Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Israel figura nostri Israel a figure for us 10:6 Haec autem in figura facta sunt nostri, ut non simus concupiscentes malorum, sicut et illi concupierunt. [n. 522] 10:6 Now these things were done in a figure of us, that we should not covet evil things, as they also coveted. [n. 522] 10:7 Neque idololatrae efficiamini, sicut quidam ex ipsis: quemadmodum scriptum est: sedit populus manducare, et bibere, et surrexerunt ludere. [n. 524] 10:7 Neither become idolaters, as some of them, as it is written: the people sat down to eat and drink and rose up to play. [n. 524] 10:8 Neque fornicemur, sicut quidam ex ipsis fornicati sunt, et ceciderunt una die viginti tria millia. [n. 526] 10:8 Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them that committed fornication: and there fell in one day three and twenty thousand. [n. 526] 10:9 Neque tentemus Christum, sicut quidam eorum tentaverunt, et a serpentibus perierunt. [n. 527] 10:9 Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them tempted and perished by the serpents. [n. 527] 10:10 Neque murmuraveritis, sicut quidam eorum murmuraverunt, et perierunt ab exterminatore. [n. 528] 10:10 Neither murmur, as some of them murmured and were destroyed by the destroyer. [n. 528] 10:11 Haec autem omnia in figura contingebant illis: scripta sunt autem ad correptionem nostram, in quos fines saeculorum devenerunt. [n. 530] 10:11 Now all these things happened to them in figure: and they are written for our correction, upon whom the ends of the world are come. [n. 530] 522. Superius ostendit quid antiquis Iudaeis contigit; hic ostendit quod non propter se tantum, sed propter nos corrigendos ita evenit. Ubi 522. Above he showed what befell the ancient Jews; here he shows that it was not for them alone, but for our correction that it happened this way. primo ostendit quod propter nos corrigendos a peccato praedicta facta sunt; He first shows that the things mentioned happened for our correction from sin; secundo quod propter hoc etiam scripta sunt, ibi haec autem omnia in figura, et cetera. second, that because of this also these were written, at now all these things happened to them. In prima ostendit quod ideo facta sunt, ut cohibeamur a peccato, et In the first part, he shows that these things happened for this, that we might be held back from sin: primo a peccato cordis; first from the sin of the heart; secundo a peccato operis, ibi neque idololatrae efficiamini, etc.; second from the sin of action, at neither become idolaters; tertio a peccato oris, ibi neque murmuraveritis sicut quidam, et cetera. third, from the sin of the mouth, at neither murmur, as some of them. 523. In prima, primo deterret per poenam; secundo ex hoc dehortatur culpam, ibi ut non simus concupiscentes, etc.; tertio malos reducit ad memoriam, ibi sicut et illi concupierunt, et cetera. 523. In the first section, he begins by deterring through punishment; second, from this he urges against guilt, at that we should not covet; third he recalls the evildoers to memory, at as they also coveted. Dicit ergo haec autem in figura facta sunt nostri, non ficta, sed vere facta. In figura, inquam, ideo scilicet nos considerantes illorum supplicia, non simus concupiscentes malorum, sicut et illi concupierunt, de quibus Ps. CV, 14: concupierunt concupiscentiam in deserto. Num. XI, 4 dicitur quod vulgus promiscuum flagravit desiderio carnium. Therefore he says now these things were done in a figure of us, not invented, but truly done. In a figure, I say, so that we, considering their sufferings, should not covet evil things, as they also coveted, about which it is said: they coveted their desire in the desert (Ps 106:14). It is also said that the common people were inflamed by the desire for flesh (Num 9:4). Et notandum quod sicut in bonis longe melius est quod figuratur quam ipsa figura, ut regnum caelorum quam terra promissionis, ita in malis longe peius est quod figuratur, quam figura significans. Secundum autem Augustinum, illa supplicia quae sustinuerunt, figura Gehennae fuerunt, quae omni poena maior est. Haec autem pertinent ad sapientes inter Corinthios, qui desiderio carnes comedebant in idolio, et scandalizabant infirmos. Unde similes erant Iudaeis carnes desiderantibus in deserto, unde digni erant etiam simili poena. And it should be noted that just as in good things what is represented is a far better thing than the figure itself, like the kingdom of heaven is compared with the promised land; so also in bad things, the thing that is represented is far worse than the signifying figure. And according to Augustine, those punishments which they suffered were a figure of Gehenna, which is a greater punishment than anything. But here it has to do with the more knowledgeable ones among the Corinthians, who, out of desire, were eating meats in the temple of an idol, and they were giving scandal to the weaker ones. Wherefore, they were like Jews desiring meat in the desert, for which reason they were deserving of a similar punishment. 524. Deinde, cum dicit neque idololatrae, etc., dehortatur peccatum operis, ubi tangit tria peccata. Primo idololatriae; secundo fornicationis, ibi neque fornicemur, etc.; tertio divinae tentationis, ibi neque tentemus, et cetera. 524. Next, when he says, neither become idolaters, he urges against sin of action, where he deals with three sins. The first is idolatry; the second, fornication, at neither let us commit fornication; the third, of divine temptation, at neither let us tempt. 525. In prima, primo dissuadet idololatriae vitium; secundo deterret per exemplum, ibi sicut quidam ex ipsis, etc.; tertio explicat exemplum implicitum, ibi quemadmodum scriptum est, et cetera. 525. In the first, he first advises against the vice of idolatry; second, he turns them away by an example, at as some of them; third he explains what is implied in the example, at as it is written. Dicit ergo neque idololatrae efficiamini idolothitis vescendo in venerationem idoli, vel scandalum infirmorum, sicut quidam illorum, supple idololatrae, fuerunt, Ex. XXXII, v. 4 et Ps. CV, 19: et fecerunt vitulum in Horeb, et adoraverunt sculptile, quemadmodum scriptum est. Ex. XXXII, 6: sedit populus, id est, quidam de populo, manducare et bibere coram idolo, quibus similes sunt qui comedunt idolothita, idola venerando, et surrexerunt ludere, id est, ludos facere, sicut choreas et huiusmodi, in venerationem idoli. Vel surrexerunt ludere, id est, idolum adorare, quod est simile ludo puerorum, qui faciunt imagines luteas. Therefore he says, neither become idolaters, gorging on the food of idols in honor of idols, or a scandal to the weak, as some, i.e., idolaters, were to those people: and they made a calf in Horeb, and they adored a carved thing (Exod 32:4; Ps 106:19). As it is written: the people sat down, that is, certain of the people, to eat and drink before the idol, like those who eat the food of idols in veneration of idols, and rose up to play, that is to have games, like dances and things of that nature, in veneration of this idol. But they rose up to play, that is, to adore the idol, which is like the play of children, who make pretend things out of mud. 526. Deinde, cum dicit neque fornicemur, etc., tangit peccatum fornicationis, ubi primo dissuadet tale peccatum; secundo deterret per exemplum culpae, ibi sicut quidam, etc.; tertio poenae, ibi et ceciderunt una die. 526. Next, when he says, neither let us commit fornication, he touches on the sin of fornication, where first he urges them to avoid such a sin; second, he deters them by the example of guilt, at as some; third, by the example of their punishment, at and there fell in one day. Dicit ergo neque fornicemur, ut quidam ex vobis, supra V, 1: omnino auditur fornicatio inter vos, sicut quidam ex ipsis fornicati sunt, cum Madianitis scilicet, Num. XXV, v. 1 ss., et ideo ceciderunt una die viginti tria, immo viginti quatuor millia, sed maior numerus non excludit minorem, unde non dicitur hic cum praecisione, vel forte vitium scriptorum est. Therefore he says neither let us commit fornication, as certain among you do—as seen above: it is absolutely heard that there is fornication among you (1 Cor 5:1)—as some of them committed fornication with the Midianites, that is (Num 25:1ff), and there fell in one day three and twenty, or rather four and twenty thousand; but a greater number does not exclude a smaller one, which is why it is not said here with precision, or perhaps there is a defect in the writings. 527. Deinde, cum dicit neque tentemus Christum, etc., tangit peccatum divinae tentationis, quod dissuadet, primo, verbo, secundo, exemplo, ibi sicut quidam, etc., tertio, supplicio, ibi et a serpentibus, et cetera. 527. Next, when he says neither let us tempt Christ, he refers to the sin of testing God, which he urges against first, in word; second, in example, at as some of them; third, by punishment, at and perished by the serpents. Dicit ergo neque tentemus Christum, diffidendo de eius potentia, sicut illi qui in vobis desperant de resurrectione, sicut quidam eorum tentaverunt Deum vel Christum in Moyse, dicentes: numquid poterit parare mensam in deserto? Et ideo a serpentibus perierunt, donec scilicet serpens aeneus erectus est, ad cuius aspectum sanabantur. De hoc habetur Num. XXI, 8 s., et Deut. VI, 16: non tentabis Dominum Deum tuum. Therefore he says neither let us tempt Christ, by distrusting his power, like those among you who disbelieve in the resurrection, as some of them tempted God or Christ in Moses by saying: how could he ever lay a table in the desert? And thus they perished by the serpents, until the brass serpent was raised up, at the sight of which they were healed (Num 21:8ff). Do not test the Lord your God (Deut 6:16). 528. Deinde, cum dicit neque murmuraveritis, etc., post peccatum cordis et operis dehortatur peccatum oris. Ubi primo dissuadet murmurationis vitium; secundo adducit quosdam in exemplum, et primo culpae, ibi sicut quidam, etc.; secundo poenae, ibi et perierunt a serpentibus. 528. Next, when he says, neither murmur, after the sin of the heart and of action, he deters them from the sin of the mouth. There he first dissuades them from the vice of murmuring; second he brings in certain people as an example, first of guilt, at as some of them; second, of punishment, at and were destroyed by the destroyer. Dicit ergo neque murmuraveritis contra me, vel minores contra maiores. Sap. I, 11: custodite vos a murmuratione. Sicut quidam eorum murmuraverunt contra Moysen. Num. c. XVI, 41: murmuravit omnis congregatio filiorum Israel contra Moysen, et ideo perierunt ab exterminatore, ab angelo scilicet, qui extra terminos terrae eos percussit. Bar. c. III, 19: exterminati sunt, et ad Inferos descenderunt. Therefore he says neither murmur against me, or inferiors against superiors. Keep yourselves from murmuring (Wis 1:11). As some of them murmured against Moses. All the congregation of the sons of Israel murmured against Moses, and thus they were destroyed by the destroyer, namely by an angel, who struck them outside the borders of the land. They were cut down, and have gone down into hell (Bar 3:19). 529. Notandum super illud: in Moyse baptizati sunt, quod Damascenus in libro, IV cap. de Baptismo distinguit novem genera baptismatum, accipiendo baptismata large. Primum est aqua diluvii, de quo habetur Gen. VI, 11 ss.; secundum Mare Rubrum, de quo Ex. XIV, 15; tertium aqua expiationis, de qua Num. XIX, 20 s.; quartum Baptismus Ioannis, de quo Matthaei III, 6; quintum baptismus de quo Christus baptizatus fuit, Lc. III, 21; sextum baptismus Spiritus Sancti super discipulos, Act. I, 5: vos autem baptizabimini Spiritu Sancto; septimum baptismus poenitentiae et contritionis, de quo Eccli. XXIV, 30: qui baptizatur a mortuo, etc.; octavum baptismus sanguinis, de quo Lc. XII, 50: baptismo habeo baptizari, et quomodo coarctor, usque dum perficiatur; nonum baptismus aquae et Spiritus, de quo Io. III, 5: nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto. Matth. ult.: baptizantes eos in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. 529. It should be noted about the fact that they were baptized in Moses (1 Cor 10:2), that John Damascene in On Baptism, Book Four, distinguishes nine kinds of baptism, taking baptism in the broad sense. First is the water of the flood, concerning which we read in Genesis (Gen 6:11ff); second, the Red Sea (Exod 14:15); the third is the water of expiation (Num 19:20ff); fourth the baptism of John (Matt 3:6); fifth, the baptism with which Christ was baptized (Luke 3:21); sixth, the baptism of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples: but you will be baptized in the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:5); seventh, the baptism of repentence and contrition: he who washes after touching the dead (Sir 34:30); eighth, the baptism of blood: I have a baptism that I shall be baptised with, and how I am distressed until it shall be accomplished (Luke 12:50); the ninth is the baptism of water and the Spirit: unless someone is reborn of water and the Holy Spirit (John 3:5); baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit (Matt 28:19). 530. Deinde cum dicit haec autem omnia in figura, etc., habito quod propter nos praedicta facta sunt, hic ostendit, quod propter nos etiam scripta sunt. Et primo quod in significatione, secundo quod in correctione, ibi scripta sunt autem, et cetera. Dicit ergo: haec autem, etc.; quasi dicat: ista contigerunt illis, et hoc non tantum propter sua peccata, non autem pro se, sed omnia in figura, nostri scilicet, contingebant illis: erat enim tunc tempus figurarum. 530. Next he says now all these things happened to them in figure, and having held that the events mentioned were done for our sake, he here shows that for our sake also they were written. And first, what it is in signification; second, what it is in correction, at and they were written. Therefore he says: now all these things, as though saying: those things happened to them, and not only on account of their sins, and not for themselves, but all these things happened to them in figure, of us that is: for that was the time of figures. 531. Deinde cum dicit scripta sunt autem ad correptionem, tangit quod scripta sunt ad correctionem nostram. Ubi implicantur tria incitantia ad correctionem nostram. Primo antiquorum exempla, quae notantur in Scripturis; secundo exemplorum causa, quae est correctio nostra; tertio, aetas novissima, quae est finis saeculorum. 531. Next when he says and they are written for our correction, he mentions that they were written for our correction. There he develops three things working toward our correction. The first is the examples of the ancients, which are noted in the Scriptures; the second is the reason for their examples, which is our correction; the third is the last age, which is the end of the world. Dicit ergo scripta sunt autem ad correptionem nostram, quia quaecumque scripta sunt, ad nostram doctrinam scripta sunt, Rom. XV, 4. Nos, dico, in quos fines saeculorum devenerunt, id est, sexta aetas, quae est ultima aetas laborantium. I Io. II, 18: filioli mei, novissima hora est. Quia ergo in ultima saeculi aetate sumus, tot exemplis priorum corrigi debemus. Vel in quos fines saeculorum devenerunt, id est, in quibus per fidem et amorem Christi finita est saecularitas, quia Phil. III, 20 dicitur: conversatio nostra in caelis est. Unde temporalia non promittuntur tempore gratiae, sicut tempore legis. Unde nec in pactum deducuntur, sed adiiciuntur. Matth. VI, 33: primum quaerite regnum Dei, et cetera. Sed antiquitus erant in pactum. Is. I, 19: si volueritis, et audieritis, et cetera. Therefore he says and they were written for our correction, because whatever things were written, were written for our instruction (Rom 15:4). We, I say, upon whom the ends of the world are come, that is, the sixth age, which is the last age of those laboring (I John 2:18). My little children, it is the last hour. Because, therefore, we are in the last age of the world, we should be corrected by so many examples of those who went before. Or upon whom the ends of the world are come, that is, in whom by the faith and love of Christ, there is an end to secularity, for it is said: our conversation is in heaven. For which reason temporal things are not promised in the time of grace, like in the time of the Law. Wherefore neither are people marrying or given in marriage: seek first the kingdom of God (Matt 6:33). But our ancestors were marrying. If you are willing and will hear (Isa 1:19). Ecce ergo exempla certa, quia scripta sunt; utilia, quia ad correctionem nostram; durabilia, quia in quos fines, et cetera. Thus here we have sure examples, which are written; useful ones, because they are for our correction; and lasting ones, because upon whom the ends of the world are come. Lectio 3 Lecture 3 Nullus tentatio supra id quod potestis No temptation beyond strength 10:12 Itaque qui se existimat stare, videat ne cadat. [n. 532] 10:12 Wherefore, he who thinks that he stands, let him take heed lest he fall. [n. 532] 10:13 Tentatio vos non apprehendat nisi humana: fidelis autem Deus est, qui non patietur vos tentari supra id quod potestis, sed faciet etiam cum tentatione proventum ut possitis sustinere. [n. 534] 10:13 Let no temptation take hold on you, except such as is human. And God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able: but with the temptation will also make the success, so that you may be able to bear it. [n. 534]