Lectio 7 Lecture 7 Omnia ad gloriam Dei All to the glory of God 10:31 Sive ergo manducatis, sive bibitis, sive aliud quid facitis: omnia in gloriam Dei facite. [n. 569] 10:31 Therefore, whether you eat or drink, or whatever else you do, do all to the glory of God. [n. 569] 10:32 Sine offensione estote Judaeis, et gentibus, et Ecclesiae Dei: [n. 571] 10:32 Be without offense to the Jews, and to the gentiles, and to the Church of God: [n. 571] 10:33 sicut et ego per omnia omnibus placeo, non quaerens quod mihi utile est, sed quod multis: ut salvi fiant. [n. 573] 10:33 As I also in all things please all men, not seeking that which is profitable to myself but to many: that they may be saved. [n. 573] 569. Habito quando licet de idolothitis comedere et quando non, hic ostendit, quin in utroque debent intendere. 569. Having shown when it is permitted to eat the food sacrificed to idols and when it is not, here he shows that they should not try to do both. Primo respectu Dei, quia debent quaerere eius gloriam; First with respect to God, because they should seek his glory; secundo quid respectu proximi, quia debent cavere eius offensam, ibi sine offensione estote, et cetera. second, with respect to one’s neighbor, because they should be careful of offending him, at be without offense. 570. In prima, primo inducit actum multiplicem; secundo persuadet actuum intentionem debitam, ibi omnia in gloria Dei, et cetera. 570. Under the first point, he first brings forth the many aspects of the act; second, he urges the due intention of actions, at do all things to the glory of God. Dicit ergo sive ergo, etc., quasi dicat: quia haec mala contingunt, ergo sive manducatis, sive bibitis, quae sunt opera necessitatis, vel aliud quid facitis, omnia in gloriam Dei facite, et cum invocatione Creatoris, ea intentione, ut Deus laudetur et glorificetur. Matth. V, 16: sic luceat lux vestra coram hominibus, et cetera. Col. III, 17: omne quodcumque facitis in verbo aut opere, omnia in gloriam Dei facite. Therefore he says, therefore, whether, as though he said: since these bad things can happen, therefore, whether you eat or drink, which are works of necessity, or whatever else you do, do all to the glory of God, and with the invocation of the Creator, by this intention, that God be praised and glorified. So let your light shine among men (Matt 5:16). Whatever you do in word or work, do all for the glory of God (Col 3:17). Augustinus in Ps. XXXIV, concione II, in fine: haec si recte fiunt, laudes Dei sunt. Non ergo solum vox tua sonet laudes Dei, sed etiam opera tua concordent cum voce tua. Cum enim Deus laudatur de bono opere, Deum laudas, et cum blasphematur Deus de malo opere tuo, Deum blasphemas. Augustine in his commentary on Psalm 34, sermon two, at the end, says: if these things be done rightly, they are praises of God. Therefore, do not only let your voice sound the praises of God, but also let your works harmonize with your voice. For when God is praised by a good work, you praise God, and when God is blasphemed by your evil work, you blaspheme God. 571. Deinde cum dicit sine offensione estote, etc., monet ut caveant ab offensa aliorum, et persuadet hoc primo, verbo, secundo, exemplo, ibi sicut et ego per omnia, et cetera. 571. Next when he says, be without offense, he warns them to be careful of offending others, and convinces them of this first by word, second by example, at as I also in all things. Ubi ponit se in exemplum, primo pacificae conversationis; secundo fructuosae operationis, ibi non quaerens quod mihi utile, etc.; tertio rectae intentionis, ibi ut salvi fiant. Here he sets himself forth as example, first, by making peace by his companionship; second, by his fruitful work, at not seeking that which is profitable to myself; and third, by his right intention, at that they may be saved. Felix cuius conversatio amabilis, operatio utilis, intentio salubris. Happy the man whose companionship is delightful, whose work is useful, and whose intention is saving. 572. Dicit ergo sine offensione, etc., quasi dicat: ut omnia in gloriam Dei fiant, sine offensione estote Iudaeis, qui non adorant idola, et ideo in tali comestione scandalizantur, et gentibus, qui adorant idola, et ideo per huiusmodi comestionem in errore confirmantur, et Ecclesiae Dei, quantum ad infirmos in fide, qui inde offenduntur. Iudaei sunt sub lege, sed non sunt sub fide; gentes nec sub lege, nec in fide; Ecclesia Dei et sub lege et in fide. Rom. XII, 18: si fieri potest, quod ex vobis est, cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes. 572. He says therefore, without offense, as though he said: so that all things may be for the glory of God, be without offense to the Jews, who do not worship idols, and therefore are scandalized by eating these things, and to the gentiles, who worship idols, and therefore would be confirmed in their error by eating this kind of thing, and to the Church of God, as to those weak in faith, who are offended by this. Jews are under the law, but not under the faith; gentiles are not under the law or in the faith; the Church of God is both under the law and in the faith. If it can be done, as much as is in you, have peace with all men (Rom 12:18). 573. Sicut et ego per omnia omnibus placeo, tamquam conversus sine scandalo. Ego, inquam, non quaerens quod mihi utile est tantum, sed quod multis. Ecce optimus modus placendi omnibus, si omnium utilitas, non privatum commodum procuretur. Caritas, inquam, non quaerit quae sua sunt (1 Cor 13:5). Quod est utile, inquam, multis, et non hoc ad aliquod commodum temporale, sed ad hoc ut salvi fiant. Phil. ult.: non quaero datum, sed fructum. 573. As I also in all things please all men, changing, so to speak, without scandal. I, he says, not seeking that which is profitable to myself alone, but to many. Here is the best way of pleasing everyone: if the profit of all, and not one’s private convenience is procured. Charity, I says, seeks not her own (1 Cor 13:5). That which is profitable, I say, to many, and not this for some temporal convenience, but in order that they may be saved. I do not seek a gift, but fruit (Phil 4:17). 574. Notandum, quod multa sunt quae merito placere faciunt hominibus. Primum prudentia in consiliis, sicut advocatus clienti, dispensator principi placet. Gen. XLI, 37: placuit Pharaoni consilium, et omnibus servis eius. Eccli. XX, 29: vir prudens placebit magnatis. 574. It should be noted that there are many things which they do deservedly to please men. The first is by prudence in counsels, as an attorney pleases his client, or a steward pleases his employer. This advice pleased Pharaoh, and all his servants. (Gen 41:37). The prudent man shall please the great ones (Sir 20:29). Secundum, munditia in factis, sicut coniux coniugi, instrumentum utenti placet. I Reg. II, 26: puer autem Samuel crescebat et proficiebat, placens tam Deo, quam hominibus. Non sic filii Heli. Second, by cleanness in deeds, as a husband pleases his wife, or an instrument pleases the one using it. But the boy Samuel grew and advanced, pleasing God as well as men (1 Sam 2:26). Unlike the sons of Eli. Tertium, pietas in suffragiis, sicut medicus infirmanti, baculus seni placet. Unde de sepultura Abner dicitur II Reg. III, 36: placuerunt eis omnia, quae fecit David, et cetera. Third, faithfulness in giving one’s support, as a doctor pleases his patient, or a walking stick pleases an elderly person. Hence it is said at the tomb of Abner: and all the things that David did pleased them (2 Sam 3:36). Quartum, sapientia in verbis, sicut lumen viatori, viror visui placet. Ios. XXII, 33: placuit sermo cunctis audientibus. Eccli. XX, 29: sapiens in verbis producet seipsum, et homo prudens placebit magnatis. Fourth, wisdom in words, as a light pleases a wayfarer, or green lands please the sight. His words pleased all those who heard (Josh 22:33). The wise man shall advance by his words, and the prudent man shall please the great ones (Sir 20:29). Quintum, clementia in responsis, sicut sapor gustui, melodia auri placet. II Par. X, 7: si placueris populo huic, et lenieris eos verbis clementibus, servient tibi omni tempore. Fifth, clemency in answering, as flavor pleases the tastebuds, or a melody pleases the ear. You have so pleased this nation, and calmed them with clement words, they will serve you for all time (2 Chr 10:7). Sextum, fortitudo in bellis, sicut pugil conductori, miles principi placet. I Reg. XVIII, v. 22: dixerunt servi Saul ad David: ecce places regi, et omnes servi eius diligunt te. Sixth, courage in battles, as the boxer pleases his manager, or a soldier pleases his commander: the servants of Saul said to David: behold, you please the king, and all his servants love you (1 Sam 18:22). Septimum, largitas in beneficiis, sicut pluvia terrae arenti, sicut fons sitienti placet. I Mac. XIV, 4 de Simone: quaesivit bona gentis suae, et placuit illis potestas eius. Seventh, generosity in giving things, as the rain pleases dry earth, or as a spring pleases the thirsty. As is said of Simon: he sought the goods of his people, and his power pleased them (1 Macc 14:4). 575. Hic quaeritur super illud nolo vos esse socios daemoniorum. Glossa: ad hoc genus pertinent quae fiunt in quibusdam rebus suspendendis, vel alligandis. 575. Here it is asked about I do not want you to be made partakers with devils (1 Cor 10:20). The Gloss says: what is done with certain things that are hung up or tied on relates to this kind of thing. Contra, ergo suspensio herbarum ad collum, vel chartularum, quae fieri solet, ad idololatriam pertinet. Against this: hanging herbs around the neck, or small pieces of paper, which commonly happens, relates to idolatry. Responsio. Aut herbae habent a natura vim naturalem ad effectum illum, aut non. In primo casu non pertinet ad idololatriam, sed in secundo. Answer: either herbs have a natural power from their nature to this effect, or else they do not. In the first case, it does not relate to idolatry, but in the second case it does. Similiter cedulae, aut continent solum verba sacra, et ex hoc creduntur habere vim, aut non. In primo casu non pertinet ad idololatriam, sed in secundo. Likewise, cedulae (official slips of paper) either contain only sacred words, and are believed to have power only from that, or else not. In the first case, they do not pertain to idolatry, but in the second, they do. 576. Item super illud omnia mihi licent, Glossa: potestate liberi arbitrii, et doctrina legis naturalis. 576. Again, concerning all things are lawful for me (1 Cor 10:23), the Gloss says: by the power of free will and the teaching of natural law. Contra, secundum legem naturalem multa sunt illicita. Against this: according to natural law, many things are not allowed. Respondeo. Hic loquitur de cibis specialiter. I answer that here he is speaking specifically of food. 577. Item ibidem Glossa: praecepto Domini illa prohibentur. 577. Again, the Gloss says in the same place: by the command of the Lord those things are prohibited. Respondeo. Illa praecepta ad tempus fuerunt, et revocata sunt. I answer that those commands were made for that time, and they have been repealed. 578. Item nihil interrogantes. Contra, Tob. II, 21: videte ne forte furtivus sit. 578. Again, asking no question (1 Cor 10:27). Against this: watch out lest perhaps it is stolen: restore it to its owners, for it is not lawful for us either to eat or to touch anything that comes by theft (Tob 2:21). Respondeo. Non est simile, quia cibum furtivum non est licitum in se comedere, sed idolo immolatum licet edere, nisi propter scandalum alterius. I answer that this is not the same, since it is not permitted in itself to eat stolen food, but it is permitted to eat the food sacrificed to idols, except on account of the scandal of another. 579. Item omnia in gloriam Dei facite. Contra: ergo nullus actus est indifferens. 579. Again, do all to the glory of God. Against this: therefore, no act is indifferent. Respondeo. Relatio haec in gloriam Dei intelligitur, vel in actu, vel in aptitudine referendi, quae non est solum in bonis, sed etiam in indifferentibus. I answer that something is understood to be referred to the glory of God either actually or in its aptitude for being so related, and this does not only happen among good things, but also among indifferent ones.