Lectio 6 Lecture 6 Quaestio conscientiae Question of conscience 10:25 Omne quod in macello venit, manducate, nihil interrogantes propter conscientiam. [n. 562] 10:25 Whatever is sold in the markets, eat: asking no question for conscience’s sake. [n. 562] 10:26 Domini est terra, et plenitudo ejus. 10:26 The earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof. 10:27 Si quis vocat vos infidelium, et vultis ire: omne quod vobis apponitur, manducate, nihil interrogantes propter conscientiam. [n. 564] 10:27 If any of the unbelievers invites you, and you are willing to go: eat of any thing that is set before you, asking no question for conscience’s sake. [n. 564] 10:28 Si quis autem dixerit: Hoc immolatum est idolis: nolite manducare propter illum qui indicavit, et propter conscientiam: [n. 565] 10:28 But if any man says: this has been sacrificed to idols: do not eat of it, for the sake of him that told it and for conscience’s sake. [n. 565] 10:29 conscientiam autem dico non tuam, sed alterius. Ut quid enim libertas mea judicatur ab aliena conscientia? [n. 567] 10:29 Conscience, I say, not your own, but the other’s. For why is my liberty judged by another man’s conscience? [n. 567] 10:30 Si ego cum gratia participo, quid blasphemor pro eo quod gratias ago? [n. 568] 10:30 If I partake with thanksgiving, why am I spoken ill of for that for which I give thanks? [n. 568] 562. Superius monuit cavere ab idolothitis, et posuit rationem quadruplicem suae monitionis: hic tertio docet modum cavendi a praedictis, ostendendo quomodo liceat edere, et quomodo non. 562. Above he warned them to beware eating the food of idols, and he has given four reasons for his admonition: here he teaches, third, the way to beware the abovementioned things, by showing how one is allowed to eat, and how not. Primo ergo ostendit an liceat edere; First therefore he shows whether it is licit to eat; secundo quando non licet, si quis autem dixerit, etc.; second, when it is not licit, at but if any man says; tertio quid in utrisque debent attendere, ibi sive ergo manducatis, et cetera. third, what to attend to in either case at therefore, whether you eat (1 Cor 10:31). In prima primo ponit duos casus in quibus licet idolothita comedere. Primus, quando comedit per se; secundus, quando cum aliis, ibi si quis autem infidelium, et cetera. In the first part he sets forth two cases in which it is permitted to eat the food of idols. The first, when someone eats for himself; second, when he is with others at but if any of the unbelievers. Vel primus, quando nescit idolis immolatum; secundus, quando non in proximi scandalum. In primo casu primo tangit comedendi licentiam, secundo comedendi praestat cautelam, ibi nihil interrogantes, et cetera. Or the first case, when someone does not know that it was sacrificed to idols; the second case, when it does not scandalize one’s neighbor. In the first case, he first refers to the permission to eat; second, he favors caution in eating at asking no question. 563. Dicit ergo omne quod in macello venit, id est venditur, etc.; quasi dicat: quia licet edere, sed non expedit aliquando, ideo sic edite. Omne quod in macello venit, id est, venditur, manducate, si vultis. Omnis enim creatura Dei bona, et nihil reiiciendum, et cetera. I Tim. IV, 4. Vos, dico, nihil interrogantes, scilicet an sit idolis immolatum, vel non, et hoc propter conscientiam, astantis infirmi. Domini est terra, et cetera. Quasi dicat: hoc secure potestis facere, quia Domini est terra, et plenitudo eius, id est, omnia quibus terra impletur. Ps. XLIX, 10: quoniam meae sunt omnes ferae. Ambrosius hoc in loco: non potest esse immundum, quod Domini est; sed omnes carnes sunt Domini, ergo de se mundae sunt et licitae. 563. Therefore he says whatever is sold in the market, that is, everything that is sold; as though saying: because it is licit to eat, but sometimes not expedient, therefore eat like this. Whatever is sold in the market, that is, everything that is sold, eat, if you wish. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected (1 Tim 4:4). You, I say, asking no questions, namely, whether it was sacrificed to an idol, or not, and this for conscience’s sake, of assisting the weak. The earth is the Lord’s. As though saying: you can do this securely, because the earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof, that is all things with which the earth is filled. For the wild beasts are all mine (Ps 50:10). Ambrose says about this text: what is the Lord’s cannot be unclean; but all meats are the Lord’s, therefore they are clean in themselves and licit. 564. Deinde cum dicit si quis autem vocat, etc., ostendit quando licet comedere idolothita cum aliis, quando, si dantur in convivio, et ignoratur ab infirmis, quod sint idolis immolata. Ubi implicantur quatuor expedientia cuilibet convivae, scilicet ne sit impudens, se ingerendo, quod notatur ibi si quis vocat vos, quod non sit offendens in respuendo, quod notatur ibi et vultis ire, quod non sit onerosus in petendo, quod notatur ibi omne quod vobis apponitur, quod non sit indiscretus in loquendo, ibi nihil interrogantes. 564. Next when he says if any of the unbelievers invite you, he shows when it is permitted to eat the food of idols with others, if it is served at a banquet, and it is unknown by the weaker ones that it had been sacrificed to an idol. Here four expediencies of this banquet are implied: namely, it should not be shameless, by crashing the dinner party, which is noted by if any of the unbelievers invite you; that you would not offend them by refusing, which is referred to at and you are willing to go; that you would not be burdensome by asking, which is noted at any thing that is set before you; and you should not be indiscreet in speaking, at asking no questions. Dicit ergo si quis infidelium, id est, gentilium. Nam cum Iudaeis comedere prohibitum est, XXVIII, qu. 1, c. omnes, ubi sic dicitur: omnes deinceps, sive clerici, sive laici, Iudaeorum convivia vitent, nec eos ad convivium quisquam recipiat, quia cum Iudaei apud Christianos cibis communibus non utantur, indignum atque sacrilegum est eorum cibos a Christianis sumi. Therefore he says, if any of the unbelievers, that is, the gentiles. For with Jews it is forbidden to eat, (28, q. 1, c.) where it is said thus: from now on, all, whether clergy, or laymen, must avoid the banquets of the Jews, nor may anyone receive them at his own dinner party, for since Jews do not enjoy sharing food with Christians, it is unfitting and a sacrilege for their food to be consumed by Christians. Si quis ergo infidelium, id est gentilium, vocat vos ad coenam, et vultis ire, id est placet vobis invitatio, omne comestibile quod vobis apponitur, manducate. Concessio est, non iussio. Lc. X, 8: manducate quae vobis apponuntur. Vos dico, nihil interrogantes, an sit immolatum idolis, vel non. Et hoc propter conscientiam infirmorum. If therefore, any of the unbelievers, that is, gentiles, invites you to dinner, and you are willing to go, that is, this invitation pleases you, eat everything edible that is set before you. It is a concession, not a command. Eat the things that are served to you (Luke 10:8). I tell you, asking no questions about whether it was sacrificed to idols or not. And this for conscience’s sake, namely, the conscience of the weak. 565. Deinde cum dicit si quis autem dixerit, etc., ostendit quando non licet comedere. Ubi assignat triplicem causam quare non licet comedere. 565. Next when he says but if any man says, he shows when it is not licit to eat. There he assigns three reasons why it is not licit to eat. Primo propter alterius conscientiam; The first is because of the conscience of another. secundo propter damnationem propriam, ibi ut quid enim libertas mea, etc.; second, because of one’s own damnation, at for why is my liberty; tertio propter imperitorum blasphemiam, ibi si cum gratia participo, et cetera. third, on account of the blasphemy of the inexperienced, at if I partake with thanksgiving. 566. Prima ratio talis est: nihil faciendum est scienter, quod laedat conscientiam eius qui facit, sed comestio idolothiti est huiusmodi; ergo nihil tale est faciendum. Primo ergo proponit idolothiti cognitionem; secundo dissuadet eius comestionem, ibi nolite manducare, etc.; tertio subdit huius rationem, ibi propter illum qui indicavit. 566. The first reason goes as follows: nothing should be done knowingly which injures the conscience of him who does it, but eating the food of idols is this kind of thing; therefore nothing of the kind is to be done. First, therefore, he suggests investigating the food of idols; second, he recommends not eating it, at do not eat; third, he gives the reason for this, at for the sake of him that told it. Dicit ergo si quis autem dixerit, etiam non interrogatus, hoc est immolatum idolis, nolite manducare; et hoc propter illum, qui indicavit, hoc esse immolatum idolis, ne scilicet credat te manducare sub veneratione idoli, non quod cibus de se sit immundus. Rom. XIV, 14: scio et confido in Domino, quod nihil commune est per ipsum, nisi illi, qui existimat aliquid commune esse. Sed etiam propter conscientiam aliorum infirmorum. Conscientiam autem non tuam, quae firma est, sed alterius, scilicet infirmi, II Cor. c. VI, 3: nemini dantes ullam offensionem. Therefore he says but if any man says, even when you have not asked, this has been sacrificed to idols: do not eat; and this for the sake of him that told it to you that it had been sacrificed to idols, lest he should believe that you are eating it out of veneration for the idol, not because the food is unclean in itself: I know and I am confident in the Lord, that nothing is common in itself, except to someone who considers it to be common (Rom 14:14). But also for conscience’s sake, namely, the conscience of other weaker ones. Conscience, I say, not your own, which is firm, but the other’s, that is, the weaker man’s: giving offense to no one (2 Cor 6:3). 567. Deinde cum dicit ut quid enim libertas mea, et cetera. Ecce iam secunda ratio, quae est talis: quod facit ad iudicium damnationis propriae vitandum est: sed comestio idolothiti cum scandalo proximi est huiusmodi; ergo talis comestio vitanda est. Et hoc est, quod dicit ut quid, etc., quasi dicat: nolite manducare propter conscientiam infirmi, ut quid enim libertas mea, id est, quod liberum mihi est, iudicatur ab aliena conscientia? Id est, mihi fit damnabile propter conscientiam alienam ratione scandali. Quasi dicat: si comedo cum alterius scandalo, sic ago ut reddam me damnabilem. Matth. XVIII, 6: qui scandalizaverit unum de pusillis istis, expedit ei ut suspendatur mola asinaria, et cetera. Ut quid ergo sic ago? Quasi dicat, male ago. 567. Next he says for why is my liberty. Here we are at the second reason, which is this: whatever he does to the judgment of his own damnation must be avoided: but eating the food of idols when it scandalizes one’s neighbor is this kind of thing; therefore, eating these things must be avoided. And this is because he says why, as though saying: do not eat for the sake of the weaker man’s conscience, for why is my liberty, that is, that which is free to me, judged by a stranger’s conscience? That is, it becomes damnable for me by reason of the scandal on account of the conscience of another. As though saying: if I eat with scandal to another, I act so as to render myself damnable: whoever scandalizes one of these little ones, it would be better for him if a millstone were hung about his neck (Matt 18:6). So why would I act this way? As though to say: I act wickedly. 568. Deinde cum dicit si ego cum gratia participo, et cetera. Ecce ratio tertia talis: cavendus est casus in blasphemiam et vituperium aliorum; sed comedendo idolothitum, cum scandalo comedo sic; ergo, et cetera. Ubi primo tangit modum edendi debitum, secundo nihilominus blasphemiam insipientium, ibi quid blasphemor. 568. Next he says if I partake with thanksgiving. Here is the third reason: one has to be careful of falling under the revilement and disparagement of others; but by eating the food of idols, I do eat with scandal; therefore, etc. Here he first touches on the due way of eating; second, foolish backbiting as well, at why am I spoken ill of. Dicit ergo si ego cum gratia, id est cum gratiarum actione, participo, id est, comedo. Sic enim semper sumendus est cibus, Io. VI, v. 11: gratias agens benedixit et fregit. Quid blasphemor? Ab imperitis dicentibus idololatrare. Blasphemor, inquam, pro eo, quod gratias ago, id est, quod gratias agendo participo. Rom. XIV, 16: non ergo blasphemetur bonum nomen vestrum. Therefore he says, if I partake, that is, I eat, with thanksgiving, that is, with gratitude. For in this way food is always to be received: giving thanks he blessed it and broke it (John 6:11). Why am I spoken ill of by ignorant people saying I worship idols? I am spoken ill of, I say, for that for which I give thanks, that is, because I partake while giving thanks: then let not our good be spoken ill of (Rom 14:16). Lectio 7 Lecture 7 Omnia ad gloriam Dei All to the glory of God 10:31 Sive ergo manducatis, sive bibitis, sive aliud quid facitis: omnia in gloriam Dei facite. [n. 569] 10:31 Therefore, whether you eat or drink, or whatever else you do, do all to the glory of God. [n. 569] 10:32 Sine offensione estote Judaeis, et gentibus, et Ecclesiae Dei: [n. 571] 10:32 Be without offense to the Jews, and to the gentiles, and to the Church of God: [n. 571] 10:33 sicut et ego per omnia omnibus placeo, non quaerens quod mihi utile est, sed quod multis: ut salvi fiant. [n. 573] 10:33 As I also in all things please all men, not seeking that which is profitable to myself but to many: that they may be saved. [n. 573] 569. Habito quando licet de idolothitis comedere et quando non, hic ostendit, quin in utroque debent intendere. 569. Having shown when it is permitted to eat the food sacrificed to idols and when it is not, here he shows that they should not try to do both. Primo respectu Dei, quia debent quaerere eius gloriam; First with respect to God, because they should seek his glory; secundo quid respectu proximi, quia debent cavere eius offensam, ibi sine offensione estote, et cetera. second, with respect to one’s neighbor, because they should be careful of offending him, at be without offense. 570. In prima, primo inducit actum multiplicem; secundo persuadet actuum intentionem debitam, ibi omnia in gloria Dei, et cetera. 570. Under the first point, he first brings forth the many aspects of the act; second, he urges the due intention of actions, at do all things to the glory of God.