Mulier est propter virum
The woman is for the man
11:8 Non enim vir ex muliere est, sed mulier ex viro. [n. 609]
11:8 For the man is not of the woman: but the woman of the man. [n. 609]
11:9 Etenim non est creatus vir propter mulierem, sed mulier propter virum. [n. 611]
11:9 For the man was not created for the woman: but the woman for the man. [n. 611]
11:10 Ideo debet mulier potestatem habere supra caput propter angelos. [n. 612]
11:10 Therefore, the woman ought to have power over her head, because of the angels. [n. 612]
11:11 Verumtamen neque vir sine muliere: neque mulier sine viro in Domino. [n. 615]
11:11 But yet neither is the man without the woman, nor the woman without the man, in the Lord. [n. 615]
11:12 Nam sicut mulier de viro, ita et vir per mulierem: omnia autem ex Deo. [n. 616]
11:12 For as the woman is of the man, so also is the man through the woman: but all things of God. [n. 616]
11:13 Vos ipsi judicate: decet mulierem non velatam orare Deum? [n. 618]
11:13 You yourselves judge. Does it become a woman to pray unto God uncovered? [n. 618]
11:14 Nec ipsa natura docet vos, quod vir quidem si comam nutriat, ignominia est illi:
11:14 Does not even nature itself teach you that a man indeed, if he nourishes his hair, it is a shame unto him?
11:15 mulier vero si comam nutriat, gloria est illi: quoniam capilli pro velamine ei dati sunt.
11:15 But if a woman nourishes her hair, it is a glory to her; for her hair is given to her for a covering.
11:16 Si quis autem videtur contentiosus esse: nos talem consuetudinem non habemus, neque Ecclesia Dei. [n. 620]
11:16 But if any man seems to be contentious, we have no such custom, nor the Church of God. [n. 620]
609. Praemiserat Apostolus quod mulier est gloria viri, quod hic probare intendit.
609. Having stated that the woman is the glory of man, the Apostle now prepares to prove it.
Et circa hoc tria facit.
In regard to this he does three things.
Primo ponit probationem;
First, he presents the proof;
secundo assignat rationem eius quod dixerat, ibi etenim non est creatus, etc.;
second, he assigns a reason for what he had said, at for the man was not created for the woman;
tertio infert conclusionem intentam, ibi ideo debet, et cetera.
third, he draws the conclusion intended, at therefore the woman ought.
610. Circa primum considerandum, quod, sicut supra dictum est, mulier dicitur gloria viri per quamdam derivationem, et ideo, ad hoc probandum, subdit non enim, prima scilicet rerum conditione, vir est ex muliere, scilicet formatus, sed mulier ex viro. Dicitur enim Gen. II, 22, quod aedificavit Dominus Deus costam, quam tulerat de Adam in mulierem. De viro autem dicitur formavit Dominus Deus hominem de limo terrae.
610. In regard to the first it should be noted that, as was stated above, the woman is called the glory of man through something derived. Consequently, to prove this he says: for the man in the original condition of things is not of the woman, namely, formed out of the woman, but the woman of the man. For it is said: and the rib from with the Lord God had taken from the man he made into a woman (Gen 2:22). About man it is said that the Lord formed man of dust from the ground (Gen 2:7).
611. Deinde cum dicit etenim, etc., assignat rationem eius quod dixerat.
611. Then when he says, for the man was not created, he assigns the reason for what he had said.
Ad cuius evidentiam considerandus est talis ordo perfecti et imperfecti, quod imperfectum in uno et eodem subiecto prius est tempore, quam perfectum. Prius enim aliquis homo est puer, quam vir; simpliciter tamen perfectum est prius imperfecto, tempore et natura. Nam puer producitur ex viro.
To understand this it should be noted that the order of the perfect and of the imperfect is such that in one and the same subject the imperfect precedes the perfect in the order of time. For one is a boy, before he is a man. Absolutely speaking, however, the perfect precedes the imperfect in the order of time and of nature. For a boy is produced from the man.
Haec igitur est ratio quare mulier producta est ex viro, quia perfectior est muliere, quod ex hoc probat Apostolus, quia finis est perfectior eo quod est ad finem: vir autem est finis mulieris. Et hoc est quod dicit etenim non est creatus vir propter mulierem, sed mulier propter virum, in adiutorium scilicet generationis: sicut patiens est propter agens, et materia propter formam. Unde dicitur Gen. II, 18: non est bonum hominem esse solum, faciamus ei adiutorium simile sibi.
This, therefore, is the reason why the woman was produced from the man, because he is more perfect than the woman, which the Apostle proves from the fact that the end is more perfect than that which is for the end; but man is the woman’s end. And this is what he says: for the man was not created for the woman: but the woman for the man, as a helper, namely, in reproduction, as the patient is for the sake of the agent and matter for the sake of form: it is not good for man to be alone: let us make him a helper like unto him (Gen 2:18).
612. Deinde cum dicit ideo debet, etc., infert conclusionem intentam, dicens ideo, scilicet quia vir est imago et gloria Dei, mulier autem est gloria viri, mulier debet habere velamen super caput suum, quando scilicet Deo assistit orando, vel prophetando, ut per hoc ostendatur, quod non immediate subest Deo, sed subiicitur etiam viro sub Deo; hoc enim significat velamen, quod capiti superponitur. Unde alia littera habet, quod mulier debet habere potestatem super caput suum, et idem est sensus: nam velamen est signum potestatis, secundum quod in Ps. LXV, 12 dicitur: imposuisti homines super capita nostra.
612. Then when he says, therefore, the woman, he draws the intended conclusion, saying: that is why, namely, because man is the image and glory of God, but woman the glory of man, the woman ought to have a covering over her head, when she places herself before God by praying or prophesying. In this way it is shown that she is not immediately under God, but is also subjected to man under God. For the veil put on the head signifies this. Hence another translation has it that the woman ought to have power over her head, but the sense is the same. For a veil is a sign of power, as it is said: you let men ride over our heads (Ps 66:4).
613. Deinde cum dicit et propter angelos, etc., assignat tertiam rationem, quae sumitur ex parte angelorum, dicens et etiam mulier debet habere velamen super caput suum propter angelos. Quod quidem dupliciter intelligi potest. Uno modo de ipsis angelis caelestibus, qui conventus fidelium visitare creduntur, praecipue quando sacra mysteria celebrantur. Et ideo tunc tam mulieres, quam viri ad reverentiam eorum honeste et ordinate se debent habere, secundum illud Ps. CXXXVII, 1: in conspectu angelorum psallam tibi.
613. Then when he says, because of the angels, he gives a third reason, which is taken on the part of the angels, saying, the woman ought to have a covering over her head, because of the angels. This can be understood in two ways: in one way about the heavenly angels who are believed to visit congregations of the faithful, especially when the sacred mysteries are celebrated. And therefore at that time women as well as men ought to present themselves honorably and ordinately as reverence to them: before the angels I sing your praise (Ps 138:1).
Alio modo potest intelligi, secundum quod angeli dicuntur sacerdotes, inquantum divina populo annuntiant, secundum illud Mal. II, v. 7: labia sacerdotis custodiunt scientiam, et legem requirent ex ore eius, quia angelus Domini exercituum est.
In another way it can be understood in the sense that priests are called angels, inasmuch as they proclaim divine things to the people: for the lips of a priest should guard knowledge, and men should seek instruction from his mouth; for he is the angel of the Lord of hosts (Mal 2:7).
Debet ergo mulier velamen habere semper in Ecclesia propter angelos, id est, propter sacerdotes, duplici ratione. Primo quidem propter eorum reverentiam, ad quam pertinet quod mulieres coram eis honeste se habeant. Unde dicitur Eccli. VII, 33: honora Deum ex tota anima tua, et sacerdotes illius. Secundo propter eorum cautelam, ne scilicet ex conspectu mulierum non velatarum ad concupiscentiam provocentur. Unde dicitur Eccli. c. IX, 5: virginem ne aspicias, ne forte scandalizeris in decore illius.
Therefore, the woman should always have a covering over her head because of the angels, i.e., the priests, for two reasons: first, as reverence toward them, to which it pertains that women should behave honorably before them. Hence it is said: with all your might love your maker and do not forsake his priests (Sir 7:30). Second, for their safety, lest the sight of a woman not veiled excite their concupiscence. Hence it is said: do not look intently at a virgin, lest you stumble and incur penalties for her (Sir 9:5).
614. Augustinus autem aliter exponit praedicta. Ostendit enim quod tam mulier quam vir est ad imaginem Dei, per hoc quod dicitur Eph. IV, 23 s.: renovamini spiritu mentis vestrae, et induite novum hominem, qui renovatur in agnitione Dei secundum imaginem eius qui creavit eum, ubi non est masculus et foemina. Et sic patet, quod imago Dei attenditur in homine secundum spiritum, in quo non est differentia masculi et foeminae; et ideo mulier est imago Dei sicut et vir. Expresse enim dicitur Gen. I, 27, quod creavit Deus hominem ad imaginem suam, masculum et foeminam creavit eos: et ideo Augustinus dicit hoc esse intelligendum in spirituali coniugio, quod est in anima nostra, in qua (sicut supra dictum est) sensualitas, vel etiam inferior ratio se habet per modum mulieris, ratio autem superior per modum viri, in qua attenditur imago Dei. Et secundum hoc mulier est ex viro et propter virum, quia administratio rerum temporalium, vel sensibilium, cui intendit inferior ratio vel etiam sensualitas, debet deduci ex contemplatione aeternorum, quae pertinent ad superiorem rationem, et ad eam ordinari.
614. Augustine explains the above in another way. For he shows that both man and woman are made to the image of God, according to what is said: be renewed in the spirit of your minds and put on the new man created after the likeness of God according to the image of him who created him (Eph 4:23), where considered according to the spirit, in which there is no difference between male and female; consequently, the woman is the image of God, just as the male. For it is expressly stated that God created man to his own image, male and female he created them (Gen 1:27). Therefore, Augustine says that this must be understood in a spiritual union, which is in our soul, in which the sensibility or even the lower reason has itself after the manner of the woman, but the superior reason after the manner of the man, in whom the image of God is considered to be. And according to this the woman is from the man and for the sake of the man, because the administration of temporal or sensible things, in which the lower reason or even the sensibility is adept, ought to be deduced from the contemplation of eternal things, which pertain to the higher reason and is ordained to it.
Et ideo mulier dicitur habere velamen, vel potestatem super caput suum, ad significandum quod circa temporalia dispensanda debet homo cohibitionem quamdam et refraenationem habere, ne ultra modum homo progrediatur in eis diligendis. Quae quidem cohibitio circa amorem Dei adhiberi non debet, cum praeceptum sit Deut. VI, 5: diliges Dominum Deum tuum ex toto corde tuo. Nam circa desiderium finis non apponitur mensura, quam necesse est apponi circa ea quae sunt ad finem. Medicus enim sanitatem inducit quanto perfectiorem potest, non tamen dat medicinam quanto maiorem potest, sed secundum determinatam mensuram. Sic vir non debet habere velamen super caput. Et hoc debet propter angelos sanctos: quia, sicut in Glossa dicitur grata est sanctis angelis sacrata et pia significatio. Unde et Augustinus dicit de Civit. Dei, quod Daemones alliciuntur quibusdam sensibilibus rebus, non sicut animalia cibis, sed sicut spiritus signis.
Therefore, the woman is said to have a veil or power over her own head, in order to signify that in regard to dispensing temporal things man should apply a certain restraint, lest he transgress the limits in loving them. This restraint should not be applied to the love of God, since it is commanded: you shall love the Lord your God with your whole heart (Deut 6:5). For no limit is placed in regard to loving the end, although one is placed in regard to the means to the end. For a doctor produces as much health as he can, but he does not give as much medicine as he can, but in a definite amount. Thus a man should not have a covering on his head. And this on account of the angels, because, as is said in a Gloss: sacred and pious signification is pleasing to the holy angels. Hence Augustine also says in The City of God, that the demons are attracted by certain sensible things, not as animals to food but as spirits to signs.
615. Deinde cum dicit verumtamen neque vir, etc., excludit dubitationem quae posset ex dictis oriri. Quia enim dixerat, quod vir est gloria Dei, mulier autem est gloria viri, posset aliquis credere, vel quod mulier non esset ex Deo, vel quod non haberet potestatem in gratia.
615. Then when he says, but yet neither is the man, he excludes a doubt which could arise from these statements. For because he had said that man is God’s glory and the woman man’s glory, someone might believe either that the woman was not from God or that she should not have power in grace.
Unde primo hoc excludit, dicens: licet mulier sit gloria viri, qui est gloria Dei, verumtamen neque vir est in Domino, id est, a Domino productus, sine muliere, neque mulier sine viro; utrumque enim Deus fecit, secundum illud Gen. I, 27: masculum et foeminam creavit eos.
Hence he excludes the first, saying: although the woman is the glory of man, who is the glory of God, but yet neither is the man . . . in the Lord, i.e., produced by the Lord, without the woman, nor the woman without the man; for God made both of them: male and female he created them (Gen 1:27).
Vel aliter: neque vir est sine muliere in Domino, scilicet in gratia Domini nostri Iesu Christi, neque mulier sine viro, quia uterque per gratiam Dei salvatur, secundum illud Gal. III, 27: quicumque in Christo baptizati estis, Christum induistis. Et postea subdit: non est masculus, neque foemina, scilicet differens in gratia Christi.
Or in another way: neither is the man without the woman . . . in the Lord, namely, in the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, nor the woman without the man, because both are saved by God’s grace: for as many of you as were baptized have put on Christ (Gal 3:27), and then he adds: there is neither male nor female, namely, differing in the grace of Christ.
616. Secundo assignat rationem, dicens: nam sicut in prima rerum institutione mulier est de viro formata, ita et in subsequentibus generationibus, vir per mulierem productus est, secundum illud Iob XIV, 1: homo natus de muliere.
616. Second, he assigns the reason, saying: for as in the first condition of things, the woman is of the man, formed from the man, so also in subsequent generations the man was produced through the woman, as Job says: man born of a woman (Job 14:1).
Nam prima productio hominis fuit sine viro et muliere, quando Deus formavit hominem de limo terrae, ut dicitur Gen. Secunda autem fuit de viro sine muliere, quando formavit Evam de costa viri, ut ibidem legitur. Tertia autem est ex viro et muliere, sicut Abel natus est ex Adam et Eva, ut legitur Gen. IV, 2. Quarta autem est ex muliere sine viro, ut Christus ex virgine, secundum illud Gal. IV, 4: misit Deus Filium suum factum ex muliere.
For the first production of man took place without man or woman, when God formed man from the dust of the earth (Gen 2:7). The second was from man without the woman, when he formed Eve from Adam’s rib, as it says in the same place. But the third is from man and woman, as Abel was born from Adam and Eve (Gen 4:2). But the fourth was from the woman without the man, as Christ from the virgin: God sent forth his Son born of woman (Gal 4:4).
617. Tertio ostendit rationem esse convenientem, dicens omnia autem ex Deo, quia scilicet et hoc ipsum, quod mulier primo fuit ex viro, et hoc quod postmodum vir est ex muliere, est ex operatione divina. Unde ad Deum pertinent tam vir, quam mulier. Unde dicitur Rom. XL, 36: ex ipso, et per ipsum, et in ipso sunt omnia.
617. Third, he shows that the reason is apt, saying, but all things of God, namely, because even the fact that the woman was first from the man, and afterwards man is from the woman, is the result of God’s action. Hence both man and woman pertain to God. Hence it is said: for from him and through him and in him are all things (Rom 11:36).
618. Deinde cum dicit vos ipsi iudicate, etc., committit iudicium eius quod dixerat auditoribus.
618. Then when he says, you yourselves judge, he submits to his hearers’ judgment the things he had said.
Et circa hoc duo facit.
In regard to this he does two things.
Primo committit iudicium rationalibus auditoribus;
First, he submits the judgment to his rational hearers;
secundo comprimit protervos auditores, ibi si quis autem videtur, et cetera.
second, he subdues the impudent ones, at but if any man seem.