Scissuri in conventu
Factions in the assembly
11:17 Hoc autem praecipio: non laudans quod non in melius, sed in deterius convenitis. [n. 621]
11:17 Now this I ordain: not praising you, that you come together, not for the better, but for the worse. [n. 621]
11:18 Primum quidem convenientibus vobis in ecclesiam, audio scissuras esse inter vos, et ex parte credo. [n. 623]
11:18 For first of all I hear that when you come together in the church, there are schisms among you. And in part I believe it. [n. 623]
11:19 Nam oportet et haereses esse, ut et qui probati sunt, manifesti fiant in vobis. [n. 626]
11:19 For there must be also heresies: that they also, who are approved may be made manifest among you. [n. 626]
11:20 Convenientibus ergo vobis in unum, jam non est Dominicam coenam manducare. [n. 629]
11:20 When you come together therefore into one place, it is not now to eat the Lord’s supper. [n. 629]
11:21 Unusquisque enim suam coenam praesumit ad manducandum, et alius quidem esurit, alius autem ebrius est. [n. 633]
11:21 For every one takes before his own supper to eat. And one indeed is hungry and another is drunk. [n. 633]
11:22 Numquid domos non habetis ad manducandum, et bibendum? aut ecclesiam Dei contemnitis, et confunditis eos qui non habent? Quid dicam vobis? laudo vos? in hoc non laudo. [n. 636]
11:22 What, have you no houses to eat and to drink in? Or do you despise the church of God and put them to shame that have not? What shall I say to you? Do I praise you? In this I praise you not. [n. 636]
621. Postquam Apostolus redarguit Corinthios de eorum errore in habitu, quia scilicet mulieres ad sacra mysteria conveniebant capite non velato consequenter arguit eorum errorem de scissuris in conventu, quia scilicet dum convenirent ad sacra mysteria, contentionibus vacabant. Et
621. After reproaching the Corinthians for their error in covering, namely, because the women came to the sacred mysteries with their head uncovered, the Apostle then argues against their error about factions in the assembly, because while they gathered for the sacred mysteries, they spent their time in contentions.
primo tangit eorum defectum in generali;
First, he touches on their shortcoming in general;
secundo in speciali, ibi primum quidem, et cetera.
second, in particular, at for first of all.
622. Dicit ergo primo hoc autem, quod dictum est supra quod mulieres velatae sint in Ecclesiis, praecipio, ut sic tripliciter eos induceret ad huiusmodi observantiam. Primo quidem ratione, secundo consuetudine, tertio praecepto: quod solum sine aliis necessitatem induceret. Prov. IV, 4: custodi praecepta mea, et vives. Et Eccle. IV, v. 12 dicitur: funiculus triplex difficile rumpitur. Non laudans, sed magis vituperans, quod convenitis, in ecclesiam, non in melius, sicut deberet esse, sed in deterius, ex culpa vestra.
622. First, therefore, he says, now this, which was stated above, namely, that women should be veiled in church, I ordain, in order that he might thus induce them to this observance in three ways. First, indeed, by reason; second, by custom; third, by command, which should persuade them without the other two: keep my commandments and you shall live (Prov 4:4); a three-ply cord is not quickly broken (Eccl 4:12) Not praising you, but rather censuring you, that you come together into the church not for the better, as it should be, but for the worse through your fault.
Omnia enim animalia gregalia, puta columbae, grues, oves, naturali instinctu in unum conveniunt, ut sit eis corporaliter melius. Unde et homo cum sit animal gregale vel sociale, ut Philosophus probat, I Lib. Politic., secundum rationem agere debet, ut multi in unum conveniant propter aliquod melius, sicut in rebus saecularibus multi in unitatem civitatis conveniunt, ut sit eis melius saeculariter, scilicet propter securitatem et sufficientiam vitae. Et ideo fideles in unum convenire debent propter aliquod melius spirituale, secundum illud Ps. ci, 23: in conveniendo populos in unum, et reges ut serviant Domino. Et alibi: in consilio iustorum et congregatione, magna opera Domini. Sed isti in deterius conveniebant propter culpas quas committebant dum convenirent. Is. I, 13: iniqui sunt caetus vestri. Eccli. XXI, 10: stupa collecta synagoga peccantium.
For all gregarious animals, for example, doves, cranes, cows, each form one group by natural instinct, in order that things be better for them in a bodily way. Hence man, too, being a gregarious or social animal, as the Philosopher proves in Politics I, should act according to reason, so that many form one group for their betterment, just as in secular affairs many come together to form the unity of a city; so that it is better for them in a worldly way, namely, because of the security and sufficiency of life. Therefore, believers should come together into a unity for some better spiritual things: when people gather together and kings, to worship the Lord (Ps 102:22); in the counsel and congregation of the just the works of the Lord are great (Ps 111:1). But they came together for the worse on account of the sins they committed, when they assembled: I cannot endure iniquity and solemn assembly (Isa 1:13); an assembly of the wicked is like two gathered together (Sir 21:9).
623. Deinde cum dicit primum quidem, etc., ponit in speciali quomodo in deterius convenirent.
623. Then when he says, for first of all, he mentions in detail how they assemble for the worse.
Et primo ponit iudicium culpae, dicens primum quidem, inter caetera scilicet quod in deterius convenitis, convenientibus vobis in ecclesia, audio scissuras esse inter vos, scilicet per contentiones quas exercebant. Quod quidem Ecclesiae non convenit, quae in unitate constituitur, secundum illud Eph. c. IV, 4: unum corpus et unus spiritus, sicut vocati estis in una spe vocationis vestrae. Hoc autem praedicitur Is. XXII, 9: scissuras civitatis David videbitis, quia multiplicatae sunt.
First, he presents a judgment of guilt, saying, for first of all, among others, namely, that you come together for the worse, I hear that when you come together in the church, there are schisms among you, namely, through contentions, which they practiced. This by no means is suited to the Church, which is established in unity: there is one body and one spirit, just as you were called to one hope that belongs to your call (Eph 4:4). But his was predicted: you saw that the breaches of the city of David were many (Isa 22:9).
624. Dicit autem Glossa, quod dicendo, primum, ostendit quod primum malum est dissensio, unde cetera oriuntur. Ubi enim est dissensio, nihil rectum est.
624. But a Gloss says: by saying, first of all, he shows that the first evil is dissension, from which all the rest arise. For where there is dissension, nothing is right.
Sed contra videtur esse, quod dicitur Eccli. c. X, 15: initium omnis peccati superbia; et I Tim. ult.: radix omnium malorum cupiditas.
But this seems to be opposed by the following statements: the beginning of every sin is pride (Sir 9:15) and the love of money is the root of all evils (1 Tim 6:10).
Dicendum est autem, quod hae auctoritates loquuntur quantum ad peccata personalia singularium hominum, quorum primum est superbia ex parte aversionis, et cupiditas ex parte conversionis. Sed Glossa hic loquitur de peccatis multitudinis; inter quae primum est dissensio, per quam solvitur rigor disciplinae. Unde dicitur Iac. III, 16: ubi est zelus et contentio, ibi inconstantia et omne opus pravum.
But it must be said that these authorities speak in regard to personal sins of individual men, the first of which is pride on the part of aversion and greed for money on the part of conversion. But the Gloss here speaks about the sins of the multitude, among which the first is dissension, by which the reign of discipline is weakened. Hence it is said: where jealousy and contention exist, there will be disorder and every vile practice (Jas 3:16).
625. Secundo ponit credulitatem auditorum, cum dicit et ex parte credo, id est, quantum ad aliquos vestrum, qui erant ad contentionem proni, secundum illud quod dixerat supra I cap., v. 11 ss.: contentiones sunt inter vos. Hoc autem dico, quod unusquisque vestrum dicit: ego quidem sum Pauli, ego Apollo, ego vero Cephae. Alii vero non erant contentiosi, ex quorum persona ibi subditur ego autem Christi. Unde et Cant. c. II, 2 dicitur: sicut lilium inter spinas, sic amica mea inter filias, id est, boni inter malos.
625. Second, he presents the credulity of his hearers when he says, and in part I believe it, i.e., as to some of you who were prone to contention, according to what was said above: there are contentions among you. Now this I say, that every one of you says: I indeed am of Paul; and I am of Apollo; and I of Cephas (1 Cor 1:11–12). But others were not contentious, who said, and I of Christ (1 Cor 1:12). Hence it is said: as a lily among brambles, so is my love among maidens (Song 2:2), i.e., good among the evil.
626. Tertio assignat rationem suae credulitatis, dicens nam oportet, non solum quascumque scissuras, sed etiam haereses esse.
626. Third, he assigns the reason for their credulity, saying, for there must be not only factions among you but also heresies.
Ubi duo consideranda sunt. Primo quid sit haeresis, secundo quomodo oportet haereses esse.
Two things must be considered here: first, what heresy is; second, how it is necessary that there be heresies.
627. Circa primum sciendum, quod, sicut Hieronymus dicit super epistolam ad Galatas, haeresis Graece ab electione dicitur: quia scilicet eam sibi unusquisque eligat disciplinam, quam putat esse meliorem: ex quo duo accipi possunt. Primo quidem quod de ratione haeresis est, quod aliquis privatam disciplinam sequatur, quasi per electionem propriam: non autem disciplinam publicam, quae divinitus traditur.
627. In regard to the first it should be known that, as Jerome comments on the epistle to the Galatians, the Greek word, heresy, means ‘election’ or ‘choice’, namely, because each one selects for himself that discipline which he considers to be better. From this two things can be taken: first, that it is of the very nature of heresy that a person follow his own private discipline, as though by his own choice, but not the public discipline handed down by God.
Secundo quod huic disciplinae aliquis pertinaciter inhaereat. Nam electio firmam importat inhaesionem: et ideo haereticus dicitur, qui spernens disciplinam fidei, quae divinitus traditur, pertinaciter proprium errorem sectatur.
Second, that he obstinately cling to this discipline. For choice implies firm adherence; and therefore the heretic is one who scorns the discipline of the faith handed down by God and obstinately follows his own error.
Pertinet autem aliquid ad disciplinam fidei dupliciter. Uno modo directe, sicut articuli fidei, qui per se credendi proponuntur. Unde error circa hos secundum se facit haereticum, si pertinacia adsit. Non possunt autem a tali errore propter simplicitatem aliquam excusari, praecipue quantum ad ea, de quibus Ecclesia solemnizat, et quae communiter versantur in ore fidelium, sicut mysterium Trinitatis, nativitatis Christi, et alia huiusmodi.
Now something pertains to the discipline of the faith in two ways: in one way directly, as the articles of faith, which are proposed to be believed of themselves. Hence an error in regard to them makes one a heretic, if obstinacy is present. But a person cannot be excused from such an error on account of some simplicity especially in regard to those about which the Church made a solemn proclamation and which are generally spoken about by the faithful, such as the mystery of the Trinity, the birth of Christ, and so on.
Quaedam vero indirecte pertinent ad fidei disciplinam, inquantum scilicet ipsa non proponuntur, ut propter se credenda, sed ex negatione eorum sequitur aliquid contrarium fidei: sicut si negetur Isaac fuisse filium Abrahae, sequitur aliquid contrarium fidei, scilicet Sacram Scripturam continere aliquid falsi.
But other things pertain to the discipline of the faith indirectly, namely, inasmuch as they are not proposed as something to be believed of themselves, but from their denial something contrary to the faith follows; for example, if it is denied that Isaac was the son of Abraham, something contrary to the faith follows, namely, that Sacred Scripture contains something false.
Ex talibus autem non iudicatur aliquis haereticus, nisi adeo pertinaciter perseveret, quod ab errore non recedat, etiam viso quid ex hoc sequatur. Sic igitur pertinacia qua aliquis contemnit in his quae sunt fidei directe vel indirecte subire iudicium Ecclesiae, facit hominem haereticum. Talis autem pertinacia procedit ex radice superbiae, qua aliquis praefert sensum suum toti Ecclesiae. Unde Apostolus dicit I ad Tim. VI, 3 s.: si quis aliter docet, et non acquiescit sanis sermonibus Domini nostri Iesu Christi, et ei quae secundum pietatem est doctrinae, superbus est, nihil sciens, sed languens circa quaestiones et pugnas verborum.
From such things one is not judged heretical, unless he continues in his opinion so obstinately, that he would not depart from his error, even though he sees what follows from his position. Therefore, the obstinacy with which someone spurns the judgment of the Church in matters pertaining to the faith directly or indirectly makes a man a heretic. Such obstinacy proceeds from pride, whereby a person prefers his own feelings to the entire Church. Hence the Apostle says: if anyone teaches otherwise and does not agree with the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and the teaching which accords with godliness, he is puffed up with conceit, he knows nothing; he has a morbid craving for controversy and for disputes about words (1 Tim 6:3ff).
628. Secundo considerandum est, quomodo oporteat haereses esse. Si enim opportunum est haereticos esse, videtur quod sint commendabiles, et non sint extirpandi.
628. Second, it must be considered how it is suitable that heresies exist. For if it is suitable for heretics to be, it seems that they are commendable and should not be stamped out.
Sed dicendum est quod dupliciter de aliquo dicitur quod oportet illud esse. Uno modo ex intentione illius, qui hoc agit, puta si dicamus quod oportet iudicia esse: quia scilicet iudices, iudicia exercentes, intendunt iustitiam et pacem in rebus humanis constituere. Alio modo ex intentione Dei, qui etiam mala ordinat in bonum, sicut persecutionem tyrannorum ordinavit in gloriam martyrum. Unde Augustinus dicit in Enchiridion, quod Deus est adeo bonus, quod nullo modo permitteret fieri aliquod malum, nisi esset adeo potens quod de quolibet malo posset elicere bonum. Et secundum hoc dicitur Matth. XVIII, 7: necesse est, ut veniant scandala, verumtamen vae homini illi per quem scandalum venit. Et secundum hoc hic dicit Apostolus, quod oportet haereses esse, ex eo quod Deus malitiam haereticorum ordinavit in bonum fidelium.
But it should be noted that there are two ways in which something is described as suitable to be. In one way from the intention of the one who does this; for example, if we should say that judgments ought to be, because judges make judgments intending to establish justice and peace in human affairs. In another way from the intention of God who ordains evil things to good, who directs the persecutions of tyrants to the glory of the martyrs. Hence Augustine says in Enchiridion, that God is so good that he would not permit evil in any way, unless he were powerful enough that from each evil he can draw some good. And according to this it is said: woe to the world for temptations to sin. For it is necessary that temptations come, but woe to that man from whom temptations come (Matt 18:7). And according to this the Apostle says, there must be also heresies, inasmuch as God has ordained the malice of heretics to the good of the faithful.
Et hoc dicit primo quidem ad maiorem declarationem veritatis. Unde dicit Augustinus de Civit. Dei, Lib. XVI in Glossa: ab adversario mota quaestio, discendi existit occasio: multa quippe ad fidem Catholicam pertinentia, dum haereticorum callida inquietudine excogitantur, ut adversus eos defendi possint, et considerantur diligentius, et intelliguntur clarius, et praedicantur instantius. Unde et Prov. XXVII, v. 17: ferrum ferro acuitur, et homo exacuit faciem amici sui. Secundo ad manifestandam infirmitatem fidei in his qui recte credunt. Et hoc est quod hic subdit Apostolus ut et qui probati, id est, approbati sunt a Deo, manifesti fiant in vobis, id est, inter vos. Sap. III, 6: tamquam aurum in fornace probavit illos.
He says this, first, for the clearer declaration of truth. Hence Augustine says in The City of God: a question raised by an adversary is an occasion for learning; indeed, many things pertaining to the Catholic faith, when they are devised by the clever energy of heretics, in order that they may be defended against them, are considered more carefully and understood more clearly and preached with more emphasis. Hence it is said: iron sharpens iron; and one man sharpens another (Prov 27:17). Second, to reveal the weakness of faith in those who believe rightly. And this is what the Apostle says, that they also, who are approved, i.e., approved by God, may be made manifest among you: like gold in the furnace he tried them (Wis 3:6).
629. Deinde cum dicit convenientibus ergo vobis, etc., redarguit eos de tertio delicto, quia scilicet peccabant in modo et ordine sumendi corpus Christi. Et potest totum quod sequitur, dupliciter exponi. Secundum autem primam expositionem redarguuntur de hoc quod corpus Christi pransi accipiebant.
629. Then when he says, when you come together therefore, he accuses them of a third fault, namely, that they sinned in the way and order in which they took the body of Christ. All that follows can be explained in two ways. According to the first explanation they are accused of taking the body of Christ just after eating.
Circa hoc ergo quatuor facit.
In regard to this he does four things.
Primo ponit detrimentum quod incurrebant;
First, he mentions the harm they incur;
secundo ponit culpam, ibi unusquisque enim, etc.;
second, he mentions the fault, at for every one takes;
tertio inquirit de causa culpae, ibi numquid domos, etc.;
third, he looks for the cause of the fault, at what, have you no houses;
quarto concludit eorum vituperationem, ibi quid dicam vobis, et cetera.
fourth, he concludes his rebuke, what shall I say to you.
630. Dicit ergo, primo, ita: convenientibus vobis, scissurae sunt inter vos, ergo convenientibus vobis in unum, corpore, non animo, iam ad hoc advenistis, quod non est, id est, non licet vel non competit vobis, Dominicam coenam manducare, id est sumere Eucharistiae sacramentum, quod Dominus in coena discipulis dedit. Hoc enim sacramentum, ut Augustinus dicit Super Ioannem, est sacramentum unitatis et caritatis. Et ideo non competit dissentientibus. Cant. c. V, 1: comedite, amici, et bibite, et inebriamini, charissimi.
630. He says, therefore, first, when you come together, there are schims among you, therefore, you come together therefore into one, in body, not in mind, now you have come to this which is not, i.e., not lawful or is not becoming for you, to eat the Lord’s supper, i.e., receive the sacrament of the Eucharist, which the Lord gave his disciples at supper. For this sacrament, says Augustine in On John, is the sacrament of unity and love. Therefore, it is not suited to dissenters; eat, O friends and drink; drink deeply, O lovers (Song 5:2).