Unus panis, unum corpus
One bread, one body
10:14 Propter quod, carissimi mihi, fugite ab idolorum cultura: [n. 537]
10:14 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from the service of idols. [n. 537]
10:15 ut prudentibus loquor, vos ipsi judicate quod dico. [n. 539]
10:15 I speak as to the prudent: you yourselves judge what I say. [n. 539]
10:16 Calix benedictionis, cui benedicimus, nonne communicatio Sanguinis Christi est? et panis quem frangimus, nonne participatio Corporis Domini est? [n. 541]
10:16 The chalice of benediction which we bless, is it not the communion of the Blood of Christ? And the bread which we break, is it not the partaking of the Body of the Lord? [n. 541]
10:17 Quoniam unus panis, unum corpus multi sumus, omnes qui de uno pane participamus. [n. 542]
10:17 For we, being many, are one bread, one body: all that partake of one bread. [n. 542]
537. Superius ex consideratione Iudaeorum poenae monuit abstinere a perpetratione peccatorum similium, hic specialiter monet cavere a comestione idolis immolatorum. Ubi
537. Above, by the consideration of the punishment of the Jews, he warned them to refrain from committing similar sins; here he warns them especially to be careful about eating the foods sacrificed to idols.
primo ponit commonitionem cavendi ab idolothitis;
He first sets forth the admonition to beware of the food of idols;
secundo subdit causam commonitionis, ibi quid ergo dico, etc.;
second, he offers the reason for this admonition at what then? Do I say (1 Cor 10:19);
tertio docet modum cavendi a dictis, ibi omne quod in macello venit, manducate, et cetera.
third, he teaches the way of being careful from what has been said, at whatever is sold in the market, eat (1 Cor 10:25).
In prima cavere ab idolothitorum comestione monet,
In the first part, he warns to beware of eating the food of idols,
primo ex timore poenae consimilis;
first, out of fear of a comparable punishment;
secundo ex communione sancti altaris, ibi ut prudentibus loquor, etc.;
second, by the sharing of the holy altar, at I speak as to the prudent;
tertio ex similitudine sacrificii legalis, ibi videte Israel secundum carnem, et cetera.
third, from a comparison to the sacrifice of the law, at behold Israel according to the flesh (1 Cor 10:18).
538. In prima, ut eius obediant dictis, primo arguit inferendo, cum dicit propter quod; secundo allicit blandiendo, cum subdit charissimi mei; tertio instruit exhortando, cum addit fugite, et cetera.
538. In the first part, so that they will obey his commands, first he argues by inference when he says wherefore; second, he wins them over by sweet words, when he calls them my dearly beloved; third he instructs by exhorting, when he adds, flee.
Dicit ergo propter quod, etc., quasi diceret: quia sacramenta sola non salvant, et qui cadit punitur, et auxilium Dei non deest, propter quod, charissimi mei, fugite ab idolorum cultura, id est, ab omni idoli veneratione. Glossa: ideo hos Apostolus hortatur fugere ab idololatriae superstitione, vel ne sapientes comedant idolothita cum offendiculo infirmorum quibus idololatrare viderentur; vel ne ipsi infirmi idololatrae sint, edendo in idoli veneratione. Fugite ergo ab idolorum cultura, vel putativa, quo ad esum sapientium; vel vera quo ad esum infirmorum.
Therefore he says wherefore, as though he were saying: because the sacraments alone do not save, and whoever falls is punished, and the help of God is not lacking, wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from the service of idols, that is from all honoring of an idol. The Gloss says: therefore the Apostle urges them to fly from the superstition of idolatry, whether lest wise men should eat the food of idols as a stumbling block for the weak to whom they seemed to be worshiping idols; or lest those very weak ones should be idol-worshippers, by eating in honor of idols. Therefore, flee from the service of idols, whether apparent, as when the wise eat; or actual, as when the weak eat.
539. Deinde cum dicit ut prudentibus loquor, etc., monet cavere ab idolothitorum comestione ex communione sacramenti altaris. Ubi
539. Next when he says I speak as to the prudent, he warns them to be wary of eating the food of idols because of the sharing of the sacrament of the altar.
primo quod dicturus est supponit eorum iudicio;
He first guesses what will be said by their own judgment;
secundo ostendit quid est illud, scilicet quod per communionem Eucharistiae efficimur unum cum Christo, ibi calix benedictionis, etc.;
second, he shows what this is, namely, that by sharing the Eucharist, we are made one with Christ at the chalice of benediction;
tertio probat, quod ita est, quod omnes sumus unum in corpore eius mystico, ibi quoniam unus panis, et cetera.
third, he proves that this is the way it is, that we all are one in his mystical body, at for we, being many, are one bread.
540. Dicit ergo ut prudentibus, etc.; quasi dicat: ut fugiatis loquor vobis ut prudentibus. Vel sic loquor vobis altum quid, scilicet quod sequitur ut prudentibus. Vel sic: loquor infirmis, scilicet qui sunt inter vos, ut supra locutus sum prudentibus. Et ideo, vos ipsi, maiores, iudicate quod dico Iob XXXI, 13: si contempsi subire iudicium cum servo meo.
540. Therefore he says as to the prudent, as though saying: I speak to you as to the prudent. Or like this: I speak to you something from above, namely, what comes after, as to the prudent. Or like this: I speak to those among you who are weak, as I have spoken above to the prudent. And thus, you yourselves, greater ones, judge what I say: if I have scorned to go to judgment with my servant (Job 31:13).
541. Iudicate, inquam, hoc quod sequitur calix benedictionis, id est, potus calicis, per quem participantes benedicuntur, Lc. XXII, 20: similiter et calicem postquam caenavit, dicens: hic calix, et cetera. Cui benedicimus, id est, quod nos fideles exaltamus credendo et gratias agendo; vel cui benedicimus, id est, quem nos sacerdotes consecramus; nonne communicatio Sanguinis Christi est? Faciens nos unum cum ipso, secundum illud Augustini: nec tu me mutabis in te, sicut cibum carnis tuae, sed tu mutaberis in me.
541. Judge, he says, what follows the chalice of benediction, that is, the drink in the chalice, by which those partaking are blessed: in the same way he took the chalice also after he had eaten, saying: this is the chalice (Luke 22:20). Which we bless, that is, which we the faithful exalt by believing and giving thanks; or which we bless, that is, which we priests consecrate; is it not the communion of the Blood of Christ? Making us one with him, according to Augustine: nor do you change me into you, like the food of your flesh, but rather you are changed into me.
Est ergo sua ratio talis: sicut participans calicem Domini fit unum cum eo, sic participans calicem daemoniorum fit unum cum eis; sed daemonum unitas est maxime fugienda, ergo et participatio idolothitorum in eorum veneratione. Et ideo fugite ab idolorum cultura.
Here, therefore is his reason: just as someone partaking in the chalice of the Lord is made one with him, so also someone partaking in the chalice of demons becomes one with them; but union with demons is most greatly to be fled from, therefore also partaking of the food of idols in veneration of them. And thus, fly from the worship of idols.
Et panis quem frangimus, id est, sumptio panis fracti in altari, nonne participatio Corporis Domini est? Faciens nos unum cum Christo: quia sub specie panis sumitur Corpus Christi.
And the bread which we break, that is, the receiving of the bread broken on the altar, is it not a participation of the Body of the Lord? Making us one with Christ: because under the species of bread the Body of Christ is received.
542. Deinde cum dicit quoniam unus panis, etc., ostendit, quod omnes sumus unum in corpore eius mystico. Ubi proponit primo unitatem, secundo subdit unitatis rationem, ibi omnes qui de uno, et cetera. In primo tangit duplicem unitatem: primam incorporationis, qua in Christum transformamur, cum dicit unus panis, et cetera. Aliam vitae et sensus, quam a Christo capite accipimus, cum addit et unum corpus, et cetera.
542. Next when he says for we, being many, are one bread, he shows that we all are one in his mystical body. There he first sets forth unity; second, he gives the reason for the unity, at all that partake of one. In the first, he deals with unity in two ways: the first is unity of incorporation, by which we are transformed into Christ, when he says one bread. The second is unity of life and sense, which we have received from Christ our head, where he adds, one body.
Dicit ergo quoniam unus, etc., quasi dicat: per hoc patet, quod unum sumus cum Christo, quoniam unus panis, unione fidei, spei et caritatis, et unum corpus multi sumus, per subministrationem operum caritatis. Corpus scilicet illius capitis, qui est Christus. Multi, dico, scilicet omnes, qui de uno pane, id est Corporis Christi, et de uno calice, id est Sanguine, participamus, digna participatione, scilicet spirituali, non tantum sacramentali. Augustinus: accipite, quia unus panis et unum corpus Ecclesia Christi dicitur, pro eo quod sicut unus panis ex multis granis, et unum corpus ex multis membris componitur, sic Ecclesia Christi ex multis fidelibus caritate copulatis connectitur. De ista unitate infra cap. XII dicitur.
He says therefore for we are one bread, as though saying: by this it is clear, that we are one with Christ, for we are one bread, by the union of faith, hope, and charity, and we being many, are one body, by our working under him the works of charity. Namely, the body of this head, which is Christ. I say many, that is, all, who of one bread, that is the Body of Christ, and of one chalice, that is his Blood, partake, by a worthy participation, namely, a spiritual one, not only a sacramental one. Augustine says: receive, for the Church of Christ is called one bread and one body, for the fact that just as one bread is composed of many grains of wheat, and one body of many members, so the Church of Christ is constructed of many believers bound together by charity. This unity is discussed below in chapter twelve.
543. Hic quaeritur super illo omnes in Moyse baptizati. Glossa: per visa illa legalia purgati.
543. Here it is asked about all in Moses were baptized (1 Cor 10:2). The Gloss has: purified by having seen those things of the law.
Contra, legalia non iustificabant.
Against this: matters of the law did not justify.
Respondeo. Iustificabant dispositive a remotis, non causative, quia per modum signi, non causae.
I answer that they did not justify causatively, but dispositively, by what they removed, for they worked in the mode of a sign, not a cause.
544. Item super illud petra autem erat Christus, Glossa: non petra dedit aquas, sed Christus.
544. Again, about and the rock was Christ (1 Cor 10:4), the Gloss says: the rock did not give water, rather Christ did.
Contra Num. XX, 8: loquimini ad petram, et ipsa dabit vobis aquas.
Against this: speak to the rock, and it will give you water (Num 20:8).
Respondeo. Petra dabat originaliter, non effective.
I answer that the rock was giving as the source, not as the cause.
545. Item super illud omnes eamdem escam, Glossa: si quis manducaverit ex hoc pane, non morietur in aeternum, scilicet qui manducat corde, non qui premit ore.
545. Again, about all did eat the same spiritual food (1 Cor 10:3), the Gloss says: if someone ate of this bread, he will not die forever, namely, whoever eats with his heart, not who stuffs his mouth.
Contra: ergo non oportet sacramentaliter manducare.
Against this: then it is not necessary to eat sacramentally.
Respondeo. Non qui premit ore, solum scilicet.
I answer that it means not who only stuffs his mouth.
546. Item super illud eumdem potum spiritualem, Glossa: idem est effectus in illis sacramentis, sed non tantum quantum in nostris.
546. Again regarding the same spiritual drink (1 Cor 10:4), the Gloss has: the effect is the same in those sacraments, but not as great as in ours.