Lectio 6 Lecture 6 Oportet interpretari linguas Must interpret tongues 14:27 Sive lingua quis loquitur, secundum duos, aut ut multum tres, et per partes, et unus interpretatur. [n. 869] 14:27 If any speaks with a tongue, let it be by two, or at the most by three, and in course: and let one interpret. [n. 869] 14:28 Si autem non fuerit interpres, taceat in ecclesia: sibi autem loquatur, et Deo. [n. 871] 14:28 But if there be no interpreter, let him hold his peace in the church and speak to himself and to God. [n. 871] 14:29 Prophetae autem duo, aut tres dicant, et ceteri dijudicent. [n. 872] 14:29 And let the prophets speak, two or three: and let the rest judge. [n. 872] 14:30 Quod si alii revelatum fuerit sedenti, prior taceat. [n. 874] 14:30 But if any thing be revealed to another sitting, let the first hold his peace. [n. 874] 14:31 Potestis enim omnes per singulos prophetare: ut omnes discant, et omnes exhortentur: [n. 875] 14:31 For you may all prophesy, one by one, that all may learn and all may be exhorted. [n. 875] 14:32 et spiritus prophetarum prophetis subjecti sunt. [n. 876] 14:32 And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets. [n. 876] 14:33 Non enim est dissensionis Deus, sed pacis: sicut et in omnibus ecclesiis sanctorum doceo. [n. 877] 14:33 For God is not the God of dissension, but of peace: as also I teach in all the churches of the saints. [n. 877] 869. Hic Apostolus ordinat eos quomodo se habeant ad usum doni linguarum, et circa hoc duo facit. 869. Here the Apostle instructs them on how to behave in regard to using the gift of tongues, and he does two things: Primo ostendit qualiter debent uti dono linguarum; first, he shows how they should use the gift of tongues: secundo quando debent cessare ab usu, ibi si autem non fuerit, et cetera. second, when they should stop using it, at but if there be no interpreter. 870. Dicit ergo, primo, quod modus utendi dono linguarum talis sit inter vos, ut sive quis, id est si aliquis, loquatur lingua, id est dicat visiones vel somnia, huiusmodi locutio non fiat a multis propter occupationem temporis in linguis et non restet locus prophetiis et confusionem generet, sed secundum duos, id est duobus, et, si necesse fuerit, secundum multum tres, ut sit satis a tribus. Deut. XVII, 6: in ore duorum vel trium, et cetera. 870. First, therefore he says: the way the gift of tongues should be used among you is that if any speaks with a tongue, i.e., talks of visions or dreams, such speaking should not be done by many on account of so much time being devoted to tongues, and so that there is not room for prophecies, and confusion is generated; but let it be by two, and if necessary, at the most by three; so that three should be enough: on the evidence of two witnesses or of three witnesses (Deut 17:6). Sed notandum quod haec consuetudo adhuc partim servatur in Ecclesia. Nam lectiones et epistolas ac Evangelia habemus loco linguarum, et ideo in Missa secundum duos servatur, quia solum duo dicuntur, quae pertinent ad donum linguarum, scilicet epistola et Evangelium. In Matutinis secundum multa fit, scilicet tribus lectionibus dictis in uno nocturno. Antiquitus enim dicebantur nocturna divisim secundum tres vigilias noctis, nunc vero dicuntur simul. But it should be noted that this custom is still partly observed in the Church. For we have readings and epistles and gospels in place of tongues, and therefore in the Mass only two are said, which pertain to the gift of tongues, namely, the epistle and the gospel. In Matins many are said, namely, three readings in one nocturn. For at an earlier time nocturnes were said according to the night watches, but now they are said at one time. Non solum autem debet servari ordo quantum ad numerum loquentium, sed etiam quantum ad modum, et hoc est quod dicit et per partes, id est ut illi qui loquuntur succedant sibi ad invicem, scilicet quod unus post alium loquatur. Vel per partes, id est intercise, ut scilicet loquatur unam partem visionis, seu instructionis et eam exponat, et post aliam et ipsam exponat, et sic deinceps; quem modum consueverunt servare praedicatores, quando praedicant per interpretationem hominibus ignotae linguae, et ideo dicit et unus interpretetur. Not only should order as to the number of speakers be observed, but also as to the method, and this is what he says: and in course, i.e., that those who speak follow one another, so that one speaks after the other. Or in course, i.e., interruptedly, namely, that one speak one part of the vision or of the instruction and explain it, and then another and explain it, and so on. This was the method followed by preachers, when they preach by interpreting to men of an unknown tongue; and therefore he says: and let one interpret. 871. Consequenter cum dicit si autem non fuerit, etc., ostendit quando non est utendum linguis, dicens quod loquendum est per partes et unus debet interpretari. Sed si non fuerit aliquis interpres, id est qui interpretetur, ille, qui donum habet linguarum, taceat in ecclesia, id est non loquatur seu praedicet multitudini in lingua ignota, quia non intelligitur ab eis, sed sibi loquatur, quia ipse se intelligit, et hoc tacite, orando vel meditando. Iob X, 1: loquar in amaritudine animae meae, dicam Deo, et cetera. 871. Then when he says: but if there be no interpreter, he shows when tongues should not be used, saying that they should speak in parts and one should interpret. But if there be no interpreter, one who has the gift of tongues, let him hold his peace in the church, i.e., should not speak or preach to the multitude in a strange tongue, because he is not understood by them, but should speak to himself or to God, because he understands himself; and this in silence by praying or meditating: I will speak in the bitterness of my soul. I will say to God: do not condemn me (Job 10:1). 872. Prophetae autem duo, et cetera. Hic Apostolus ordinat eos, quomodo se habeant ad usum prophetiae. 872. Let the prophets speak, two or three, and let the others weigh what is said. Here the Apostle instructs them on how to use the gift of prophecy. Et circa hoc duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things: Primo ostendit qualiter utendum est dono prophetiae, et quantum ad numerum et ad ordinem; first, he shows how the gift of prophecy is to be used both as to number and to order; secundo ostendit, quibus usus prophetiae interdicitur, ibi mulieres in ecclesia, et cetera. second, to whom the use of prophecy is prohibited, at let women keep silence in the churches (1 Cor 14:34). Circa primum tria facit. In regard to the first he does three things: Primo docet ordinem utendi dono prophetiae; first, he teaches the order in which to use the gift of prophecy; secundo huius rationem assignat, ibi potestis enim omnes, etc.; second, the reason for this, at for you may all prophesy; tertio obiectionem excludit, ibi spiritus prophetarum, et cetera. third, he excludes an objection, at and the spirits of the prophets. Circa primum duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things: Primo determinat ad numerum utentium dono dicto; first, he fixes on the number using this gift; secundo, docet modum seu ordinem utendi, ibi quod si alii, et cetera. second, he teaches the method or order of using it, at but if any thing be revealed. 873. Circa primum sciendum est quod usus prophetiae secundum quod hic videtur accipere Apostolus, est proponere verbum exhortationis ad plebem, exponendo Scripturas Sacras. Et quia erant in primitiva Ecclesia plures qui a Deo hoc donum habebant, et fideles non erant adhuc multiplicati, ideo, ne esset confusio et taedium, vult Apostolus, quod non omnes qui sciunt exponere prophetias et Sacram Scripturam, prophetent, sed aliqui et determinati. Et hoc est quod dicit prophetae, etc., quasi dicat: nolo quod omnes qui conveniunt, sed duo tantum, aut, ad plus, tres, prout hoc loquendi necessitas exigit, dicant, id est exhortentur. Et hoc etiam consonat Scripturae. Supra XVII, v. 6 et Matth. XVIII, 16: in ore duorum, vel trium, et cetera. 873. In regard to the first it should be noted that the use of prophecy according to what the Apostle says here is to propose a word of instruction to the people, by explaining the Sacred Scripture. And because in the early Church there were many who had this gift from God and the number of the faithful was not very great, then in order to avoid confusion and boredom, the Apostle desires that not all who can explain a prophecy and Sacred Scripture should prophesy, but certain definite ones. And this is what he says: let the prophets speak, two or three. As if to say: I do not want all who assemble, but two only or at most three, as the need to speak exists, should speak, i.e., exhort. This is in keeping with the Scriptures: by the evidence of two or three witnesses (Matt 18:16). Caeteri vero, scilicet illi qui non debent, diiudicent ea quae ab his proponuntur, utrum scilicet bene vel male dicta sint: bene dicta approbando, et male dicta retractari faciendo. Supra II, 15: spiritualis homo omnia diiudicat. Let the rest, namely, those who should not prophesy, judge the things proposed to them, whether something good or something bad has been said; approving what is good and making them retract what was wrong: the spiritual man judges all things (1 Cor 2:15). 874. Est etiam servandus ordo in utendo dicto dono, ut si alteri illorum, qui sedebant et tacebant et diiudicabant, fuit aliquid melius revelatum, quam illi qui exhortatur et stat prior, tunc iste, qui stat, debet sedere, et ille, cui melius revelatum est, debet surgere et exhortari. Et hoc est quod dicit quod si alii, sedenti, revelatum fuerit, scilicet per Spiritum Sanctum, prior stans taceat et cedat ei, Rom. XII, 10: honore invicem praevenientes. 874. The order to be observed in using this gift is that if one of those who sat and kept silence and judged had received a better revelation, then one who is exhorting and standing should sit down and the one to whom a better revelation has been made should rise and exhort. And this is what he says: if anything be revealed to another sitting, namely, by the Holy Spirit, let the first hold his peace and yield to him: anticipate one another with honor (Rom 12:10). 875. Et ratio huius est, quia secundum hunc modum potestis, successive, prophetare per singulos, id est omnes scilicet, ut sic omnes, id est maiores, discant, et omnes, id est minores, exhortentur, Prov. I, 5: audiens sapiens, et cetera. 875. The reason for this is that according to this method you may successively all prophesy, one by one, i.e., the greater, that all may learn, i.e., the lesser, and all may be exhorted. The wise man may also hear and increase in learning (Prov 1:5). 876. Et si aliquis dicat: o Apostole, ego non possum tacere dum alius prophetat, vel cedere sedenti, ex quo incepi, quia non possum retinere Spiritum, qui in me loquitur, secundum illud Iob IV, 2: conceptum sermonem tenere quis potest? Ideo Apostolus hoc removet cum dicit et spiritus prophetarum, etc., quasi dicat: immo bene potest tacere vel sedere, quia spiritus prophetarum, id est spiritus qui dat prophetias, et ponit in plurali numero propter multas revelationes eis instinctas, prophetis subiecti sunt, quidem quantum ad cognitionem, quia, sicut dicit Gregorius quod non semper spiritus prophetiae adest prophetis. Unde non est habitus, sicut scientia. Sic enim sequeretur, quod etiam quantum ad cognitionem eis subiectus esset, et possent uti eo quando vellent, et non uti: sed est quaedam vis aut impressio a Deo, illuminans et tangens corda prophetarum, et tunc solum quando sic tanguntur, cognoscunt. Unde non est sic eis subiectus. 876. If any should say: O Apostle, I cannot be silent while another prophesies or yield to one sitting from the time he began, because I cannot hold back the Spirit who speaks in me: who can keep from speaking? (Job 4:2). Therefore, the Apostle rejects this when he says: the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets. As if to say: yes, he can easily be quiet and sit down, because the spirits of the prophets, i.e., the spirit who gives prophecies (and he puts it in the plural on account of the many revelations inspired in them) are subject to the prophets; some as to knowledge, because as Gregory says: the spirit of prophecy is not always present to the prophets. Hence it is not a habit, as knowledge is. For then it would follow that even as to knowledge he would be subject to them and they could use it or not use it when they willed; but it is a force or impression from God inclining and teaching the hearts of the prophets and they know only when they are so touched. Hence, he is not subject to them. Nec secundum hoc intelligitur verbum apostoli, sed spiritus prophetarum sunt subiecti prophetis quantum ad pronuntiationem, quia scilicet in eorum potestate est pronuntiare ea quae revelantur eis quando volunt, et non pronuntiare. Et sic nihil valet excusatio, quia non cogit te Spiritus quin tacere possis. But this is not the way to understand the Apostle’s words, but the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets as to declaring, namely, because it is in their power to declare when they wish or not to declare the things revealed. And so the excuse is worthless, because the Spirit does not compel you in such a way that you cannot keep silence. 877. Et quod hoc sit verum, probat cum dicit non enim est dissensionis, et cetera. Et facit talem rationem. Deus numquam cogit ad id unde oriatur rixa vel dissensio, quia Deus non est dissensionis sed pacis; sed si cogeret homines Spiritus prophetiae ad loquendum, tunc esset causa dissensionis, quia sic vellet semper loqui vel docere vel non tacere alio loquente, de quo alii turbarentur. Ergo Spiritus Sanctus non cogit homines ad loquendum. II Cor. ult.: Deus pacis et dilectionis erit vobiscum, et cetera. 877. That this is true he proves when he says, God is not a God of dissension. And he formulates this reason: God never compels one to something from which arise quarrels or dissension, because he is not a God of dissension, but of peace. But if the Spirit of prophecy compelled them to speak, he would be a cause of dissension, because he would always want to speak or not to teach or to be silent, while another is speaking something about which the others are disturbed. Therefore, the Holy Spirit does not compel men to speak: may the God of love and peace be with you (2 Cor 13:11). Verumtamen, quia adhuc posset obiicere, quod hoc non faceret, quia solum eis ista mandabat, et non aliis ecclesiis, unde et in gravamen posset videri, ideo Apostolus subdit, hoc non solum in eis, sed etiam in omnibus Ecclesiis docere. Et hoc est quod dicit sicut in omnibus ecclesiis sanctorum doceo, scilicet de usu linguarum et prophetiae. Supra I, 10: idipsum dicatis omnes. Yet because he could still object that he would not do this, because he commanded this only of them and not of the other churches; and hence it could seem a burden, the Apostle says that he teaches this not only to them but to all the churches. And this is what he says: as also I teach in all the churches of the saints, namely, about the use of tongues and of prophecy: that you all speak the same thing (1 Cor 1:10). Lectio 7 Lecture 7