Dona Spiritus Sancti
Gifts of the Holy Spirit
12:7 Unicuique autem datur manifestatio Spiritus ad utilitatem. [n. 724]
12:7 And the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man unto profit. [n. 724]
12:8 Alii quidem per Spiritum datur sermo sapientiae: alii autem sermo scientiae secundum eumdem Spiritum: [n. 727]
12:8 To one indeed, by the Spirit, is given the word of wisdom: and to another, the word of knowledge, according to the same Spirit: [n. 727]
12:9 alteri fides in eodem Spiritu: alii gratia sanitatum in uno Spiritu:
12:9 To another, faith in the same Spirit: to another, the grace of healing in one Spirit:
12:10 alii operatio virtutum, alii prophetia, alii discretio spirituum, alii genera linguarum, alii interpretatio sermonum.
12:10 To another the working of miracles: to another, prophecy: to another, the discerning of spirits: to another, diverse kinds of tongues: to another, interpretation of speeches.
12:11 Haec autem omnia operantur unus atque idem Spiritus, dividens singulis prout vult. [n. 730]
12:11 But all these things, one and the same Spirit works, dividing to every one according as he wills. [n. 730]
724. Posita in generali distinctione gratiarum et ministrationum, et operationum, hic manifestat ea quae dixerat in speciali. Et
724. Having set forth in general the distinction of graces, ministrations and operations, the Apostle here manifests the things he had said in general.
primo quantum ad divisionem gratiarum;
First, as to the division of graces;
secundo quantum ad divisionem ministrationum, ibi et quosdam quidem posuit Deus, et cetera.
second, as to the division of operation, at and God indeed has set some in the Church (1 Cor 12:28).
Circa primum duo facit.
In regard to the first he does two things:
Primo ponit distinctionem gratiarum in speciali;
first, he presents the distinction of graces in general;
secundo adhibet similitudinem, ibi sicut enim corpus, et cetera.
second, he applies a similitude, at for as the body (1 Cor 12:12).
Circa primum tria facit.
In regard to the first he does three things:
Primo ponit conditionem gratiarum gratis datarum;
first, he lays down the condition of charismatic graces;
secundo ponit earum distinctionem, ibi alii quidem datur, etc.;
second, he distinguishes them, at to one indeed;
tertio describit earum actionem, ibi haec autem omnia, et cetera.
third, he describes their action, at but all these things.
725. Dicit ergo primo: dictum est, quod sunt divisiones gratiarum, unicuique autem datur: in quo designatur earum subiectum. Sicut enim nullum membrum est in corpore quod non participet aliquo modo sensum vel motum a capite, ita nullus est in Ecclesia qui non aliquid de gratiis Spiritus sancti participet, secundum illud Matth. XXV, v. 15: dedit unicuique secundum propriam virtutem et, Eph. IV, 7: unicuique nostrum data est gratia.
725. First, therefore, he says: it has been stated that there are divisions of graces, given to every man; in which is designated their subject. For just as there is no member in the body, which does not partake in some way of the sense and motion from the head, so no one is in the Church, who does not participate in some grace of the Spirit: he gave to each according to his ability (Matt 25:15); grace was given to each of us according to the measure of God’s gifts (Eph 4:7).
Manifestatio Spiritus, in quo designatur officium gratiae gratis datae. Pertinet autem ad gratiam gratum facientem, quod per eam Spiritus Sanctus inhabitet, quod quidem non pertinet ad gratiam gratis datam, sed solum ut per eam Spiritus Sanctus manifestetur, sicut interior motus cordis per vocem. Unde Io. III, 8 dicitur: vocem eius audis, et in Ps. XCVII, 2 dicitur: notum fecit Dominus salutare suum.
The manifestation of the Spirit, in which is designated the office of charismatic graces. But it pertains to sanctifying grace that through it the Holy Spirit indwells, which, indeed, does not pertain to charismatic graces, but only that through them the Holy Spirit is manifested, as the interior motion of the heart through the voice. Hence it is said: you hear his voice (John 3:8); the Lord has made known his victory (Ps 98:2).
Manifestatur autem, per huiusmodi gratias, Spiritus Sanctus dupliciter. Uno modo ut inhabitans Ecclesiam et docens et Sanctificans eam, puta cum aliquis peccator, quem non inhabitat Spiritus Sanctus, faciat miracula ad ostendendum, quod fides Ecclesiae quam ipse praedicat, sit vera. Unde dicitur Hebr. II, 4: contestante Deo signis et prodigiis, et variis Spiritus Sancti distributionibus.
The Holy Spirit is manifested in two ways by graces of this sort. In one way as dwelling in the Church by teaching and sanctifying it, as when a sinner, in whom the Holy Spirit does not dwell, works miracles to show that the faith of the Church which he professes is true: while God also bore witness by signs and wonders and various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit (Heb 2:4).
Alio modo manifestatur per huiusmodi gratias Spiritus Sanctus, ut inhabitans eum cui tales gratiae conceduntur. Unde dicitur Act. VI, 8, quod Stephanus plenus gratia faciebat prodigia et signa multa, quem Spiritu Sancto plenum elegerunt; sic autem non conceduntur huiusmodi gratiae nisi Sanctis.
In another way the Holy Spirit is manifested by such charismatic graces as dwelling in the one to whom such graces are granted. Hence it is said that Stephen, filled with grace, worked prodigies and many signs, whom they chose filled with the Holy Spirit (Acts 6:8). In this way such graces are granted to the saints.
726. Et ne huiusmodi manifestatio vana videatur, subdit ad utilitatem, scilicet communem. In quo designatur finis harum, et hoc vel dum probatur vera doctrina Ecclesiae; et sic fideles confirmantur et infideles convertuntur; vel dum sanctitas alicuius proponitur aliis in exemplum. Unde et infra XIV, v. 12: ad aedificationem Ecclesiae quaerite ut abundetis, et supra X, 33: non quaerens quod mihi utile est, sed quod multis, ut salvi fiant.
726. And lest such a manifestation seems futile, he adds: unto profit, namely, for the common good. In this is designated the end of these gifts, and this either when the true doctrine of the Church is proved or when someone’s holiness is proposed as an example. Hence he says below: seek to abound unto the edifying of the Church (1 Cor 14:12); and above: not seeking that which is profitable to myself but to many: that they may be saved (1 Cor 10:33).
727. Deinde cum dicit alii quidem, etc., ponit distinctionem gratiarum, quae quidem, ut dictum est, dantur ad utilitatem communem. Et ideo oportet earum distinctionem accipere secundum quod per unum potest aliorum salus procurari. Quod quidem homo non potest facere interius operando, hoc enim solius Dei est, sed solum exterius persuadendo. Ad quod quidem tria requiruntur. Primo quidem facultas persuadendi; secundo facultas persuasionem confirmandi; tertio persuasionem intelligibiliter proponendi.
727. Then when he says, to one is given, he presents the distinction of graces which, indeed, as has been said, are given for the common good. Therefore, it is required to take the distinction in the sense that by one the salvation of others can be procured. Man, indeed, cannot do this by working within, for this belongs to God, but only by persuading outwardly. For this, three things are required: first, the faculty of persuading; second, the faculty of confirming the persuasion; third, the faculty of proposing the persuasion intelligibly.
Ad facultatem autem persuadendi requiritur quod homo habeat peritiam conclusionum et certitudinem principiorum, circa ea in quibus debemus persuadere. Conclusiones autem in his quae pertinent ad salutem, quaedam sunt principales, scilicet res divinae et ad hoc pertinet sapientia, quae est cognitio divinarum rerum, ut Augustinus dicit, libro XIII de Trinitate. Et quantum ad hoc dicitur alii quidem per Spiritum datur, scilicet Sanctum, sermo sapientiae, ut possit persuadere ea quae ad cognitionem divinorum pertinent. Lc. XXI, 15: ego dabo vobis os et sapientiam, cui non poterunt resistere et contradicere omnes adversarii vestri. Supra II, 6: sapientiam loquimur inter perfectos.
For the faculty of persuading it is required that man have skill in conclusions and certitude of principles in regard to those matters in which he ought to persuade. But in matters that pertain to salvation, some conclusions are principal, namely, divine matters; and to this pertains wisdom, which is the knowledge of divine things, as Augustine says in Book 13, On the Trinity. In regard to this it is said that to one indeed, by the Spirit, namely, the Holy Spirit, is given the word of wisdom, so that he can persuade one in things pertaining to the knowledge of divine things: I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which none of your adversaries will be able to withstand (Luke 21:15); we speak wisdom among the perfect (1 Cor 2:6).
Secundariae conclusiones sunt quae pertinent ad notitiam creaturarum, quarum cognitio dicitur scientia, secundum Augustinum ibidem. Et quantum ad hoc subdit alii autem, scilicet datur, sermo scientiae, secundum eumdem Spiritum, ut scilicet per creaturas ea quae sunt Dei, manifestare possit. Huic enim scientiae attribuitur illud quo pia fides defenditur et roboratur, non autem quidquid curiositatis in humanis scientiis invenitur, ut Augustinus ibidem dicit. Sap. X, v. 10: dedit illi scientiam sanctorum. Is. c. XXXIII, 6: divitiae salutis sapientia et scientia.
Secondary conclusions are those which pertain to the knowledge of creatures, the knowledge of which is called scientific, according to Augustine. And in regard to this he adds: and to another is given the word of knowledge, according to the same Spirit, in order, namely, that that might manifest things of God through creatures. To this knowledge is attributed that by which the holy faith is defended and strengthened, but not anything curious found in human knowledge, as Augustine says. He gave him knowledge of holy things (Wis 10:10); the riches of salvation are wisdom and knowledge (Isa 33:6).
Est tamen notandum quod sapientia et scientia inter septem dona Spiritus Sancti computantur, sicut habetur Is. XI, 2. Unde Apostolus signanter inter gratias gratis datas non ponit sapientiam et scientiam, sed sermonem sapientiae et scientiae, quae pertinent ad hoc ut homo aliis persuadere valeat per sermonem, ea quae sunt sapientiae et scientiae.
Yet it should be noted that wisdom and knowledge are numbered among the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit (Isa 11:2). Hence it is significant that the Apostle places in the charismatic graces not wisdom and knowledge, but the utterance of wisdom and knowledge, which pertain to the ability to persuade other by speech about matters pertaining to wisdom and knowledge.
Principia autem doctrinae salutis sunt articuli fidei et ideo quantum ad hoc subditur alteri, scilicet datur, fides in eodem Spiritu. Non autem hic accipitur pro fidei virtute, quia hoc commune est omnibus membris Christi, secundum illud Hebr. XI, 6: sine fide impossibile est placere Deo. Sed accipitur pro sermone fidei, prout scilicet homo potest recte proponere ea quae fidei sunt, vel pro certitudine fidei quam aliquis habet excellenter, secundum illud Matth. XV, 28: mulier, magna est fides tua.
Now, the principles of the doctrine of salvation are the articles of faith, and in regard to this he adds: to another is given faith in the same Spirit. It is not taken there for the virtue of faith, because this is common to all members of Christ: without faith it is impossible to please God (Heb 11:6). But it is taken for the utterance of faith in the sense that a man is able rightly to propose manners of faith, or for the certainty of faith someone has in an excellent way: woman, great is your faith (Matt 15:28).
728. Ea vero quae pertinent ad salutarem doctrinam non possunt confirmari seu probari ratione, quia rationem humanam excedunt, secundum illud Eccli. III, 25: plurima supra sensum hominis ostensa sunt tibi. Confirmantur seu probantur signo divino; unde et Moyses, mittendus ad populum Israel, signum accepit a Deo, per quod confirmaret ea, quae ex parte Dei dicebat, ut patet Ex. IV, 1–9, sicut et signo regio confirmatur quod aliquid sit de mandato regis.
728. But matters pertaining to the teaching of salvation cannot be confirmed or proved by reason, because they transcend human reason: matters too great for human wisdom have been shown (Sir 3:23). They are confirmed or proved by a divine sign; hence Moses, about to be sent to the people of Israel, received a sign from God through which he could confirm what he said on God’s part (Exod 4:1–7), just as a royal sign confirms that something is the command of a king.
Signum autem Dei sumitur uno quidem modo ab eo quod solus Deus facere potest, sicut sunt miracula, quae Apostolus hic in duo distinguit. Nam primo dicit alii, scilicet datur, gratia sanitatum, id est per quam alicuius possit sanare infirmitatem, in uno, scilicet et eodem, Spiritu. Ier. XVII, 14: sana me, Domine, et sanabor. Ex his enim persuadetur aliquis, non solum propter magnitudinem facti, sed etiam propter beneficium. Secundo autem dicit alii datur operatio virtutum, ex quibus aliquis persuadetur solum propter magnitudinem facti, puta cum mare dividitur, ut legitur Ex. XIV, 21, vel quod sol et luna stetit in caelo, sicut legitur Ios. X, 13. Gal. III, 5: quis tribuit nobis Spiritum, et operatur virtutes in nobis?
But God’s sign is based in one way on something God alone can do, such as miracles, which the Apostle here distinguishes into two kinds. For he says first: to another is given the grace of healing, i.e., through which he can heal someone’s infirmity, in one and the same Spirit. Heal me, O Lord, and I will be healed (Jer 17:14). For by these, one is persuaded not only on account of the greatness of the deed, but also on account of the benefit. Second, he says: to another the working of miracles, by which a person is persuaded solely by the greatness of the deed; for example, when the sea was divided (Exod 14:21), or when the sun and moon stood still in the heavens (Josh 10:13). Who has given you the Spirit and works marvels among you? (Gal 3:5)
Alio autem modo accipitur signum divinum ab eo quod solus Deus cognoscere potest. Hoc autem est vel futurum contingens, secundum illud Is. XLI, 23: annuntiate quae ventura sunt, et sciemus quia dii estis vos. Et quantum ad hoc dicit alii, scilicet datur, prophetia, quae est divina revelatio inter eventus immobili veritate denuntians. Ioel. c. II, 28: effundam de Spiritu meo super omnem carnem, et prophetabunt filii vestri. Aliud autem est cognitio humani cordis, secundum illud Ier. XVII, 9 s.: pravum est cor hominis et inscrutabile, quis cognoscet illud? Ego Dominus scrutans corda et probans renes. Et quantum ad hoc subdit alii discretio spirituum, ut scilicet homo discernere possit, quo spiritu aliquis moveatur ad loquendum vel operandum, puta utrum spiritu caritatis vel spiritu invidiae. I Io. IV, 1: nolite credere omni spiritui, sed probate spiritus si ex Deo sunt.
In another way a divine sign is based on something God alone can know, i.e., the future contingent: tell us what is to come hereafter, that we may know that you are gods (Isa 41:23). As to this he says: to another is given prophecy, which is divine revelation declaring with unchangeable truth among events: I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy (Joel 2:28). Another is knowledge of the human heart: the heart is deceitful above all things and desperately corrupt; who can understand it? I, the Lord, search the mind and try the heart (Jer 17:9). In regard to this he says: to another, the discerning of spirits, namely, in order that a man be able to discern by what spirit someone is moved to speak or work; for example, whether by the spirit of charity or by the spirit of envy: do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are of God (1 John 4:1).
729. Facultas autem persuasionem pronuntiandi consistit in hoc quod homo possit loqui intelligibiliter aliis. Quod quidem impeditur dupliciter. Uno modo per diversitatem idiomatum. Contra quod remedium adhibetur per hoc quod dicit alii, scilicet datur, genera linguarum, ut scilicet possit loqui diversis linguis, ut intelligatur ab omnibus, sicut de apostolis legitur Act. II, 4, quod loquebantur variis linguis.
729. But the faculty of speaking persuasively consists in being able to speak intelligibly to others. This can be prevented in two ways: in one way by a diversity of dialects. Against this is applied the remedy signified by what he says: to another is given diverse kinds of tongues, namely, in order that he be able to speak in diverse languages, so that he will be understood by all, as it says of the apostles that they spoke in various languages (Acts 2:4).
Alio modo per obscuritatem Scripturae inducendae. Contra quod remedium datur per id quod subditur alii interpretatio sermonum, id est difficilium Scripturarum. Dan. V, v. 16: audivi de te quod possis obscura interpretari. Gen. XL, 8: numquid non Dei est interpretatio?
In another way by the obscurity of a Scripture passage to be quoted. Against this is given the remedy he mentions: to another, the interpretation of speeches, i.e., of difficult Scripture passages: I have heard that you can give interpretations of obscure things (Dan 5:16); does not interpretation belong to God? (Gen 40:8)
730. Deinde cum dicit haec autem omnia, etc., determinat auctorem praedictarum gratiarum. Circa quod tres errores excludit. Primo quidem gentilium attribuentium diversa dona diversis diis. Contra quod dicit haec autem omnia operatur unus atque idem Spiritus. Eph. IV, 4: unum corpus et unus Spiritus.
730. Then when he says, all these things, he identifies the author of these graces. In regard to this he excludes three errors. The first is that of the gentiles attributing different gifts to different gods. Against this he says: all these things, one and the same Spirit works: one body and one Spirit (Eph 4:4).
Secundo errorem eorum qui Deo attribuebant solum universalem providentiam rerum, ponentes quod distinctiones particularium fiunt solum per causas secundas. Contra quod subditur dividens singulis prout vult. Eccli. c. XXXIII, 11: in multitudine disciplinae Domini separavit eos.
Second, the error of those who attributed to God only a general providence and assigned the distinctions of particular things to second causes alone. Against this he adds: dividing to every one according as he wills: in the fullness of his knowledge the Lord separated them (Sir 33:11).
Tertio excludit errorem eorum qui diversitatem gratiarum attribuebant vel fato, vel humano merito, et non solum voluntati divinae, sicut Macedonii, qui dicebant Spiritum Sanctum esse ministerium Patris et Filii. Et hoc excludit per hoc quod subdit prout vult. Io. III, 8: Spiritus ubi vult spirat.
Third, he excludes the error of those who attributed the diversity among graces to fate, or to human merit, and not solely to the divine will, as the Macedonians, who said that the Holy Spirit is the servant of the Father and of the Son. And he excludes this by saying: as he wills: the Spirit breathes where he wills (John 3:8).