Institution of the Eucharist
11:23 Ego enim accepi a Domino quod et tradidi vobis, quoniam Dominus Jesus in qua nocte tradebatur, accepit panem, [n. 644]
11:23 For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread, [n. 644]
11:24 et gratias agens fregit, et dixit: accipite, et manducate: hoc est corpus meum, quod pro vobis tradetur: hoc facite in meam commemorationem. [n. 649]
11:24 And giving thanks, broke and said: take, and eat: this is my body, which shall be delivered for you. Do this for the commemoration of me. [n. 649]
644. Postquam Apostolus redarguit Corinthiorum inordinationes, quas committebant conveniendo ad Eucharistiae sacramentum sumendum, hic agit de ipso sacramento. Et
644. After rebuking the Corinthians for their unbecoming behavior, when they came together to take the Eucharist, the Apostle now deals with the sacrament itself.
primo agit de dignitate huius sacramenti;
First, he discusses the dignity of this sacrament;
secundo inducit fideles ad reverenter sumendum, ibi itaque quicumque manducaverit et cetera.
second, he urges the faithful to receive it reverently, at therefore, whosoever shall eat (1 Cor 11:27).
Circa primum duo facit.
In regard to the first he does two things.
Primo commendat auctoritatem doctrinae quam daturus est;
First, he commends the authority of the doctrine he is about to deliver;
secundo ponit doctrinam de dignitate huius sacramenti, ibi quoniam Dominus noster, et cetera.
second, he presents the doctrine about the dignity of this sacrament, at that the Lord Jesus.
645. Circa primum duo facit. Primo commendat auctoritatem doctrinae ex parte auctoris, qui est Christus, dicens: dixi quod iam non est vobis Dominicam coenam manducare, sacramentum Eucharistiae Dominicam coenam vocans, ego enim accepi a Domino, scilicet Christo, qui est auctor huius doctrinae, non ab aliquo puro homine. Gal. c. I, 1: Paulus apostolus non ab hominibus, neque per hominem, sed per Iesum Christum. Hebr. II, 3: quae cum initium accepisset enarrari per Dominum, et cetera.
645. In regard to the first he does two things. First, he commends the authority of the doctrine on the part of the author, who is Christ, saying: I have said that it is no longer of interest to eat the Lord’s supper, calling the sacrament of the Eucharist the Lord’s supper, for I have received of the Lord, namely, Christ, who is the author of this doctrine and not any mere man: Paul, an apostle—not from men nor through men but through Jesus Christ (Gal 1:1); it was declared at first by the Lord (Heb 2:3).
Secundo commendat auctoritatem doctrinae ex parte ministri, qui est ipse Paulus, cum subdit quod et tradidi vobis. Is. XXI, 10: quae audivi a Domino exercituum Deo Israel, annuntiavi vobis. Sap. VII, 13: quam sine fictione didici, et sine invidia communico.
Second, he commends the authority of the doctrine on the part of the minister, who is Paul himself, when he adds, that which also I delivered unto you: what I have heard from the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, I announce to you (Isa 21:10); I learned without guile and I impart without envy (Wis 7:13).
646. Deinde cum dicit quoniam Dominus Iesus, commendat dignitatem huius sacramenti, tradens institutionem ipsius. Et
646. Then when he says, that the Lord Jesus, he commends the dignity of this sacrament, describing its institution.
primo ponit institutionem;
First, he mentions the institution;
secundo tempus institutionis, cum dicit in qua nocte tradebatur, et cetera.
second, the time of the institution, at the same night;
Tertio modum instituendi, ibi accepit panem, et cetera.
third, the manner of instituting, at took bread.
647. Institutor autem sacramenti est ipse Christus. Unde dicit quoniam Dominus noster Iesus Christus, et cetera. Dictum est enim supra cum de baptismo ageretur, quod Christus in sacramentis habet excellentiae potestatem, ad quam quatuor pertinent. Primo quidem quod virtus et meritum eius operetur in sacramentis; secundo quod in nomine eius sanctificetur sacramentum; tertio quod effectum sacramenti sine sacramento praebere potest; quarto institutio novi sacramenti.
647. The one who institutes this sacrament is Christ. Hence he says, that the Lord Jesus, for it was stated above, when the sacrament of baptism was discussed, that Christ has in the sacraments the excellence of power, to which pertain four things: first, that his virtue and merit operate in the sacraments; second, that the sacraments are sanctified in his name; third, that he can produce the effect of a sacrament without the sacrament; fourth, the institution of a new sacrament (C. 1, L. 2).
Specialiter tamen congruebat ut hoc sacramentum ipse in sua persona institueret, in quo corpus et sanguis eius communicatur. Unde et ipse dicit Io. VI, 52: panis quem ego dabo vobis, caro mea est pro mundi vita.
Yet it was especially suitable that he institute in his own person this sacrament, in which his body and blood are communicated. Hence he himself says: the bread that I shall give is my flesh for the life of the world (John 6:52).
648. Deinde cum dicit qua nocte tradebatur, describit tempus institutionis huius sacramenti, quod quidem congruum fuit, primo quidem quantum ad qualitatem temporis. Fuit enim in nocte. Per virtutem enim huius sacramenti anima illuminatur. Unde I Reg. XIV, 27 dicitur quod Ionathas intinxit virgam in favum mellis, et convertit manum suam ad os suum, et illuminati sunt oculi eius; propter quod et in Ps. CXXXVIII, v. 11 dicitur: nox illuminatio mea in deliciis meis.
648. Then when he says, the same night in which he was betrayed, he describes the time of the institution of this sacrament. It was fitting to do this: first, as to the quality of the time. For it was night. For the soul is enlightened by virtue of this sacrament. Hence is it said that Jonathon put forth the tip of his staff and dipped it in the honeycomb and put his hand to his mouth, and his eyes became bright (1 Sam 14:27); on which account it is said: the night is as bright as the day (Ps 139:12).
Secundo quantum ad negotium quod in illo tempore gerebatur, quia scilicet quando tradebatur ad passionem, per quam transivit ad Patrem, hoc sacramentum, quod est memoriale passionis, instituit. Unde dicitur Eccli. XXIX, 33: transi, hospes, et orna mensam, et quae in manu habes, ciba caeteros.
Second, as to the negotiations carried on at that time, namely, it was when he was delivered over to the passion, by which he passed to the Father that he instituted this sacrament, which is a memorial of the passion: come here, stranger, and prepare the table, and if you have anything at hand, let me have it to eat (Sir 29:26).
649. Deinde cum dicit accepit panem, etc., ostendit modum institutionis. Et
649. Then when he says, took bread, he shows the manner of the institution.
primo ponit ea quae fecit et dixit Christus instituendo hoc sacramentum;
First, he relates what Christ said and did in instituting this sacrament;
secundo exponit, ibi quotiescumque enim, et cetera.
second, he explains, at for as often as you shall eat (1 Cor 11:26).
Circa primum duo facit.
In regard to the first he does two things.
Primo agit de institutione sacramenti huius quantum ad corpus Christi;
First, he deals with the institution of this sacrament as to the body of Christ;
secundo quantum ad eius sanguinem, ibi similiter et calicem, et cetera.
second, as to his blood, at in like manner also the chalice (1 Cor 11:25).
650. Circa primum ante expositionem litterae, oportet primo considerare necessitatem institutionis huius sacramenti.
650. In regard to the first, before explaining the text one must first consider the need for instituting this sacrament.
Est autem sciendum quod sacramenta instituta sunt propter necessitatem vitae spiritualis. Et quia corporalia sunt quaedam similitudines spiritualium, oportet sacramenta proportionari eis quae sunt necessaria ad vitam corporalem. In qua primo invenitur generatio, cui proportionatur baptismus, per quem regeneratur aliquis in vitam spiritualem.
So it should be noted that the sacraments were instituted on account of a need in the spiritual life. And because bodily things are likenesses of spiritual things, it is fitting that the sacrament be proportionate to things which are necessary to bodily life, in which generation comes first, to which baptism is proportionate and through which one is reborn into the spiritual life.
Secundo ad vitam corporalem requiritur augmentum, per quod aliquis perducitur ad quantitatem et virtutem perfectam: et huic proportionatur sacramentum confirmationis, in quo Spiritus Sanctus datur ad robur.
Second, for bodily life is required growth, by which one is brought to perfect size and power. To this is proportionate the sacrament of confirmation, in which the Holy Spirit is given for strength.
Tertio ad vitam corporalem requiritur alimentum, per quod corpus hominis sustentatur, et similiter vita spiritualis per sacramentum Eucharistiae reficitur, secundum illud Ps. XXII, 2: in loco pascuae ibi me collocavit, super aquam refectionis educavit me.
Third, for the spiritual life is required food, by which man’s body is sustained, and likewise the spiritual life is fed by the sacrament of the Eucharist: he makes me lie down in green pastures. He leads me beside still waters (Ps 23:2).
651. Est autem notandum quod generans non coniungitur genito secundum substantiam sed solum secundum virtutem, sed cibus coniungitur nutrito secundum substantiam. Unde in sacramento baptismi, quo Christus regenerat ad salutem, non est ipse Christus secundum suam substantiam, sed solum secundum suam virtutem. Sed in sacramento Eucharistiae, quod est spirituale alimentum, Christus est secundum suam substantiam.
651. It should be known that the cause of generation is not joined according to its substance to the one generated, but only according to its power; but food is joined according to its substance to the fed. Hence in the sacrament of baptism, by which Christ regenerates us to salvation, it is not Christ according to his substance but only according to his power. But in the sacrament of this Eucharist, which is spiritual food, Christ is there according to his substance.
652. Continetur autem sub alia specie propter tria. Primo quidem ne esset horribile fidelibus sumentibus hoc sacramentum, si in propria specie carnem hominis ederent, et sanguinem biberent; secundo ne hoc ipsum esset derisibile infidelibus; tertio ut cresceret meritum fidei, quae consistit in hoc quod creduntur ea quae non videntur.
652. He is contained under another appearance for three reasons: first, indeed, it would be horrifying for the faithful to receive this sacrament, if they ate the flesh of a man under its ordinary appearance and drank his blood; second, so that it would not be a source of derision to unbelievers; third, in order that the merit of faith grow, which consists in believing something not seen.
653. Traditur autem hoc sacramentum sub duplici specie propter tria. Primo quidem propter eius perfectionem, quia, cum sit spiritualis refectio, debet habere spiritualem cibum et spiritualem potum. Nam et corporalis refectio non perficitur sine potu et cibo. Unde et supra X, 3 s. dictum est quod omnes eamdem escam spiritualem manducaverunt, et omnes eumdem potum spiritualem biberunt; nam et corporalis refectio non perficitur sine cibo et potu.
653. This sacrament is presented under two species for three reasons: first, indeed, on account of its perfection, because, since it is spiritual refreshment, ought to be spiritual food and spiritual drink. For even bodily refreshment is not complete without food and drink. Hence he also says above: and did all eat the same spiritual food: and all drank the same spiritual drink (1 Cor 10:3–4).
Secundo propter eius significationem. Est enim memoriale Dominicae passionis, per quam sanguis Christi fuit separatus a corpore; et ideo in hoc sacramento seorsum offertur sanguis a corpore.
Second, on account of its signification. For it is the memorial of the Lord’s passion, through which the blood of Christ was separated from his body; that is why in this sacrament the blood is offered separately from the body.
Tertio propter huius sacramenti effectum salutarem. Valet enim ad salutem corporis, et ideo offertur corpus: et valet ad salutem animae, et ideo offertur sanguis. Nam anima in sanguine est, ut dicitur Gen. IX, 4 ss.
Third, on account of the salutary effect of this sacrament, for it avails for the health of the body, and so the body is offered; and it avails for the health of the soul, and so the blood is offered. For the soul is in the blood (Lev 17:11).
654. Offertur autem specialiter hoc sacramentum sub specie panis et vini. Primo quidem, quia pane et vino communius utuntur homines ad suam refectionem. Et ideo assumuntur in sacramento haec, sicut aqua ad ablutionem in baptismo, et oleum ad unctionem. Secundo propter virtutem huius sacramenti. Nam panis confirmat cor hominis, vinum vero laetificat.
654. This sacrament is offered specifically under the appearance of bread and wine: first of all, because men generally use bread and wine for their refreshment. Therefore, these are used in this sacrament, as water in baptism. Second, on account of the power of this sacrament: for bread strengthens the heart of man, but wine gladdens it.