Testimony to Christ
15:1 Notum autem vobis facio, fratres, Evangelium, quod praedicavi vobis, quod et accepistis, in quo et statis, [n. 889]
15:1 Now I make known unto you, brethren, the Gospel which I preached to you, which also you have received and wherein you stand. [n. 889]
15:2 per quod et salvamini: qua ratione praedicaverim vobis, si tenetis, nisi frustra credidistis.
15:2 By which also you are saved, if you hold fast after what manner I preached unto you, unless you have believed in vain.
15:3 Tradidi enim vobis in primis quod et accepi: quoniam Christus mortuus est pro peccatis nostris secundum Scripturas: [n. 893]
15:3 For I delivered unto you first of all, which I also received: how Christ died for our sins, according to the Scriptures: [n. 893]
15:4 et quia sepultus est, et quia resurrexit tertia die secundum Scripturas: [n. 896]
15:4 And because he was buried: and that he rose on the third day according to the Scriptures: [n. 896]
15:5 et quia visus est Cephae, et post hoc undecim: [n. 898]
15:5 And because he was seen by Cephas, and after that by the eleven. [n. 898]
15:6 deinde visus est plus quam quingentis fratribus simul: ex quibus multi manent usque adhuc, quidam autem dormierunt: [n. 901]
15:6 Then he was seen by more than five hundred brethren at once: of whom many remain until this present, and some are fallen asleep. [n. 901]
15:7 deinde visus est Jacobo, deinde apostolis omnibus: [n. 902]
15:7 Then he was seen by James: then by all the apostles. [n. 902]
15:8 novissime autem omnium tamquam abortivo, visus est et mihi. [n. 903]
15:8 But last of all, he was seen also by me, as by one born out of due time. [n. 903]
15:9 Ego enim sum minimus apostolorum, qui non sum dignus vocari apostolus, [n. 905] quoniam persecutus sum Ecclesiam Dei. [n. 907]
15:9 For I am the least of the apostles, who am not worthy to be called an apostle, [n. 905] because I persecuted the Church of God. [n. 907]
15:10 Gratia autem Dei sum id quod sum, et gratia ejus in me vacua non fuit, sed abundantius illis omnibus laboravi: non ego autem, sed gratia Dei mecum: [n. 908]
15:10 But by the grace of God, I am what I am. And his grace in me has not been void: but I have labored more abundantly than all they. Yet not I, but the grace of God with me: [n. 908]
15:11 sive enim ego, sive illi: sic praedicamus, et sic credidistis. [n. 910]
15:11 For whether I or they, so we preach: and so you have believed. [n. 910]
888. Postquam Apostolus instruxit Corinthios de ipsis sacramentis et de re contenta et significata in sacramentis, scilicet de gratia et eius effectibus hic consequenter instruit eos de re non contenta sed significata in sacramentis, scilicet de gloria resurrectionis, quae non est contenta in sacramento, cum non statim habeat eam qui suscipit sacramenta, sed significatur gloria resurrectionis in ipsis, inquantum confertur in eis gratia per quam ad beatitudinem pervenitur.
888. After instructing the Corinthians about the sacrament and about the reality contained and signified in the sacraments, namely, grace and its effects, the Apostle now instructs them about a reality not contained but signified in the sacraments, namely, the glory of the resurrection, which is not contained in a sacrament, since the one who receives the sacrament does not obtain it at once, but the glory of the resurrection is signified in them, inasmuch as the grace is conferred in them by which beatitude is reached.
Circa hoc autem duo facit.
In regard to the first he does two things:
Primo praemittit tractatum de resurrectione;
first, he prefaces a tract on the resurrection;
secundo per hoc probat resurrectionem communem omnium hominum, ibi si autem Christus praedicatur, et cetera.
second, with this he proves the general resurrection of all men, at now if Christ be preached (1 Cor 15:12).
Circa primum duo facit.
In regard to the first he does two things:
Primo commendat evangelicam doctrinam;
first, he commends the Gospel’s doctrine;
secundo annuntiat quae oportet scire circa resurrectionem Christi, ibi tradidi enim vobis, et cetera.
second, he declares what should be known about the resurrection of Christ, for I delivered unto you.
889. Commendat enim eminentiam evangelicae doctrinae quantum ad quatuor.
889. He commends the eminence of the Gospel’s doctrine as to four things:
Primo quantum ad praedicantium auctoritatem, quia ipsi apostoli. Et hoc est quod dicit O fratres, continuando se ad praecedentia, facio vobis notum Evangelium, quod idem est quod bona Annuntiatio, quae incipit a Christo; unde, quidquid pertinet ad Christum vel est de ipso Christo, dicitur Evangelium. Quod praedico vobis, quasi dicat: illud quod praedicavi vobis de Christo, notum facio vobis, id est reduco vobis ad memoriam, quasi non sint nova ea quae scribo. Phil. III, 1: eadem scribere vobis, et cetera. Praedicavi ego, scilicet vobis, et alii apostoli, aliis.
first, as to the authority of the preachers, because they are apostles. And this is what he says: brethren, connecting himself to what went before, I make known unto you the Gospel, which is the same as good news, which begins with Christ. Hence, whatever pertains to Christ or concerns Christ is called a Gospel. Which I preached to you; as if to say: what I have preached to you about Christ I make known to you, i.e., I recall it to memory, as though the things I write are not new: to write the same things to you is not irksome to me (Phil 3:1).
Et in hoc apparet auctoritas huius doctrinae, quia a Christo, a Paulo, et ab aliis apostolis. Hebr. II, 3: quae cum initium accepisset enarrandi.
And in this appears the authority of this doctrine, because it is from Christ, from Paul and from the other apostles: it was declared at first by the Lord and was attested to us (Heb 2:3).
890. Secundo quantum ad communem fidem omnium populorum, et ideo dicit quod et accepistis, omnes.
890. Second, as to the common faith of all people; therefore, he says: which also you have received, all of you.
Sed hoc Augustinus dicit pertinere ad eminentiam huius fidei, faciens tale argumentum: ad credenda ea quae sunt fidei, aut sunt miracula facta, aut non. Si sunt facta miracula, habeo propositum quod dignissima et certissima est. Si non sunt facta, hoc est maximum omnium miraculorum, quod per quosdam paucos conversi sunt ad fidem infinita multitudo hominum; per pauperes, praedicantes paupertatem, divites; per idiotas, praedicantes ea quae rationem excedunt, conversi sunt sapientes et philosophi. Ps. XVIII, 5: in omnem terram exivit sonus eorum, et cetera.
But Augustine says that this pertains to the evidence of this faith, using this argument: for believing things of faith, miracles are either performed or not. But if miracles are performed, I have my point, that they are most worthy and most certain. If none is performed, this is the greatest of all miracles, that by a certain few an infinite multitude of men were converted to the faith, rich men by poor men preaching poverty; by men of one language preaching things that surpass reason, wise men and philosophers have been converted: their voice goes out through all the earth (Ps 19:4).
Sed si obiiciatur, quod etiam lex Mahometi recepta est a multis, dicendum quod non est simile, quia ille opprimendo et vi armorum subiugavit eos; sed isti apostoli moriendo, ipsi alios ad fidem duxerunt, et faciendo signa et prodigia. Ille enim proponebat quaedam quae ad delicias et lascivias pertinent, sed Christus et apostoli terrenorum contemptum. I Thess. II, 13: cum accepistis a nobis verbum Dei, et cetera.
But if it is objected that even the law of Mohammed has been received by many, the answer is that the cases are not alike, because he subjugated them by oppressing them and by force of arms, but the apostles by dying brought others to the faith, and by working signs and prodigies. For he proposed things which pertain to pleasure and lasciviousness, but Christ and the apostles contempt for earthly things: when you received the word of God, which you heard from us, you received it . . . as the word of God (1 Thess 2:13).
891. Tertio quantum ad virtutem, quia confirmat et elevat ad caelestia. Ideo dicit in quo statis, scilicet elevati ad caelestia. Ille enim dicitur stare qui rectus est, et hoc sola lex Christi facit. Rom. V, 1: iustificati per fidem, et cetera. Lex enim vetus non faciebat stare, sed curvabat ad terrena. Deut. XXXIII, 28: oculus Iacob in terra frumenti et vini.
891. Third, as to its strength, because it confirms and elevates to heavenly things. Therefore, he says: wherein you stand, namely, elevated to heavenly things. For he is said to stand who is erect and this the law of Christ alone does: justified by faith, we have access to that grace in which we stand (Rom 5:1). For the old law made one stand, but it curved one to earthly things: the eye of Jacob in a land of grain and wine (Deut 33:28).
892. Quarto quantum ad utilitatem, quia sola nova lex perducit ad finem salutis; vetus autem non. Hebr. VII, 19: neminem ad perfectum adduxit lex. Et ideo dicit per quod et salvamini. Hic iam ex certitudine spei per inchoationem, quae est per fidem, salvamini, et in futuro in veritate rei et spei. Iac. c. I, 21: in mansuetudine suscipite insitum verbum, et cetera. Io. XX, 31: haec autem scripta sunt, ut credatis, et ut credentes, et cetera.
892. Fourth, as to usefulness, because the new law alone leads to the end of salvation, but not the old law: the law brought no one to perfection (Heb 7:19). And therefore he says: by which also you are saved. Here already from the certitude of hope through the beginning, which is our faith, you are saved and in the future in the truth of the reality: receive with meekness the implanted word which can save your souls (Jas 1:21); but these things are written that you may believe and that believing you may have life (John 20:31).
Et apponit hic duas conditiones. Primam cum dicit si tenetis, et cetera. Glossa sic exponit: si tenetis qua ratione praedicavi vobis, illud Evangelium, id est resurrectionem mortuorum, ea ratione, qua confirmavi vobis, id est per resurrectionem Christi. Vel aliter: salvamini, ita tamen si tenetis, id est, si servatis ea ratione qua praedicavi vobis Evangelium Christi.
Here he lays down two conditions, the first is when he says: if you hold fast. A Gloss explains it this way: if you hold to the reason why I preached that Gospel to you, i.e., the resurrection of the dead, by that reason by which I confirmed it to you, i.e., by the resurrection of Christ. In other words: you will be saved provided you hold, i.e., preserve the reason why I preached the Gospel of Christ to you.
Secunda conditionem ponit cum dicit nisi frustra credidistis. Quasi dicat: salvamini per fidem, si non frustra credidistis, id est si fidei adduntur bona opera, quia fides sine operibus mortua est, Iac. II, 26. Illud enim dicitur esse frustra, quod est ad finem quem non consequitur. Finis autem fidei est visio Dei. Unde si non salvamini, frustra credidistis, non simpliciter, sed inquantum non pervenit ad finem. Vel aliter: si tenetis, quasi dicat, teneatis, nisi frustra, et cetera.
He presents the second condition when he says: unless you have believed in vain. As if to say: you will be saved through faith, if you have not believed in vain, i.e., if good works are added to faith, because faith without works is dead (Jas 2:26). For that is said to be in vain which exists for an end which it does not attain. But the end of faith is the vision of God. Hence, if you are not saved, you have believed in vain, not absolutely but inasmuch as it does not attain the end. In other words: if you hold fast. As if to say: you should hold it fast, unless you would believe in vain.
893. Tradidi enim. Hic ostendit propositum, et cetera.
893. For I delivered unto you. Here he clarifies his proposition.
Circa hoc tria facit.
In regard to this he does three things:
Primo ostendit originem doctrinae de resurrectione Christi;
first, he shows the origin of the doctrine about the resurrection of Christ;
secundo ostendit ea quae in doctrina huiusmodi continentur, ibi quoniam Christus mortuus;
second, he shows what things are contained in such a doctrine, at how Christ died for our sins;
tertio consonantiam seu convenientiam praedicantium ad hanc doctrinam, ibi sive enim ego, et cetera.
third, the agreement of preachers on this doctrine, at for whether I or they.
894. Dicit ergo primo: istud debetis tenere, id est memoria habere, quod tradidi vobis in primis, et adhuc trado.
894. First, therefore, he says: you should hold fast to that, i.e., keep in your memory what I delivered unto you first of all, and still deliver.