Unitas per Jesum Christum
Unity through Jesus Christ
12:1 De spiritualibus autem, nolo vos ignorare fratres. [n. 709]
12:1 Now concerning spiritual things, my brethren, I would not have you ignorant. [n. 709]
12:2 Scitis quoniam cum gentes essetis, ad simulacra muta prout ducebamini euntes. [n. 711]
12:2 You know that when you were heathens, you went to dumb idols, according as you were led. [n. 711]
12:3 Ideo notum vobis facio, quod nemo in Spiritu Dei loquens, dicit anathema Jesu. Et nemo potest dicere, Dominus Jesus, nisi in Spiritu Sancto. [n. 715]
12:3 Wherefore, I give you to understand that no man, speaking by the Spirit of God, says anathema to Jesus. And no man can say the Lord Jesus, but by the Holy Spirit. [n. 715]
12:4 Divisiones vero gratiarum sunt, idem autem Spiritus: [n. 720]
12:4 Now there are diversities of graces, but the same Spirit. [n. 720]
12:5 et divisiones ministrationum sunt, idem autem Dominus: [n. 722]
12:5 And there are diversities of ministries, but the same Lord. [n. 722]
12:6 et divisiones operationum sunt, idem vero Deus qui operatur omnia in omnibus. [n. 723]
12:6 And there are diversities of operations, but the same God, who works all in all. [n. 723]
709. Postquam Apostolus prosecutus est de tribus sacramentis, scilicet baptismo, matrimonio et Eucharistia, hic incipit determinare de his quae pertinent ad rem sacramentorum. Est autem duplex res sacramenti: una significata et contenta, scilicet gratia, quae statim cum sacramento confertur; alia significata et non contenta, scilicet gloria resurrectionis, quae in fine expectatur.
709. After discussing the three sacraments of baptism, matrimony and the Eucharist, the Apostle begins to talk about things pertaining to the reality signified in the sacraments. But this is twofold: one is signified and contained, namely, grace, which is conferred at once by the sacrament; the other is signified but not contained, namely, the glory of the resurrection, which is expected at the end.
Primo ergo agit de donis gratiarum;
First, therefore, he deals with the gifts of graces;
secundo de gloria resurrectionis, XV capit., ibi notum autem vobis facio, et cetera.
second, with the glory of the resurrection, at now I make known unto you (1 Cor 15:1).
Circa primum agit de gratiis gratis datis;
In regard to the first he deals with the charismatic graces;
secundo praefert omnibus his caritatem, quae pertinet ad gratiam gratum facientem, XIII cap., ibi si linguis hominum, etc.;
second, he prefers to all of these charity, which pertains to sanctifying grace, at if I speak with the tongues of men (1 Cor 13:1);
tertio comparat gratias datas ad invicem, XIV cap., ibi sectamini caritatem, et cetera.
third, he compares the charismatic graces to one another, at follow after charity (1 Cor 14:1).
710. Circa primum duo facit. Primo principaliter exponit quid intendat, dicens: dixi quod caetera, quae pertinent ad usum sacramentorum, cum venero disponam, sed quaedam statim vobis tradere oportet. Et hoc est quod dicit de spiritualibus autem, id est de donis gratiarum quae sunt a Spiritu Sancto, o fratres, nolo vos ignorare.
710. In regard to the first he does two things: first, he principally explains his intention, saying: I have said that and the rest, which pertain to the use of the sacraments, I will set in order when I come (1 Cor 11:34). And this is what he says: now concerning spiritual things, i.e., the gifts of the graces which come from the Holy Spirit, I would not have you ignorant, brethren.
Est enim maximum genus ingratitudinis ignorare beneficia accepta, ut Seneca dicit in libro de Beneficiis; et ideo ut homo non sit Deo ingratus, non debet spirituales gratias ignorare. Supra II, 12: Spiritum accepimus qui ex Deo est, ut sciamus quae a Deo donata sunt nobis. Is. V, 13: propterea captivus ductus est populus meus, quia non habuit scientiam, scilicet spiritualium.
For it is the worst form of ingratitude to be ignorant of benefits received, as Seneca says in the book On Benefits. Therefore, in order that man not be ungrateful to God, he should not be ignorant of spiritual gifts: we have received the Spirit which is from God, that we might understand the gifts bestowed on us by God (1 Cor 2:12); therefore, my people go into exile for want of knowledge (Isa 5:13), i.e., of spiritual things.
711. Secundo ibi scitis, quoniam cum gentes, etc., prosequitur suam intentionem et
711. Second, when he says, you know that when you were heathen, he follows out his intention:
primo ostendit spiritualium gratiarum necessitatem;
first, he shows the need for spiritual graces;
secundo ponit gratiarum distributionem, ibi divisiones vero, et cetera.
second, he presents the distribution of graces, at now there are diversities.
Necessitas autem alicuius rei maxime cognoscitur ex defectu ipsius.
Now the need for a thing is best known from its absence.
Unde circa primum duo facit.
Hence, in regard to the first he does two things:
Primo ponit defectum quem patiebantur ante susceptam gratiam;
first, he manifests the loss they suffered, before they received grace;
secundo concludit gratiae necessitatem, ibi ideo notum vobis, et cetera.
second, he concludes to the need for grace, at wherefore, I give you to understand.
712. Dicit ergo primo: scitis, quasi experti, quoniam cum gentes essetis, id est gentiliter viventes, nondum suscepta gratia per baptismum. Gal. II, 15: nos enim natura Iudaei, non ex gentibus peccatores. Eph. c. IV, 17: gentes ambulant in vanitate sensus sui. Eratis euntes quasi prompta mente et assidua, secundum illud Ier. VIII, 6: omnes conversi sunt ad cursum suum, quasi equus impetu vadens in proelium; Prov. I, v. 16: pedes eorum ad malum currunt. Ad simulacra muta, scilicet adoranda et colenda, secundum illud Ps. CXIII, 5: os habent et non loquuntur. Et ponitur specialiter in eis defectus locutionis, quia locutio est proprius effectus cognitionis; unde ostenditur non intelligere simulacra, et per consequens nihil divinitatis habere si sunt muta.
712. First, therefore, he says: you know by experience that when you were heathen, i.e., living as heathen without having yet received grace through baptism: we are Jews by birth and not gentile sinners (Gal 2:15); the gentiles living in the futility of their minds (Eph 4:17). You went, as though with a ready and constant mind: everyone turns to his own course, like a horse plunging into battle (Jer 8:6); their feet run to evil (Prov 1:16). To dumb idols, namely, to adore and worship: they have a mouth but do not speak (Ps 114:5). Their lack of speech is particularly stressed, because speech is the proper effect of knowledge. Hence it is shown that idols do not understand and, as a consequence, they have nothing divine, if they are mute.
Et hoc prout ducebamini, id est sine aliqua resistentia. Ducebantur autem vel allecti ex pulchritudine simulacrorum, unde dicitur in epistola Ier.: videbitis in Babylonia deos aureos et argenteos, videte ne metus vos capiat in ipsis; aut etiam ex imperio alicuius principis, sicut legitur Dan. III, 1, quod Nabuchodonosor cogebat homines adorare statuam auream. Et II Mac. VI, 7 dicitur de quibusdam quod ducebantur cum amara necessitate in die natalis regis ad sacrificia. Vel etiam instinctu Daemonum, qui ad hoc praecipue anhelant, ut divinus cultus eis exhibeatur, secundum illud Matth. IV, 9: haec omnia tibi dabo, si cadens adoraveris me.
And this, as you were led, i.e., without any resistance. For they were led, either attracted by the beauty of the idols; hence it says in one of Jerome’s letters: you will see in Babylon gods of gold and silver; see that fear does not overtake you in them. Or even by the command of some prince, as it is read that Nebuchadnezzar compelled men to adore a golden statue (Dan 3:1). It is stated that some were led to the sacrifice with bitter necessity on the king’s birthday (2 Macc 6:7). Or even by the instigation of demons, who aspire in a special way to have divine worship paid to them: all these things will I give you, if falling down you adore me (Matt 4:9).
Ibant ergo ad idola colenda, prout ducebantur, id est sine aliqua resistentia, sicut de iuvene etiam vecorde dicitur Prov. VII, v. 22: statim eam sequitur, quasi bos ductus ad victimam.
Therefore, they went to cultivate idols according as they were led without resistance, as it is said of the silly youth: all at once he follows her as an ox is led to the slaughter (Prov 7:22).
Per hoc ergo apparet, quod homo ante susceptam gratiam prompte currit in peccatum sine resistentia.
This shows that before receiving grace, man quickly runs into sin without resistance.
713. Specialiter autem facit mentionem de peccato idololatriae propter tria. Primo quidem, quia hoc est peccatum gravissimum introducere alium Deum, sicut gravissime peccaret contra regem qui alium regem in regnum eius introduceret. Unde dicitur Iob c. XXXI, 26: si vidi solem cum fulgeret, et lunam incedentem clare, et osculatus sum manum meam, scilicet quasi cultor solis et lunae, quae est iniquitas maxima et negatio contra Deum Altissimum.
713. He makes special mention of the sin of idolatry for three reasons: first, because it is a very grave sin to introduce another God, just as one would sin very gravely against a king by introducing another king into his kingdom. Hence, it is said: if I have looked at the sun when it shone, or the moon moving in splendor and my mouth has kissed my hand (Job 31:26), namely, as a worshipper of the sun and moon, which is the greatest iniquity and denial against God Most High.
Secundo, quia a peccato idololatriae omnia alia peccata oriebantur, secundum illud Sap. XIV, 27: nefandorum idolorum cultura omnis malis causa est.
Second, because from the sin of idolatry all other sins arise: for the worship of idols not to be named is the beginning and cause and end of every evil (Wis 14:27).
Tertio, quia hoc peccatum apud gentiles commune erat et non reputabatur, unde in Ps. XCV, 5 dicitur: omnes dii gentium daemonia.
Third, because this sin was common among the heathens and was not counted; hence it is said: all the gods of the heathens are demons (Ps 96:5).
714. Est autem considerandum quod quidam dixerunt hominem in peccato mortali existentem sine gratia quadam non posse a peccato, cui subiacet, liberari, quia remissio peccatorum non fit nisi per gratiam, secundum illud Rom. III, 24: iustificati per gratiam eius; posse autem se praeservare a peccato mortali, sine gratia, per liberum arbitrium.
714. It should be noted that some have said that man existing in mortal sin cannot without grace be freed from the sin he lies under, because the remission of sins is brought about only by grace: they are justified by his grace (Rom 3:24); but he can preserve himself from mortal sin without grace, through free will.
Sed haec positio non videtur vera. Primo quidem, quia non potest aliquis se a peccato mortali praeservare, nisi omnia legis praecepta servando, cum nullus mortaliter peccet nisi transgrediendo aliquod legis praeceptum; et ita posset aliquis observare omnia legis praecepta sine gratia, quod est haeresis Pelagiana.
But this position does not seem to be true. First, because one cannot preserve himself from mortal sin except by observing all the precepts of the law, since no one sins mortally except by transgressing some precept of the law. And so someone could observe all the precepts without grace, which is the Pelagian heresy.
Secundo quia caritatem, per quam Deus diligitur super omnia, nullus potest habere sine gratia, secundum illud Rom. V, 5: caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per Spiritum Sanctum qui datus est nobis. Non potest autem esse quod homo omnia peccata declinet, nisi Deum super omnia diligat: sicut illud magis contemnitur, quod minus diligitur.
Second, because no one can without grace have charity, through which God is loved above all things: God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us (Rom 5:5). But no one can avoid all sins, unless he loves God above all things: just as that is more despised which is loved less.
Poterit ergo esse per aliquod tempus, quod ille qui caret gratia, a peccato abstinebit quousque occurrat illud, propter quod Dei praeceptum contemnet, a quo ducitur ad peccandum. Signanter autem Apostolus dicit prout ducebamini.
Therefore, it could happen that for some time a person who lacks grace will abstain from sin, until he encounters that for which he will despise God’s precept, and by which he is led into sin. It is significant that the Apostle says, as you were led.
715. Deinde cum dicit ideo notum vobis facio, etc., concludit duos effectus gratiae, quorum
715. Then when he says, wherefore, he concludes to two effects of grace:
primus est quod facit abstinere a peccato;
the first is that it makes one abstain from sin;