Lectio 7 Lecture 7 Personae quae interdicit prophetare Persons forbidden to prophesy 14:34 Mulieres in ecclesiis taceant, non enim permittitur eis loqui, sed subditas esse, sicut et lex dicit. [n. 878] 14:34 Let women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted them to speak but to be subject, as also the law says. [n. 878] 14:35 Si quid autem volunt discere, domi viros suos interrogent. Turpe est enim mulieri loqui in ecclesia. [n. 881] 14:35 But if they would learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is a shame for a woman to speak in the church. [n. 881] 14:36 An a vobis verbum Dei processit? aut in vos solos pervenit? [n. 882] 14:36 Or did the word of God come out from you? Or came it only unto you? [n. 882] 14:37 Si quis videtur propheta esse, aut spiritualis, cognoscat quae scribo vobis, quia Domini sunt mandata. [n. 884] 14:37 If any seem to be a prophet or spiritual, let him know the things that I write to you, that they are the commandments of the Lord. [n. 884] 14:38 Si quis autem ignorat, ignorabitur. [n. 886] 14:38 But if any man knows not, he shall not be known. [n. 886] 14:39 Itaque fratres aemulamini prophetare: et loqui linguis nolite prohibere. [n. 887] 14:39 Wherefore, brethren, be zealous to prophesy: and do not forbid to speak with tongues. [n. 887] 14:40 Omnia autem honeste, et secundum ordinem fiant. 14:40 But let all things be done decently and according to order. 878. Hic Apostolus ponit personas quibus interdicit usum prophetiae. 878. Here the Apostle mentions the persons to whom the use of prophecy is forbidden. Et circa hoc duo facit. In regard to this he does two things: Primo, ostendit quibus prophetiae usus interdicitur; first, he shows to whom the use of prophecy is forbidden; secundo, removet obiectionem, ibi si quid autem volunt, et cetera. second, he removes an objection, at but if they would learn anything. Circa primum duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things: Primo, ponit mandatum de interdicto; first, he mentions the command to forbid; secundo huius rationem assignat, ibi non enim permittitur, et cetera. second he gives a reason for this, at for it is not permitted. 879. Dicit ergo: volo ut viri hoc modo utantur dono prophetiae, sed mulieres, in ecclesia, nolo loqui; sed taceant in ecclesiis, I Tim. II, 12: mulierem docere in ecclesia non permitto. Et rationem huius assignat Chrysostomus, dicens, quod semel est locuta mulier et totum mundum subvertit. 879. He says, therefore: I will that men use the gift of prophecy in this manner, but I do not want women to speak in the church, so that women keep silence in the churches: I permit no woman to teach or to have authority over men (1 Tim 2:12). And Chrysostom assigns the reason for this, saying: woman has spoken once and subverted the entire world. Sed contra hoc videtur quia de multis mulieribus legitur quod prophetarunt, sicut de Samaritana, Io. IV, 39, et de Anna uxore Phanuel, Lc. II, 36, et de Debora, Iud. IV, 4, et de Holdama propheta, de uxore Sellum, IV Reg. XXII, 14, et de filiabus Philippi, Act. c. XXI, 9. Supra etiam dicitur omnis mulier orans vel prophetans, et cetera. But on the other hand it seems that many women are recorded to have prophesied, as the Samaritan woman (John 4:39) and Anna, the wife of Phanuel (Luke 2:36) and Deborah (Judg 4:4) and Huldah, the prophetess (2 Kgs 22:14) and the daughter of Philip the evangelist (Acts 21:9). Above, it also says: any woman who prays or prophesies with her head unveiled dishonors her head (1 Cor 11:5). Responsio. Dicendum quod in prophetia sunt duo, scilicet revelatio et manifestatio revelationis, sed a revelatione non excluduntur mulieres sed multa revelantur eis sicut et viris. Sed Annuntiatio est duplex. Una publica, et ab hac excluduntur; alia est privata, et haec permittitur eis, quia non est praedicatio, sed Annuntiatio. The answer is that there are two things in prophecy, namely, revelation and its manifestation; but women are not excluded from revelation, for many things are revealed to them as to men. But manifestation is of two kinds: one is public and from this they are excluded; the other is private and this is permitted to them, because it is not preaching but manifesting. 880. Huius autem rationem assignat, dicens non enim permittitur eis loqui, scilicet ab Ecclesiae auctoritate, sed hoc est officium earum, ut sint subditae viris. Unde cum docere dicat praelationem et praesidentiam, non decet eas quae subditae sunt. 880. He assigns the reason for this, saying: for it is not permitted them to speak, namely, by the authority of the Church, but their function is to be subject to men. Hence, since teaching implies prelacy and presiding, it is not suited to those who are subjects. Ratio autem quare subditae sunt et non praesunt est quia deficiunt ratione, quae est maxime necessaria praesidenti. Et ideo dicit Philosophus, in Politica sua, quod corruptio regiminis est quando regimen pervenit ad mulieres. The reason they are subject and not in the forefront is that they are deficient in reasoning, which is especially necessary for those who preside. Therefore, the Philosopher says in his Politics that corruption of rule occurs, when the rule comes to women. 881. Consequenter cum dicit si quid volunt, etc., quia possent aliqui dicere quod ad minus de dubiis possunt quaerere in Ecclesia, ideo Apostolus hoc excludit, et circa hoc duo facit. Primo enim removet obiectionem, secundo rationem assignat, ibi turpe est, et cetera. 881. Then when he says, if they would learn anything, because some might say that at least they can ask the Church about their doubts, he excludes this and does two things: first, he removes an objection; second, he assigns the reason, at for it is a shame. Dicit ergo: dico quod mulieres taceant in ecclesia, sed si aliqua, de quibus dubitant, addiscere volunt, interrogent viros suos domi. I Tim. II, 11: mulier in silentio discat cum omni, et cetera. He says, therefore: I say that let women keep silence in the churches, but if they would learn anything about which they doubt, let them ask their husbands at home: let women learn in silence (1 Tim 2:11). Huius autem ratio est quia turpe est, non solum indecens: in mulieribus enim commendatur verecundia. Eccli. XXVI, 19: gratia super gratiam, et cetera. Si ergo in publico quaereret et disputaret, signum esset inverecundiae, et hoc est ei turpe. Et inde est etiam quod in iure interdicitur mulieribus officium advocandi. The reason for this is that it is a shame and not only unbecoming; for in women the natural feeling of shame is commended. A holy and shamefaced woman is grace upon grace (Sir 26:19). If therefore they ask and dispute in public, it would be a sign of shamelessness, and this is shameful to them. Hence it also follows that in law the office of advocate is forbidden to women. 882. Consequenter cum dicit an a vobis sermo, etc., confutat contradicentes. Et quia possent omnes simul contradicere, vel ad minus sapientes inter eos, ideo circa hoc duo facit. 882. Then when he says: or did the word of God come out from you?, he answers those who contradict him. And because they could all contradict at once or at least the wise among them, he does two things in regard to this: Primo enim confutat eos quantum ad totam eorum ecclesiam; first, he refutes them as to their entire church; secundo quantum ad sapientes tantum, ibi si quis autem videtur, et cetera. second, as to the wise only, at if any seem to be a prophet or spiritual. 883. Circa primum sciendum est quod causa quare populus consuevit contradicere Domino, vel rectori, est singularitas. Singularitas enim potest causari vel ex prioritate in aliquo bono, vel excellentia. Et ideo Apostolus, volens contradicentes Corinthios confutare, excludit primo ab eis prioritatem, cum dicit an a vobis sermo Dei processit? Quasi dicat: non, sed a Iudaeis. Is. II, 3: de Sion exibit lex, et cetera. Quasi dicat: si in Ecclesia Iudaeorum facerem aliquas ordinationes contra ordinationes suas, possent contradicere, quia ipsi prius habuerunt verbum Dei, sed vos non, quia non processit a vobis sermo Dei. 883. In regard to the first it should be noted that the reason the people were wont to contradict the Lord or a ruler is singularity. For singularity can be caused by either a priority in some good or excellence. Therefore, the Apostle, wishing to refute the contradicting Corinthians, first excludes priority from their church, when he says: did the word of God come out from you? As if to say: no, but rather with the Jews: the law shall come forth from Zion (Isa 2:3). As if to say: if I made some rules in the church of the Jews against their rules, they could contradict, because they had the word of God before you, for the word of God did not originate from you. Secundo excludit ab eis excellentiam an in vos solos, etc., quasi dicat: non solum vos credidistis, sed etiam alii. Unde vos non excellitis eos, Ps. XVIII, 5: in omnem terram exivit sonus eorum, et ideo debetis facere, ut alii faciunt. Second, he excludes excellence from them, saying: or came it only unto you? As if to say: you are not the only ones who have believed, but others also. Hence you do not excel them: their sound went forth in all the earth (Ps 19:5), and therefore, you ought to do as the others do. 884. Consequenter cum dicit si quis autem videtur, etc., in speciali confutat maiores. Et circa hoc duo facit. 884. Then when he says: if any seem to be a prophet or spiritual, he refutes the greater ones in particular. In regard to this he does two things: Primo confutat eos; first, he refutes them; secundo respondet cuidam tacitae obiectioni, ibi si quis autem ignorat, et cetera. second, he answers a tacit objection, at but if any man knows not. 885. Dicit ergo: esto quod tota ecclesia non contradicat, sed aliquis, qui videtur esse propheta, et cetera. 885. He says, therefore: suppose that the entire church does not contradict, except someone who seems to be a prophet. Et dicit videtur, quia si contradicit non vere est propheta vel sapiens seu spiritualis, quia non contradiceret. He says, seems, because, if he contradicts, he is not really a prophet or wise or spiritual. Dicit etiam, propheta, et spiritualis, quia multi sunt spirituales qui non sunt prophetae, licet omnes prophetae sint spirituales. Iste, inquam, qui sic videtur propheta et spiritualis, non contradicat, sed cognoscat, id est sciat quia ea, quae scribo vobis, sunt mandata Dei et non tantum mea. Quasi dicat: ex quo nullus ausus est mandatis Domini contradicere, et ea quae scribo sunt mandata Dei, non audeat aliquis contradicere. II Cor. ultimo: an experimentum quaeritis, et cetera. He says a prophet and spiritual because many are spiritual who are not prophets, although all prophets are spiritual. He, I say, who so seems to be a prophet and spiritual, let him not contradict, but let him know that the things I am writing to you are commands of the Lord and not mine only. As if to say: from the fact that no one had dared to contradict the commands of the Lord, and the things I write are the commands of the Lord, no one should dare to contradict them: do you desire proof that Christ is speaking? (2 Cor 13:3). Et ex hoc possumus colligere, quod verba apostolorum sunt ex familiari revelatione Spiritus Sancti et Christi et ideo servanda sunt sicut praecepta Christi. Unde et signanter Apostolus distinguit illa, quae ex se mandat, cum dicit de virginibus autem mandatum Domini non habeo. And from this we can gather that the Apostle’s words are from a familiar revelation of the Holy Spirit and of Christ and, therefore, are to be obeyed as commands of Christ. Hence the Apostle is careful to distinguish things he commands of himself, when he says: about virgins I have no command of the Lord (1 Cor 7:25).