Manner of the resurrection
15:51 Ecce mysterium vobis dico: omnes quidem resurgemus, sed non omnes immutabimur. [n. 1001]
15:51 Behold, I tell you a mystery. We shall all indeed rise again: but we shall not all be changed. [n. 1001]
15:52 In momento, in ictu oculi, in novissima tuba: canet enim tuba, et mortui resurgent incorrupti: et nos immutabimur. [n. 1005]
15:52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet: for the trumpet shall sound and the dead shall rise again incorruptible. And we shall be changed. [n. 1005]
1001. Hic Apostolus postquam respondit quaestioni de qualitate resurgentium, respondet consequenter quaestioni qua quaerebatur de modo et ordine resurgendi.
1001. After responding to the question on the quality of the resurrection, the Apostle then responds to the question which was asked about the mode and order of the resurrection.
Et circa hoc duo facit.
And concerning this he does two things.
Primo ostendit modum et ordinem resurrectionis;
First, he shows the mode and order of the resurrection;
secundo confirmat per auctoritatem, ibi cum autem mortale hoc, et cetera.
second, he confirms it by an authority, at and when this mortal (1 Cor 15:54).
Circa primum duo facit.
Concerning the first, he does two things.
Primo enim proponit intentum;
First, he sets forth the aim;
secundo ostendit quo ordine fiat, ibi in momento, in ictu oculi, et cetera.
second, he shows by what order it will be done, at in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye.
1002. Primo igitur reddit eos attentos, ostendens id quod proponit esse arduum et occultum, dicens ecce mysterium, id est occultum quoddam, dico vobis, id est aperio vobis, fratres, quod debet vobis aperiri et omnibus credentibus. Lc. VIII, 10: vobis datum est nosse, et cetera. Supra, II, 6: sapientiam loquimur inter perfectos, et, post: sed loquimur Dei sapientiam quae abscondita est, et cetera.
1002. First, then, he renders them attentive, showing that what he is setting forth is difficult and hidden, saying, behold, a mystery, i.e., a certain mystery I tell you, i.e., I uncover for you, brethren, what ought to be uncovered for you and for all believers: to you it has been given to know the secrets of the kingdom of God (Luke 8:10); yet among the mature we do impart wisdom . . . but we impart a secret and hidden wisdom of God (1 Cor 2:6–7).
1003. Quid autem sit istud mysterium, subdit omnes quidem, et cetera.
1003. What that mystery is, he adds, we shall all indeed rise.
Circa primum sciendum est, quod sicut Hieronymus dicit, in quadam epistola ad Minervium et Alexandrum monachos, hoc quod hic dicitur omnes quidem resurgemus, etc., in nullo libro Graecorum habetur; sed in quibusdam habetur omnes quidem dormiemus, id est omnes moriemur. Et dicitur mors somnus, propter spem resurrectionis. Unde idem est ac si diceret omnes quidem resurgemus, quia nullus resurget nisi moriatur.
It should be understood concerning the first that, as Jerome says in a certain letter to the monks Minerva and Alexander: what is said here, we shall all indeed rise, is not found in any book of the Greeks, but in certain ones is found, we shall all sleep, i.e., we shall all die. And it is called the death of sleep because of the hope of the resurrection. Hence it is the same as if one said, we shall all rise, because no one rises unless he has died.
Sed non omnes immutabimur. Hoc non mutatur in libris Graecis. Et hoc est verum, quia ista mutatio, de qua hic loquitur, non erit nisi secundum corpora beatorum, quia immutabuntur ad illa quatuor quae supra posita sunt, quae dicuntur dotes corporum gloriosorum. Et hanc desiderabat Iob. XIV, 14: cunctis diebus quibus nunc milito, expecto, donec veniat immutatio mea.
But we shall not all be changed. This is not altered in the books of the Greeks. And this is true, because that change which is spoken of here will not occur except according to the blessed body, because they shall be changed to those four qualities set down above, which are called the marks of glorified bodies. And this is what Job desired: all the days of my service I would wait, till my release should come (Job 14:14).
1004. In quibusdam vero libris invenitur: non omnes quidem dormiemus, id est, moriemur, sed omnes immutabimur. Et hoc intelligitur dupliciter.
1004. In certain books is found: we shall not all sleep, i.e., die, but we shall all be changed. And this is understood in two ways.
Primo ad litteram, quia quorumdam opinio fuit quod non omnes homines morientur, sed quod aliqui in adventu Christi ad iudicium venient vivi, et isti non morientur sed isti mutabuntur in statum incorruptionis, et, propter hoc dicunt non omnes quidem dormiemus, id est moriemur, sed omnes immutabimur, tam boni quam mali et tam vivi quam mortui. Unde secundum hos immutatio non intelligitur de statu animalitatis ad statum spiritualitatis, quia, secundum hanc, soli boni immutabuntur, sed de statu corruptionis ad statum incorruptionis.
First, literally, because the opinion of certain men is that not all men will die, but that at the coming of Christ some will come alive to the judgment, and these will not die, but they will be changed to the state of incorruption; and because of this they say, we shall not all sleep, i.e., die, but we shall all be changed, as much to good as to evil, as much to live as to die. Hence, according to these, the change is not understood from the state of animal to the state of spiritual, because according to this, they will be changed only to good, but from the state of corruption to the state of incorruption.
Alio modo exponitur mystice ab Origene, et dicit quod hoc non dicitur de somno mortis, quia omnes morientur, Ps. LXXXVIII, 49: quis est homo qui vivet, etc., sed de somno peccati, de quo in Ps. XII, 4: illumina oculos meos ne unquam obdormiam, ut sic dicatur: non omnes moriemur, id est non omnes peccabimus mortaliter, sed omnes immutabimur, sicut supra de statu corruptionis ad incorruptionem.
It is explained in another way, mystically, by Origen, who says that this is not said about the sleep of death, because all will die: what man can live and never see death? (Ps 89:48); from which in Psalm 13: lighten my eyes lest I sleep the sleep of death (Ps 13:3); so that thus it is said, we shall not all sleep, i.e., we shall not all sin mortally, but we shall all be changed, just as above, from the state of corruption to incorruption.
Et licet haec littera, scilicet non omnes moriemur, etc., non sit contra fidem, tamen Ecclesia magis acceptat primam, scilicet quod omnes moriemur sive resurgemus, etc.; quia omnes morientur etiam si sint tunc aliqui vivi.
And although these words, namely, we shall not all sleep, are not contrary to the faith, nevertheless the Church accepts with better reason the first explanation, namely, that we shall all die if we shall rise, because all will die even if some are then alive.
1005. Ordinem autem et modum resurrectionis manifestat consequenter cum dicit in momento, in ictu oculi, et cetera. Et hoc quantum ad tria.
1005. Next he exhibits the order and mode of the resurrection when he says, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye. Concerning this he does three things.
Primo enim manifestat ordinem quantum ad tempus;
First, he exhibits the order with respect to time;
secundo quantum ad causam resurrectionis, ibi in novissima tuba;
second, with respect to the cause of the resurrection, at at the last trumpet;
tertio quantum ad progressum effectus a causa, ibi canet enim tuba, et cetera.
third, with respect to the progress produced by the cause, at for the trumpet shall sound.
1006. Dicit ergo quod omnes resurgemus, sed quomodo? In momento.
1006. He says therefore that we all shall rise, but in what manner? In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye.
Per quod excludit errorem dicentium resurrectionem non esse futuram omnium simul, sed dicunt quod martyres resurgent ante alios per mille annos, et tunc Christus descendet cum illis, et possidebit regnum corporale Ierusalem mille annis cum eis. Et haec fuit opinio Lactantii. Sed hoc patet esse falsum, quia omnes in momento resurgemus et in ictu oculi.
By this he excludes the error stated that the future resurrection will not be at the same time, but they say that the martyrs will rise before the others by a thousand years, and then Christ will descend with them, and he will possess the corporeal kingdom of Jerusalem for a thousand years with them. This is the opinion of Lactantius, but this is clearly false, because we all shall rise in a moment and in the twinkling of an eye.
Excluditur etiam per hoc alius error eiusdem qui dicebat quod iudicium duraturum erat per spatium mille annorum. Sed hoc est falsum, quia non erit ibi aliquod perceptibile tempus, sed in momento, et cetera.
Another of his errors is excluded by this, namely when he said that the judgment was to last for an interval of a thousand years. But this is false, because there will not be any perceptible time, but it will be in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye.
1007. Sciendum est autem quod momentum potest accipi vel pro ipso instanti temporis, quod dicitur nunc, vel pro aliquo tempore imperceptibili; tamen utroque modo potest accipi hoc, referendo illud ad diversa. Quia si nos referamus hoc ad collectionem pulverum (quae fiet ministerio angelorum), tunc momentum accipitur pro tempore imperceptibili. Cum enim in collectione illorum pulverum sit mutatio de loco ad locum, oportet quod sit ibi tempus aliquod. Si autem referamus ad reunitionem corporum et pro unione animae, quae omnia fient a Deo, tunc momentum accipitur pro instanti temporis, quia Deus in instanti unit animam corpori et vivificat corpus.
1007. It should be understood that a moment can be taken either for the instant of time itself, which is called ‘now,’ or for a certain imperceptible time. Nevertheless in both ways this can be received by referring it to contrary things. Because if we refer this to the gathering of dust (which will be done by the ministry of the angels), then a moment is taken for an imperceptible time. For since in the gathering of that dust there is a change from place to place, it is necessary that there be a certain time. If we refer it to the reuniting of bodies and for their union with souls, all of which will be done by God, then a moment is taken for an instant of time, because God in an instant unites the soul to the body, and vivifies the body.
Potest etiam hoc quod dicit in ictu oculi, ad utrumque referri, quasi si in ictu oculi intelligitur tantum apertio palpebrarum (quae fit in tempore perceptibili), tunc refertur ad collectionem pulverum. Si vero in ictu oculi intelligitur ipse subitus contuitus oculi, et qui fit in instanti, tunc refertur ad unionem animae ad corpus.
It is possible that what he says, in the twinkling of an eye, is referred to either of the two; if in the twinkling of an eye is understood as the opening of the eyelids (which happens in a perceptible time), then it is referred to the gathering of dust. If however in the twinkling of an eye is understood as the instantaneous sight of the eye itself, which happens in an instant, then it is referred to the union of the soul to the body.
1008. Consequenter cum dicit in novissima tuba, ostendit ordinem resurrectionis, quantum ad causam immediatam.
1008. Then when he says, at the last trumpet, he shows the order of the resurrection as to its immediate cause.
Et ista tuba est vox illa Christi, de qua Matth. XXVI, 6 dicitur: media nocte clamor factus est; Io. V, 25: audient vocem Filii Dei, et qui audierint, et cetera.
And that trumpet is the voice of Christ, about which it is said in Matthew: but at midnight there was a cry (Matt 25:6); the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live (John 5:25).
Vel ipsa praesentia Christi manifesta mundo, secundum quod dicit Gregorius: tuba nihil aliud esse designat, quam praesentiam Christi mundo manifestatam, quae dicitur tuba propter manifestationem, quia omnibus erit manifesta. Et hoc modo accipitur tuba Matth. VI, 2: cum facis eleemosynam, noli tuba canere ante te.
Or it is the presence of Christ himself manifested to the world, as Gregory says, the trumpet signifies nothing other than the presence of Christ manifest to the world, which is called a trumpet for the sake of manifestation, because it will be manifest to all. And trumpet is taken this way in Matthew: thus, when you give alms, sound no trumpet before you (Matt 6:2).
Item dicitur tuba propter officium tubae, quod erat ad quatuor, ut dicitur Num. X, v. 1–10, scilicet ad vocandum consilium, et hoc erit in resurrectione, quia tunc convocabit ad consilium, id est ad iudicium. Is. III, v. 14: Dominus ad iudicium veniet, et cetera. Ad solemnizandum festum. Ps. LXXX, 4: buccinate in Neomenia tuba. Sic et in resurrectione. Is. XXXIII, 20: respice Sion civitatem solemnitatis nostrae. Ad pugnam, et hoc in resurrectione. Sap. V, 21: pugnabit pro illo, et cetera. Is. XXX, 32: in cytharis et tympanis, et cetera. Ad movendum castra, sic et in resurrectione: quidam eundo ad paradisum, quidam eundo ad infernum. Matth. XXV, 46: ibunt qui bona fecerunt in vitam aeternam, qui vero mala in ignem aeternum.
Likewise it is called a trumpet because of the office of the trumpet, which was fourfold, as it is said in Numbers, namely, for the calling of the assembly, and this will be in the resurrection, because then he will call to council, that is, to the judgment: the Lord enters into judgment (Num 10:1ff). Second, for the solemnizing of a feast: blow the trumpet at the new moon (Ps 81:3); so too in the resurrection: look upon Zion, the city of our appointed feasts (Isa 33:20). Third, for war, and this too is in the resurrection: and will leap to the target as from a well-drawn bow of clouds (Wis 5:21); to the sound of timbrels and lyres (Isa 30:32). Fourth, for the moving of the camp, and so too in the resurrection, some by going to heaven, some by going to hell: and they will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life (Matt 25:46).
1009. Consequenter cum dicit canet enim tuba, etc., ponit progressum effectus a causa praedicta.
1009. Then when he says, for the trumpet shall sound, he establishes the progress effected by the cause predicated.
Et circa hoc duo facit.
Concerning this, he does two things.
Primo enim ponit progressum effectus;
First, he establishes the progress effected;
secundo necessitatem huius assignat, ibi oportet enim mortale, et cetera.
second, he indicates the necessity of this, at for this corruptible (1 Cor 15:53).