Lectio 5 Lecture 5 Prophetia modus conversionis Prophesy a means of conversion 14:23 Si ergo conveniat universa Ecclesia in unum, et omnes linguis loquantur, intrent autem idiotae, aut infideles: nonne dicent quod insanitis? [n. 859] 14:23 If therefore the whole Church come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in unlearned persons or infidels, will they not say that you are mad? [n. 859] 14:24 Si autem omnes prophetent, intret autem quis infidelis, vel idiota, convincitur ab omnibus, dijudicatur ab omnibus: [n. 862] 14:24 But if all prophesy, and there comes in one who believes not or an unlearned person, he is convinced of all: he is judged of all. [n. 862] 14:25 occulta cordis ejus manifesta fiunt: et ita cadens in faciem adorabit Deum, pronuntians quod vere Deus in vobis sit. [n. 864] 14:25 The secrets of his heart are made manifest. And so, falling down on his face, he will adore God, affirming that God is among you indeed. [n. 864] 14:26 Quid ergo est, fratres? Cum convenitis, unusquisque vestrum psalmum habet, doctrinam habet, apocalypsim habet, linguam habet, interpretationem habet: omnia ad aedificationem fiant. [n. 866] 14:26 How is it then, brethren? When you come together, every one of you has a psalm, has a doctrine, has a revelation, has a tongue, has an interpretation: let all things be done to edification. [n. 866] 859. Glossa vult quod hic incipiat alia ratio ad propositum ostendendum. Sed secundum quod dictum est, non est nisi unum posita ratione, et est quasi manifestatio mediae ipsius rationis, scilicet quod prophetia plus valet ad illud, ad quod specialiter ordinatur donum linguarum. 859. A Gloss suggests that another argument proving his proposition begins here. But in the light of what has been said, there is only one proposition, already proved. Here he clarifies the middle term of that argument, namely, that prophecy contributes more to that to which the gift of tongues is especially ordained. Unde circa hoc duo facit. In regard to this he does two things: Primo ostendit inconveniens quod sequitur quantum ad infideles ex dono linguarum, ibi si autem omnes linguis. first, he shows what undesirable effects follows from the gift of tongues as far as unbelievers are concerned, at if all speak with tongues; Secundo ostendit bonum quod sequitur ex dono prophetiae etiam ad infideles, ibi si autem omnes. second, he shows the good which follows from the gift of prophecy, even in regard to unbelievers, at but if all prophesy. 860. Inconveniens, quod sequitur ex dono linguarum sine prophetia, etiam quantum ad infideles, est quia reputantur insani qui sic loquuntur solis linguis, cum tamen donum linguarum ordinetur ad conversionem infidelium, ut iam patet. Et hoc est quod dicit si autem omnes, etc., quasi dicat: ex hoc patet quod linguae non sunt praeferendae prophetiis, quia, si conveniant, scilicet omnes fideles, in unum, non solum corpore, sed etiam mente, Act. IV, 32: multitudinis credentium erat cor, etc., et omnes, qui iam convenerunt, loquantur linguis, ad litteram extraneis, vel loquantur ignota et obscura, et, dum sic confuse loquuntur, intret aliquis idiota, id est qui non intelligit nisi linguam suam, vel infidelis, propter quem datae sunt linguae, nonne dicent his, qui sic loquuntur, quid insanitis? Quod enim non intelligitur, reputatur insanitio. Quod si intelligatur lingua, nihilominus quae loquuntur sunt occulta, tamen malum est si non exponatur, quia poterunt credere de vobis, si occulta loquimini, quae creduntur de gentilibus, qui occultabant ea quae faciebant in ritu eorum, propter eorum turpitudinem. Et haec etiam insanitio quaedam est. 860. The undesirable effect which follows from the gift of tongues without prophecy, even in regard to unbelievers, is that those who speak only in tongues are considered mad, whereas the gift of tongues should be ordained to the conversion of unbelievers, as is already clear. And this is what he says: but if all prophesy. As if to say: that tongues are not preferable to prophecy is clear from the fact that if the whole Church, namely, all the faithful, come together into one place not only in body but also in mind: now the company of believers were of one heart and soul (Acts 4:22), and all speak with tongues, i.e., strange, or speak unknown and obscure things and, while they are thus confusedly speaking, and there come in unlearned persons, i.e., one who understands only his own tongue, or infidels for whose benefit tongues were given, will they not say to those so speaking that you are mad? For what is not understood is considered madness. But if a tongue is understood and nevertheless the things said are secret, if they are not explained, it is evil because they could believe of you, (if you speak secret things), what they believe of the gentiles, who made secret what they did in their rites, so base were they. And this is also a form of madness. 861. Contra. Idem est loqui linguis et loqui litteraliter quantum ad idiotas; cum ergo omnes loquantur litteraliter in ecclesia, quia omnia dicuntur in Latino, videtur quod similiter sit insania. 861. On the other hand, to those who do not know the language it is the same thing to speak in tongues and to speak literally; therefore, since all speak literally in the church (for all is spoken in Latin), it seems that there is madness here, too. Dicendum est ad hoc, quod ideo erat insania in primitiva Ecclesia, quia erant rudes in ritu ecclesiastico, unde nesciebant quae fiebant ibi, nisi exponeretur eis. Modo vero omnes sunt instructi; unde licet in Latino omnia dicantur, sciunt tamen illud quod fit in ecclesia. I answer that there was madness in the early Church, because they were uninstructed in the Church’s rite, since they did not know what was going on unless it was explained to them. But now all are instructed; hence, although all is said in Latin, they, nevertheless, know what is being done in the church. 862. Consequenter autem cum dicit si autem omnes prophetent, ostendit quod bonum sequitur ex dono prophetiae. 862. Then when he says, but if all prophesy, he shows that good follows from the gift of prophecy. Et circa hoc tria facit. In regard to this he does three things: Primo ostendit quid per bonum prophetiae sequatur, quantum ad infideles; first, he shows what follows through the good of prophecy, as to unbelievers; secundo ostendit quomodo hoc sequatur, ibi occulta enim, etc.; second, he shows how this follows, at the secrets of his heart; tertio, subinfert quis effectus inde proveniat, ibi et ita cadens in faciem, et cetera. third, he infers which effect arises from this, at and so, falling down on his face. 863. Dicit ergo: constat quod ex dono linguarum non convincuntur infideles; si autem, pro sed; si hi, qui conveniunt, prophetent, id est omnes ad intellectum loquantur, vel exponant Scripturas vel etiam revelationes eis factas interpretentur. Omnes dico non simul, sed unus post alium sic prophetent. Intret autem, scilicet ecclesiam, idiota aliquis, scilicet non habens nisi linguam maternam, hoc est bonum quod inde sequitur, quia convincitur de aliquo errore, qui ostenditur sibi. Ier. XXXI, 19: postquam ostendisti mihi, confusus sum. Ab omnibus, qui prophetant, diiudicatur. Quasi dicat: damnabilis ostenditur de malis moribus et vitiis suis. I Cor. II, 15: spiritualis, id est doctor, omnia diiudicat, et cetera. 863. He says, therefore: it is clear that unbelievers are not convinced by the gift of tongues; but if all who assemble prophesy, i.e., all speak to the intellect revelations made to them (I say all not at once, but one after the other prophesy in this way), and there comes in, namely, the church, one who believes not or an unlearned person, i.e., knowing only his mother tongue, what follows is good, because he is convinced by all of his error, which is pointed out to him: after I was instructed, I was ashamed (Jer 31:19). He is judged of all who are prophesying. As if to say: he is shown to be condemnable for his evil morals and his vices: the spiritual man, that is, the doctor, judges all things (1 Cor 2:15). Ad haec enim duo valet prophetia, scilicet ad confirmationem fidei, et instructionem morum. For prophecy avails for these two things, namely, strengthening the faith and teaching morals. 864. Quomodo autem hoc bonum sequatur ex prophetiae dono, subdit cum dicit occulta enim cordis. Quod potest intelligi tripliciter. 864. How this good follows from the gift of prophecy is mentioned when he says: the secrets of his heart. This can be understood in three ways: Uno modo, et hoc ad litteram, quod aliqui in primitiva Ecclesia gratiam habuerunt, ut secreta cordium et peccata hominum scirent. Unde legitur de Petro, Act. V, 1 ss., quod damnavit Ananiam de fraudato pretio agri. Et secundum hoc legitur occulta enim, etc., quasi dicat: ideo convincitur, quia occulta, id est secreta peccata sua, manifesta fiunt ab illis qui ea revelant. in one way, and this is literal, that some in the early Church had the grace to know the secrets of the heart and the sins of men. Hence it is said of Peter that he condemned Ananias for fraud regarding the price of a field (Acts 5:1ff). And according to this it says: for the secrets of his heart are disclosed. As if to say: he is convinced, because the secrets, i.e., his secret sins, are made manifest by those who revealed them. Alio modo, ex hoc quod aliquando quis in praedicatione tangit multa, quae homines gerunt in corde, sicut patet in libris beati Gregorii, ubi quilibet invenire potest fere omnes motus cordis sui. Et secundum hoc legitur occulta cordis, quasi dicat: ideo convincuntur, quia occulta cordis sui, id est ea quae gerunt in corde, Prov. XXVII, 19: quomodo in aquis resplendet vultus aspicientium, sic corda hominum manifesta sunt prudentibus, manifestantur, id est tanguntur ab eis. In another way, from the fact that sometimes someone in preaching touches on many things which men carry in the heart, as is clear from the books of Gregory, where each one can find almost all the movements of the heart. And according to this he says, secrets of his heart; as if to say: they are convicted, because the secrets of their heart, i.e., things they carry in their heart: as in water face answers to face, so the mind of man reflects the man (Prov 27:19), are made manifest, i.e., touched on by them. Alio modo, quia aliquando occultum cordis dicitur illud quod est alicui dubium et non potest per se certificari. Et secundum hoc legitur occulta cordis sui, id est ea de quibus in corde suo dubitabat et quae non credebat, manifestantur, dum scilicet vadens ad ecclesiam frequenter fiunt sibi manifesta, sicut de seipso dicit Augustinus quod ipse ibat ad ecclesiam solum pro cantu et tamen ibi multa de quibus dubitabat et propter quae non iverat, manifestabantur sibi. Ex hoc enim sequebatur reverentia, quia convictus reverebatur Deum. In another way, because sometimes the secret of the heart is said to be that which is doubtful to someone and he cannot become certain by himself. According to this it is read: the secrets of his heart, i.e., things about which he doubted in his heart and which he did not believe, are disclosed, namely, when going to a church frequently they are made clear to him, as Augustine says about himself that he went to the church only for the chant and yet many things about which he doubted and for the sake of which he had not come were clarified for him there. For from this followed reverence, because, being convinced, he revered God. 865. Et hoc est, quod dicit et ita cadens, id est ex quo ita convincebatur et manifestabantur occulta cordis sui, cadens in faciem adorabit Deum, Matth. II, 11: procidentes adoraverunt eum, quod signum est reverentiae. 865. And this is what he says: and so, i.e., inasmuch as he was convinced in this way and the secrets of his heart were manifested, falling down on his face, he will adore God: falling down, they adored him (Matt 2:11), which is a sign of reverence. De reprobis autem legitur, quod cadunt retrorsum. Prov. IV, 19: via impiorum tenebrosa, nesciunt ubi corruent. Electus vero in faciem cadit, quia videt ubi prosternitur, quod signum est reverentiae. Matth. II, 11, et Lev. c. IX, 24: laudaverunt Deum ruentes in facies suas. Ps. LXXI, 9: coram illo procident Aethiopes. Of the reprobate, however, it says that they fall backward: the way of the wicked is deep darkness, they do not know over what they stumble (Prov 4:19). But the elect fall on their face, because they see where they should prostrate themselves, which is a sign of reverence. They praised God and fell on their faces (Lev 9:24); may all kings fall down before him (Ps 72:11). Et non solum exhibebit reverentiam Deo sed etiam ecclesiae, quia pronuntians dicet quod vere Deus est in vobis, qui prophetatis in Ecclesia. Zac. VIII, 23: ibimus vobiscum, audivimus enim quod Deus est vobiscum. And he will show reverence not only to God but also to the church, because he will declare that God is among you indeed who prophesy in the church: we will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you (Zech 8:23). Apparet igitur quod donum prophetiae est utilius quantum ad infideles. It appears, therefore, that the gift of prophecy is more useful in regard to unbelievers. 866. Quid ergo est, fratres? Hic ordinat eos ad usum donorum dictorum. 866. How is it then, brethren? Here he tells them how to use these gifts. Et circa hoc duo facit. In regard to this he does two things: Primo ostendit qualiter se debeant habere ad usum horum donorum; first, he shows how they should act in regard to the use of these gifts; secundo concludit principale intentum, ibi itaque, fratres, aemulamini prophetare, et cetera. second, he concludes to his main proposition, at wherefore, brethren, be zealous to prophesy (1 Cor 14:39). Circa primum duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things: Primo ostendit quomodo ordinate se debeant habere in usu dictorum donorum; first, he shows how orderly they should behave in the use of these gifts; secundo exprimit eorum praesumptionem, ibi an a vobis sermo, et cetera. second, he expresses their presumption, at or did the word of God (1 Cor 14:36). Circa primum tria facit. In regard to the first he does three things: