Vir terrenus et vir caelestis
The earthly and the heavenly man
15:44 seminatur corpus animale, surget corpus spiritale. Si est corpus animale, est et spiritale, [n. 989]
15:44 It is sown a natural body: it shall rise a spiritual body. If there be a natural body, there is also a spiritual body, [n. 989]
15:45 sicut scriptum est: factus est primus homo Adam in animam viventem, novissimus Adam in spiritum vivificantem.
15:45 As it is written: the first man Adam was made into a living soul; the last Adam into a life-giving spirit.
15:46 Sed non prius quod spiritale est, sed quod animale: deinde quod spiritale. [n. 994]
15:46 Yet that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural: afterwards that which is spiritual. [n. 994]
15:47 Primus homo de terra, terrenus: secundus homo de caelo, caelestis. [n. 995]
15:47 The first man was of the earth, earthly: the second man, from heaven, heavenly. [n. 995]
15:48 Qualis terrenus, tales et terreni: et qualis caelestis, tales et caelestes.
15:48 Such as is the earthly, such also are the earthly: and such as is the heavenly, such also are the heavenly.
15:49 Igitur, sicut portavimus imaginem terreni, portemus et imaginem caelestis. [n. 998]
15:49 Therefore, as we have borne the image of the earthly, let us bear also the image of the heavenly. [n. 998]
15:50 Hoc autem dico, fratres: quia caro et sanguis regnum Dei possidere non possunt: neque corruptio incorruptelam possidebit. [n. 999]
15:50 Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot possess the kingdom of God: neither shall corruption possess incorruption. [n. 999]
989. Hic Apostolus differentiam qualitatis corporum morientium ad corpora resurgentium supra exemplis ostensam, ostendit ratione.
989. Here the Apostle shows by reason the difference of the quality of the dead body to the body of the resurrection, indicated by the examples above.
Circa autem hoc duo facit.
Regarding this he does two things.
Primo enim praemittit quod probare intendit;
First, he presents what he intends to prove;
secundo praemissum probat, ibi sicut scriptum est, et cetera.
second, he proves what he presented, at as it is written.
990. Dicit ergo primo: dixi quod id quod seminatur animale, surget spirituale, et, quod hoc sit verum, scilicet quod sit aliquod corpus spirituale, ostendo, quia si est corpus animale, est et spirituale. Et non intendit Apostolus ex hoc arguere ad propositum sed hoc supponit, intendens probare ipsum quod dicit si est corpus, et cetera. Eccli. XXXIII, 15: intuere in omnia opera Altissimi, duo contra duo, et unum contra unum.
990. Therefore he says first: I say that what is sown animal rises spiritual, and I show that this is true, namely, that something is a spiritual body, because if it is an animal body, it is also spiritual. And the Apostle does not intend to argue from this to the proposition, but he accepts this, intending to prove just what he says, if there be a natural body: look upon all the works of the Most High; they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other (Sir 33:15).
991. Sicut scriptum est, et cetera. Hic probat propositum. Est autem sua probatio talis: duo sunt principia humani generis; unum secundum vitam naturae, scilicet Adam, aliud secundum vitam gratiae, scilicet Christus; sed animalitas est derivativa in omnes homines a primo principio, scilicet Adam; ergo constat quod multo amplius a secundo principio, scilicet Christo, spiritualitas derivabitur in omnes homines.
991. As it is written. Here he proves the proposition. His demonstration is as follows: there are two principles of human generation; one according to natural life, namely Adam; the other according to the life of grace, namely Christ. But animality is distributed in all men by the first principle, namely, Adam. Therefore, it is certain that to a much greater extent, by means of the second principle, that is to say, Christ, spiritual life is distributed in all men.
Huius rationis, primo, probat primam diversitatem principiorum, secundo mediam, scilicet determinationem similitudinis ex utroque principiorum, ibi qualis terrenus, et cetera.
The reason for this, first, he proves, the first difference of the principles; second the middle term, namely, the determination of likeness from both of the principles, at such as is the earthly.
Circa primum tria facit.
In regard to the first, he does three things.
Primo ostendit principiorum differentiam;
First, he shows the difference of the principles;
secundo principiorum ordinem ad invicem, ibi sed non prius quod spirituale, etc.;
second, the mutual order of the principles, at yet that was not first which is spiritual;
tertio rationis ordinem assignat, ibi primus, et cetera.
third, he assigns the order of reason, at the first man was of the earth.
992. Ponit ergo, primo, conditionem primi principii secundum vitam naturae, sumens auctoritatem Gen. II, 7. Unde dicit sicut scriptum est: factus est, a Deo, primus homo Adam in animam viventem, vita scilicet animali, qualem anima potest dare, cum scilicet spiravit Dominus in faciem eius spiraculum vitae, Gen. II, 7. Forma enim humana et anima dicitur et spiritus. Inquantum enim intendit curae corporis, scilicet vegetando, nutriendo et generando, sic dicitur anima; inquantum autem intendit cognitioni, scilicet intelligendo, volendo et huiusmodi, sic dicitur spiritus. Unde cum dicit factus est primus homo Adam in animam viventem, intendit hic Apostolus de vita qua anima deservit circa corpus, non de Spiritu Sancto, sicut quidam fingunt, propter hoc quod praecedit et inspiravit in faciem eius spiraculum vitae, dicentes hoc esse Spiritum Sanctum.
992. Therefore he lays down first the condition of the first principle according to natural life, drawing on the authority of Genesis (Gen 2:7). Hence he says, as it is written: ‘the first man Adam was made into a living soul’, namely, an animal life which the soul is able to give, when, namely, God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life (Gen 2:7). For the human form and soul is also called spirit. For insofar as he is concerned with the care of the body, namely, with animating, nourishing and generating, thus it is called ‘soul.’ However, insofar as he is concerned with knowledge, namely, with understanding, willing and the like, thus it is called ‘spirit.’ Therefore when he says, the first man Adam was made into a living soul, the Apostle has in mind here the life by which the soul is devoted concerning the body, not the Holy Spirit, as some imagine, by reason of what was cited above: and he breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, saying that this is the Holy Spirit.
Secundo ponit conditionem secundi principii, dicens novissimus vero Adam, id est Christus. Et dicitur novissimus, quia Adam induxit unum statum, scilicet culpae, Christus vero gloriae et vitae. Unde cum post statum istum nullus alius sequatur in vita ista, ideo dicitur novissimus. Is. LIII, 2 s.: desideravimus eum despectum et novissimum virorum. Et alibi scilicet Apoc. I, 17: ego Primus et Novissimus. Et alibi: ego sum Alpha et Omega, et cetera.
Second, he lays down the condition of the second principle, saying, the last true Adam, i.e., Christ. And he is called the last because Adam introduced one state, namely of guilt; Christ of true glory and life. Hence, since after that state no other one followed in that life, therefore he is called the last: we desired him, despised and last of men (Isa 53:2); I am the First and the Last (Rev 1:17); and elsewhere: I am the Alpha and the Omega (Rev 21:6).
Dicit autem Adam, quia de natura Adae factus in spiritum viventem.
But he says, Adam, because from the nature of Adam he was made a living spirit.
993. Et ex hoc, conditionibus principiorum visis, apparet eorum diversitas, quia primus homo factus est in animam, novissimus in spiritum. Ille autem in animam viventem solum, iste vero in spiritum viventem et vivificantem.
993. And from this, with the conditions of the principles perceived, the difference between them is evident, because the first man was made ‘animal,’ the last man ‘spiritual.’ The former was made a living animal only, the latter truly a living and life-giving spirit.
Cuius ratio est: quia, sicut Adam consecutus est perfectionem sui esse per animam, ita et Christus perfectionem sui esse, inquantum homo, per Spiritum Sanctum. Et ideo cum anima non possit nisi proprium corpus vivificare, ideo Adam factus est in animam, non vivificantem, sed viventem tantum; sed Christus factus est in spiritum viventem et vivificantem, et ideo Christus habuit potestatem vivificandi. Io. I, 16: de plenitudine eius, etc., et Io. X, 10: veni ut vitam habeant et abundantius habeant. Et in symbolo: et in Spiritum Sanctum vivificantem.
The reason for this is because, just as Adam obtained the perfection of his being through the soul, so too Christ obtained the perfection of his being, as far as he was man, through the Holy Spirit. And therefore, since the soul could not give life to the body except properly, so Adam was made ‘animal’, not life-giving, but just living. But Christ was made a living and life-giving spirit, and so Christ had life-giving power: from his fullness (John 1:16): I have come that they may have life, and have it abundantly (John 10:10); and in the Creed: and in the life-giving Holy Spirit.
994. Sed ne aliquis diceret: si Christus factus est in spiritum vivificantem, quare dicitur novissimus? Ideo, consequenter, cum dicit sed non prius, etc., ostendit ordinem principiorum.
994. But someone might say, If Christ was made a life-giving spirit, why is he called last? Therefore, accordingly, when he says, yet that was not first which is spiritual, he shows the order of principles.
Videmus enim in natura quod in uno et eodem, prius est imperfectum quam perfectum. Unde cum spiritualitas se habeat ad animalitatem, sicut perfectum ad imperfectum, ideo in humana natura non prius debet esse spirituale, quod est perfectum, sed, ut servetur ordo, prius debet esse imperfectum, scilicet quod animale est, deinde perfectum, scilicet quod spirituale est. Supra c. XIII, 10: cum venerit quod perfectum est, et cetera.
We see in nature that in one and the same thing, the imperfect is prior to the perfect. And so since the spiritual state is situated with respect to the animal state, as the perfect to the imperfect, then in human nature the spiritual must not be prior, which is the perfect, but so that order might be preserved, the imperfect must be first, namely, what is animal, then the perfect, namely, what is spiritual: but when that which is perfect is come, that which is in part shall be done away (1 Cor 13:10).
Sicut dicit Augustinus, huius signum est, quod primogeniti antiquitus consueverunt esse animales, sicut Cain ante Abel natus, Ismael ante Isaac, et Esau ante Iacob.
As Augustine says, the sign of this is that the firstborn of antiquity are commonly ‘animal,’ as Cain was born before Abel, Ishmael before Isaac, and Esau before Jacob.
995. Rationem autem dictae diversitatis assignat dicens primus homo, etc., quasi dicat: vere primus homo factus est in animam viventem, quia de terra, Gen. II, 7: formavit Dominus hominem de limo terrae, et ideo dicitur esse terrenus, id est animalis; secundus homo, scilicet Christus, factus est in spiritum vivificantem, quia de caelo; quia divina natura quae fuit huic naturae unita, de caelo est. Et ideo debet esse caelestis, id est, talem perfectionem debet habere, qualem decet de caelo venire, scilicet perfectionem spiritualem. Io. III, 31: qui de caelo venit, super omnes est.
995. He assigns the reason for what is said about diversity, saying, the first man. As if to say: truly the first man was made a living animal, because he is of the earth: God formed man of dust from the ground (Gen 2:7), and therefore he is said to be of the earth, i.e., animal. The second man, namely Christ, was made a life-giving spirit, because he is from heaven. Because it is the divine nature that was united to this nature, he is from heaven. And therefore he must be heavenly, i.e., he ought to have such perfection that it is fitting it come from heaven, namely, spiritual perfection: he who comes from heaven is above all (John 3:31).
Dicit autem primum hominem de terra, secundum modum loquendi, quo res de illo esse dicuntur quia prima pars est in eorum fieri, sicut cultellus dicitur de ferro quia prima pars, unde est cultellus, est ferrum. Et quia prima pars unde Adam factus est, terra est, ideo, dicitur de terra. Secundus homo dicitur de caelo, non quod attulerit corpus de caelo, cum de terra assumpserit, scilicet de corpore Beatae Virginis, sed quia divinitas (quae naturae humanae unita est) de caelo venit, quae fuit prior quam corpus Christi.
He says that the first man is from the earth, in the manner described, by which things from that one are said to be because the first part is in their coming to be, as a knife is said to be from iron because the first part whence the knife is is iron. And because the first part of whence Adam was made is earth, he is said to be from the earth. Accordingly he is called the man from heaven, not that he will have borne his body from heaven, since he will have assumed it from the earth, namely, from the body of the Blessed Virgin, but because the divinity (which was united to the human nature) comes from heaven, which was prior to the body of Christ.
Sic ergo patet principiorum diversitas, quod erat maior propositio rationis principalis.
So then the diversity of principles is clear, which was the major proposition of the principal reason.
996. Consequenter cum dicit qualis terrenus, etc., ostendit derivationem similitudinis horum principiorum ex utroque, et
996. Then when he says, such as is the earthly, he shows the derivation of the likeness of these principles from each one:
primo in communi,
first, in common;
secundo dividit eam per partes, ibi igitur sicut portavimus, et cetera.
second, he divides it into parts, at therefore, as we have borne.
997. Dicit ergo qualis terrenus, etc., quasi dicat: primus homo, quia terrenus fuit et mortalis, ideo derivatum est ut omnes essent et terreni et mortales. Supra eodem v. 22: et sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur. Zach. XIII, 5: Adam exemplum meum, et cetera.
997. He says, therefore, such as is the earthly. As if to say: because the first man was of the earth and mortal, so it follows that all were both of the earth and mortal: for as in Adam all die (1 Cor 15:22); Adam was my exemplar (Zech 13:5).
Quia vero fuit secundus homo caelestis, id est spiritualis et immortalis, ideo omnes et immortales et spirituales erimus. Rom. c. VI, 5: sed complantati facti sumus similitudini, et cetera.
Because the second man was from heaven, i.e., spiritual and immortal, so we all will be both immortal and spiritual: for if we have been united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his (Rom 6:5).