consideretur quantitas intentionis et actus secundum intensionem utriusque, sic intensio intentionis redundat in actum interiorem et exteriorem voluntatis, quia ipsa intentio quodammodo se habet formaliter ad utrumque, ut ex supra dictis patet. Licet materialiter, intentione existente intensa, possit esse actus interior vel exterior non ita intensus, materialiter loquendo, puta cum aliquis non ita intense vult medicinam sumere, sicut vult sanitatem. Tamen hoc ipsum quod est intense intendere sanitatem, redundat formaliter in hoc quod est intense velle medicinam. But if we consider the quantity in the intention and in the act, according to their respective intensity, then the intensity of the intention redounds upon the interior act and the exterior act of the will: since the intention stands in relation to them as a kind of form, as is clear from what has been said above (Q12, A4; Q18, A6). And yet considered materially, while the intention is intense, the interior or exterior act may be not so intense, materially speaking: for instance, when a man does not will with as much intensity to take medicine as he wills to regain health. Nevertheless the very fact of intending health intensely, redounds, as a formal principle, upon the intense volition of medicine. Sed tamen hoc est considerandum, quod intensio actus interioris vel exterioris potest referri ad intentionem ut obiectum, puta cum aliquis intendit intense velle, vel aliquid intense operari. Et tamen non propter hoc intense vult vel operatur, quia quantitatem boni intenti non sequitur bonitas actus interioris vel exterioris, ut dictum est. Et inde est quod non quantum aliquis intendit mereri, meretur, quia quantitas meriti consistit in intensione actus, ut infra dicetur. We must observe, however, that the intensity of the interior or exterior act, may be referred to the intention as its object: as when a man intends to will intensely, or to do something intensely. And yet it does not follow that he wills or acts intensely; because the quantity of goodness in the interior or exterior act does not depend on the quantity of the good intended, as is shown above. And hence it is that a man does not merit as much as he intends to merit: because the quantity of merit is measured by the intensity of the act, as we shall show later on (Q20, A4; Q114, A4). Ad primum ergo dicendum quod Glossa illa loquitur quantum ad reputationem Dei, qui praecipue considerat intentionem finis. Unde alia Glossa dicit ibidem quod thesaurus cordis intentio est, ex qua Deus iudicat opera. Bonitas enim intentionis, ut dictum est, redundat quodammodo in bonitatem voluntatis, quae facit etiam exteriorem actum meritorium apud Deum. Reply Obj. 1: This gloss speaks of good as in the estimation of God, Who considers principally the intention of the end. Wherefore another gloss says on the same passage that the treasure of the heart is the intention, according to which God judges our works. For the goodness of the intention, as stated above, redounds, so to speak, upon the goodness of the will, which makes even the external act to be meritorious in God’s sight. Ad secundum dicendum quod bonitas intentionis non est tota causa bonae voluntatis. Unde ratio non sequitur. Reply Obj. 2: The goodness of the intention is not the whole cause of a good will. Hence the argument does not prove. Ad tertium dicendum quod sola malitia intentionis sufficit ad malitiam voluntatis, et ideo etiam quantum mala est intentio, tantum mala est voluntas. Sed non est eadem ratio de bonitate, ut dictum est. Reply Obj. 3: The mere malice of the intention suffices to make the will evil: and therefore too, the will is as evil as the intention is evil. But the same reasoning does not apply to goodness, as stated above (ad 2). Articulus 9 Article 9