Relatio inter virum et mulierem
Relation between man and woman
11:1 Imitatores mei estote, sicut et ego Christi. [n. 582]
11:1 Be followers of me, as I also am of Christ. [n. 582]
11:2 Laudo autem vos fratres quod per omnia mei memores estis: et sicut tradidi vobis, praecepta mea tenetis. [n. 584]
11:2 Now I praise you, brethren, that in all things you are mindful of me and keep my ordinances as I have delivered them to you. [n. 584]
11:3 Volo autem vos scire quod omnis viri caput, Christus est: caput autem mulieris, vir: caput vero Christi, Deus. [n. 586]
11:3 But I would have you know that the head of every man is Christ: and the head of the woman is the man: and the head of Christ is God. [n. 586]
582. Supra Apostolus removit a fidelibus id quod est contrarium Eucharistiae sacramento, scilicet participationem mensae idolorum, nunc autem instruit fideles de ipso Eucharistiae sacramento. Et
582. Having eliminated from the believers a practice contrary to the sacrament of the Eucharist, namely, partaking of food offered to idols, the Apostle now instructs them about the sacrament of the Eucharist itself.
primo praemittit quamdam admonitionem generalem;
First, he gives a general admonition;
secundo accedit ad propositum, ibi volo autem vos scire, et cetera.
second, he develops his proposition, at but I would have you know.
Circa primum duo facit.
In regard to the first he does two things.
Primo proponit admonitionem;
First, he presents the admonition;
secundo significat quomodo Corinthii ad praedictam admonitionem se habebant, ibi laudo autem vos, fratres, et cetera.
second, he signifies how the Corinthians regarded that admonition, at now I praise you, brethren.
583. Circa primum considerandum est, quod ita se habet naturalis ordo rerum, quod ea quae sunt inferiora in entibus imitantur ea quae sunt superiora secundum suum posse. Unde etiam naturale agens tamquam superius assimilat sibi patiens.
583. In regard to the first it should be noted that the natural order of things is so arranged, that lower beings imitate higher beings, as far as it is possible. Hence even a natural agent, being superior, makes the thing it acts on similar to itself.
Primordiale autem principium totius processionis rerum est Filius Dei, secundum illud Io. I, 3: omnia per ipsum facta sunt. Et ipse ideo est primordiale exemplar, quod omnes creaturae imitantur tamquam veram et perfectam Imaginem Patris. Unde dicitur Col. I, 15: qui est Imago Dei invisibilis primogenitus omnis creaturae, quia in ipso condita sunt universa. Speciali tamen quodam modo exemplar est spiritualium gratiarum, quibus spirituales creaturae illustrantur, secundum illud quod in Ps. CIX, 3 dicitur ad Filium: in splendoribus sanctorum ex utero ante Luciferum genui te, quia scilicet genitus est ante omnem creaturam per gratiam lucentem, habens exemplariter in se splendores omnium sanctorum.
Now the primordial principle of the production of things is the Son of God: all things were made through him (John 1:3). He is, therefore, the primordial exemplar, which all creatures imitate as the true and perfect Image of the Father. Hence it is said: he is the Image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature, for in him all things were created (Col 1:15). But in a special way he is the exemplar of spiritual graces, with which spiritual creatures are endowed, as is said to the Son: in the splendors of the saints before the morning star I begot you (Ps 110:3), namely, because he was begotten before every creature through resplendent grace, having in himself as exemplar the splendors of all the saints.
Hoc autem exemplar Dei prius erat a nobis valde remotum, secundum illud Eccle. II, v. 12: quid est homo, ut sequi possit Regem factorem suum? Et ideo homo fieri voluit, ut hominibus humanum exemplar praeberet. Unde Augustinus dicit de Agone Christiano: qua perversitate non careat, qui dicta et facta illius hominis intueri diligit et sectatur, in quo se nobis ad exemplum vitae praebuit Filius Dei?
But this exemplar of God has been very remote from us at first, as it is said: what is man that he could follow the King, his maker? (Eccl 2:12). And therefore he willed to become man, that he might offer humans a human exemplar. Hence Augustine says in The Christian Combat: this perversity he does not lack who loves to inspect and imitate that man’s words and actions, in which the Son of God offered himself to us as an example of living.
Et sicut divinitatis eius exemplar primo quidem imitantur angeli, secundario vero reliquae creaturae, ut Dionysius dicit X cap. Angelicae hierarchiae, ita humanitatis exemplar principaliter quidem imitandum proponitur praelatis Ecclesiae tamquam superioribus. Unde et Dominus apostolis dicit Io. c. XIII, 15: exemplum dedi vobis, ut quemadmodum ego feci, ita et vos faciatis. Secundario vero ipsi praelati informati exemplo Christi, proponuntur exemplar vitae subditis, secundum illud I Petr. ult.: forma facti gregis ex animo; et II Thess. III, 9: ut nosmetipsos formam daremus vobis ad imitandum nos.
Just as angels were first to imitate the exemplar of his divinity, but secondarily the other creatures, as Dionysius says in The Angelic Hierarchy, so the exemplar of humanity is chiefly proposed to be imitated by the prelates of the Church, as being higher. Hence the Lord says: I have given you an example that as I have done, so do you (John 13:15). Second, however, the prelates informed by the example of Christ are proposed to their subjects as exemplars of living: being examples to the flock (1 Pet 5:3); to give you in our conduct an example to imitate (2 Thess 3:9).
Et ideo Apostolus signanter dicit: dixi ut sine offensione omnibus sitis, et hoc quidem facere poteritis, si hoc quod dico servetis. Imitatores mei estote, sicut et ego Christi, scilicet sum imitator. Imitabatur enim eum primo quidem in mentis devotione. Gal. c. II, 20: vivo ego, iam non ego, vivit vero in me Christus. Secundo in subditorum sollicitudine. Unde dicebat Phil. II, 17: si immolor supra sacrificium et obsequium fidei vestrae, gaudeo et congratulor omnibus vobis, sicut et Christus obtulit semetipsum pro nobis, ut dicitur Eph. V, 2. Tertio quantum ad passionis tolerantiam. II Cor. IV, 10: semper mortificationem Iesu in corpore circumferentes. Et Gal. ult.: ego stigmata Domini Iesu in corpore meo porto.
Therefore, the Apostle expressly says: I have said that you should be without offense (1 Cor 10:32) to anyone. And this, of course, you can do, if you take note of what I say: be followers of me, as I also am of Christ, i.e., an imitator. For he imitated him, first, in devotion of mind: I live, now not I, but Christ lives in me (Gal 2:20). Second, in anxiety for his subjects: even if I am to be poured as a libation upon the sacrificial offering of your faith, I am glad and rejoice with you all (Phil 2:17); Jesus Christ also offered himself for us (Eph 5:2). Third, as to tolerating suffering: always carrying in the body the death of Jesus (2 Cor 4:10); I bear on my body the marks of Jesus (Gal 6:17).
Est autem notandum, quod non simpliciter dicit, imitatores mei estote, sed addit sicut et ego Christi, quia scilicet subditi praelatos suos imitari non debent in omnibus, sed in quibus illi Christum imitantur, qui est indeficiens sanctitatis exemplar.
But it must be noted that he does not merely say, be followers of me, but he adds, as I also am of Christ, namely, because subjects ought not imitate their prelates in everything but in those things in which they imitate Christ, who is the unfailing exemplar of holiness.
584. Deinde, cum dicit laudo autem vos, fratres, ostendit qualiter Corinthii se habebant ad admonitionem praedictam.
584. Then when he says, now I praise you, brethren, he shows how the Corinthians were acting in regard to the above admonition.
Circa quod considerandum est, quod subditi suos praelatos sequuntur dupliciter, scilicet quantum ad facta et dicta. Quantum quidem ad facta, dum subditi praelatorum exempla imitantur, unde dicitur Iac. V, 10: exemplum accipite, fratres mei, prophetarum, qui locuti sunt in nomine Domini. Quantum vero ad dicta, dum eorum praeceptis obediunt. Prov. IV, 4: custodi praecepta mea et vives.
In regard to this it should be observed that subjects follow their prelates in two ways: namely, as to their deeds and words. In regard to deeds, when they imitate the example of their prelates; hence it is said: as an example take the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord (Jas 5:10). In regard to deeds, when they obey their precepts: keep my commandments and live (Prov 4:4).
In his autem Corinthii deficiebant, et maxime quantum ad maiorem multitudinem, et ideo Apostolus, alloquens eos, dicit laudo autem vos, fratres, quasi dicat: super hoc laudandos vos praebere debetis, sed non facitis, quod per omnia memores estis, quasi ad imitandum mea exempla. Non enim possumus illorum exempla imitari, quorum memoriam non habemus. Unde dicitur Hebr. c. XIII, 7: mementote praepositorum vestrorum, quorum intuentes exitum conversationis, imitamini fidem.
But the Corinthians failed in these things and especially the greater majority; consequently, the Apostle addressed them thus: now I praise you, brethren. As if to say: you should offer yourselves to be praised on this point, but you do not, that in all things you are mindful of me, so as to imitate my example. For we cannot imitate examples of ones we do not remember. Hence it is said: remember your leaders; consider the outcome of their life and imitate their faith (Heb 13:7).
Quantum vero ad dicta, subdit et sicut tradidi vobis, praecepta mea tenetis, quasi dicat: eodem tenore observatis, quo ego tradidi; hoc enim dicit, quia ab observantia praeceptorum eius recesserant. Io. XV, 20: si sermonem meum servaverunt, et vestrum servabunt.
As to words he adds, and keep my ordinances as I have delivered them to you. As if to say: you observe them in the same tenor as I delivered them to you: for he says this because they had departed from observing the commandments: if they keep my word, they will also keep yours (John 15:20).
585. Sed videtur hic modus loquendi non esse conveniens veritati Sacrae Scripturae, quae nihil patitur falsitatis, secundum illud Prov. VIII, 8: iusti sunt omnes sermones mei, et non est in eis pravum quid, neque perversum.
585. But this seems to be a manner of speaking not suited to the truth of the Sacred Scripture, which contains no falsity, as it is said: all the words of my mouth are righteous; and there is nothing twisted or crooked in them (Prov 8:8).
Sed dicendum, quod ironica locutio est una de locutionibus figurativis, in quibus veritas non attenditur secundum sensum quem verba faciunt, sed secundum id quod loquens exprimere intendit per simile, vel contrarium, vel quocumque alio modo. Et ideo in ironica locutione veritas attenditur secundum contrarium eius quod verba sonant, sicut in metaphorica, secundum simile.
The answer is that irony is one of the figures of speech, in which one does not pay attention to the sense which the words make in order to get the truth, but what the speaker intends to express by a similar or contrary or other way. Therefore, in irony the truth is really the contrary of what the words indicate, as in a metaphor the truth consists in a similarity.
586. Deinde cum dicit volo autem vos scire, fratres, etc., accedit ad propositum, instruens scilicet fideles de Eucharistiae sacramento.
586. Then when he says, but I would have you know, he proceeds to his intention of instructing believers in the sacrament of the Eucharist.
Et circa hoc tria facit.
In regard to this he does three things.
Primo redarguit eorum errores circa ritum huius sacramenti;
First, he reproves their errors regarding the rite of this sacrament;
secundo ostendit huius sacramenti dignitatem, ibi ego enim accepi a Domino, etc.;
second, he shows the dignity of this sacrament, at for I have received of the Lord (1 Cor 11:23);
tertio docet convenientem ritum, ibi itaque, fratres mei.
third, he teaches the correct rite, at therefore, my brethren (1 Cor 11:33).
Circa primum tria facit.
In regard to the first he does three things.
Primo redarguit eorum errorem, quo scilicet errabant in habitu, quia scilicet mulieres ad sacra mysteria conveniebant capite non velato;
first, he refutes their error, by which they erred in clothing, namely, because the women gathered for the sacred mysteries with heads uncovered;
secundo arguit errorem in conventu, quia scilicet dum convenirent ad sacra mysteria contentionibus vacabant, ibi haec autem praecipio non laudans, etc.;
second, he corrects them in their gathering, because, when they came together for the sacred mysteries, they indulged in quarrels, at now this I ordain (1 Cor 11:17);
tertio quantum ad certum cibum, quia scilicet pransi ad sacra mysteria sumenda accedebant, ibi: convenientibus autem vobis, et cetera.
third, as to food, because they approach to take the sacred mysteries after they had just eaten, at when you come together (1 Cor 11:20).
Circa primum duo facit.
In regard to the first he does two things.
Primo praemittit quoddam documentum, ex quo sumitur ratio subsequentis monitionis;
First, he lays down a teaching from which is drawn the reason for the next admonition;
secundo ponit monitionem, ibi omnis autem vir orans, et cetera.
second, he gives an admonition, at every man praying (1 Cor 11:4).
587. Circa primum ponit triplicem comparationem, quarum prima est Dei ad hominem, dicens: dixi quod praecepta mea tenetis per contrarium; sed ut appareat vos irrationabiliter agere, volo vos scire, tamquam rem necessariam, secundum illud Is. c. V, 13: captivus ductus est populus meus, quia non habuit scientiam, quod omnis viri caput Christus est, quod quidem dicitur secundum similitudinem capitis naturalis, in quo quatuor considerantur.
587. In regard to the first he mentions three comparisons, the first of which is of God to man, saying: I have said you hold my precepts, by irony, but in order that you may see how unreasonably you act, I would have you know as something necessary: my people went into exile for want of knowledge (Isa 5:13), that the head of every man is Christ. This is said according to a likeness of a natural head, in which four things are considered.