Victoria super mortem in Christo
Victory over death in Christ
15:53 Oportet enim corruptibile hoc induere incorruptionem: et mortale hoc induere immortalitatem. [n. 1012]
15:53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption: and this mortal must put on immortality. [n. 1012]
15:54 Cum autem mortale hoc induerit immortalitatem, tunc fiet sermo, qui scriptus est: absorpta est mors in victoria. [n. 1016]
15:54 And when this mortal has put on immortality, then shall come to pass the saying that is written: death is swallowed up in victory. [n. 1016]
15:55 Ubi est mors victoria tua? ubi est mors stimulus tuus? [n. 1018]
15:55 O death, where is your victory? O death, where is your sting? [n. 1018]
15:56 Stimulus autem mortis peccatum est: virtus vero peccati lex.
15:56 Now the sting of death is sin: and the power of sin is the law.
15:57 Deo autem gratias, qui dedit nobis victoriam per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum. [n. 1022]
15:57 But thanks be to God, who has given us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. [n. 1022]
15:58 Itaque fratres mei dilecti, stabiles estote, et immobiles: abundantes in opere Domini semper, scientes quod labor vester non est inanis in Domino. [n. 1023]
15:58 Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast and unmoveable: always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord. [n. 1023]
1012. Hic Apostolus ponit necessitatem effectus resurrectionis ab ipsa causa progredientis. Et circa hoc duo ponit correspondentia duobus quae posuerat in progressu effectuum ab ipsa causa. Primum fuit generale omnium, scilicet quod mortui resurgent incorrupti. Et ideo, primo, quantum ad hoc dicit oportet corruptibile hoc induere incorruptionem. Secundum fuit speciale apostolis et bonis, scilicet et nos immutabimur, et ideo, secundo, quantum ad hoc dicit et mortale hoc induere immortalitatem.
1012. Here the Apostle established the necessary effect of the resurrection proceeding from its own cause. And concerning this he establishes two things in correspondence with the two he had established in the progress of the effects from the cause itself. The first is general for all, namely, that the dead shall rise again incorruptible (1 Cor 15:52). And so first he says concerning this, for this corruptible must put on incorruption. The second is particular for the apostles and the good, namely, and we shall be changed (1 Cor 15:52), and so, second, he says concerning this, and this mortal must put on immortality.
1013. Quia enim corruptibile opponitur incorruptibili, et in statu praesentis vitae subiicimur corruptioni, ideo dicit quod cum resurgemus, oportet hoc corruptibile, etc., necessitate scilicet congruentiae. Et hoc propter tria.
1013. For because the corruptible is contrasted to the incorruptible, and in the present state of life we are subject to corruption, he says that when we rise, this corruptible must put on incorruption, namely, by a necessary congruence. And this for three reasons.
Primo propter completionem humanae naturae. Nam, sicut etiam dicit Augustinus, anima quamdiu est separata a corpore est imperfecta, non habens perfectionem suae naturae, et ideo non est in tanta beatitudine separata existens, in quanta erit corpori unita in resurrectione. Ut ergo perfruatur beatitudine perfecta, oportet corruptibile hoc, id est corpus, induere, ut ornamentum, incorruptionem, ut ulterius aliquatenus non laedatur mortale.
First, for the completion of human nature. For as Augustine says, the soul, inasmuch as it is separated from the body, is imperfect, not possessing the perfection of its nature, and so existing separately it is not in such beatitude as it will be when united to the body in the resurrection. Therefore, so that it might enjoy perfect beatitude, this corruptible, i.e., the body, must put on as an adornment incorruption, so that ‘this mortal’ will not be afflicted further in any degree.
Secundo propter exigentiam divinae iustitiae, ut scilicet illi qui bona fecerunt seu mala in corpore, praemientur vel puniantur etiam in ipsis corporibus.
Second, for the necessity of divine justice, so that those who have done good or evil in the body are rewarded or punished likewise in the same bodies.
Tertio propter conformitatem membrorum ad caput; ut sicut Christus resurrexit a mortuis per gloriam Patris, ita et nos in novitate vitae ambulemus, Rom. VI, 4.
Third, for the conformity of the members to the head, so that just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life (Rom 6:4).
1014. Notandum autem quod ipsam incorruptionem seu immortalitatem assimilat vestimento, cum dicit induere. Vestimentum enim adest vestito et abest, manente eadem numero substantia vestiti, ut per hoc ostendat quod corpora eadem numero resurgant et iidem homines iidem numero erunt in statu incorruptionis et immortalitatis, in quo sunt modo.
1014. It should be noted that he compares incorruption itself or immortality to a garment, when he says, put on. For a garment is present to the one having vested, and absent, remaining the same numerical substance of the one vested, so that by this he shows that the same numerical bodies will rise and the same men will be the same numerically in the state of incorruption and immortality, in which they are now.
Unde ex hoc excluditur error dicentium quod corpora non resurgent eadem numero. Unde signanter dicit oportet corruptibile hoc, scilicet corpus, nam anima non est corruptibilis.
Thus by this the error is excluded that says that the same numerical body will not rise. Hence he says expressly, this corruptible, namely the body, must put on incorruption, for the soul is not corruptible.
Excluditur etiam error dicentium quod corpora glorificata non erunt eadem cum istis, sed caelestia, et de isto modo simile habetur II Cor. V, 2: nam in hoc ingemiscimus, etc.; Is. LII, 1: induere vestimentis gloriae tuae; Iob XL, 5: circumda tibi decorem, et cetera.
Likewise, the error is excluded that says that glorified bodies will not be the same as these, but will be heavenly; and in a similar way 2 Corinthians says: here indeed we groan, and long to put on our heavenly dwelling (2 Cor 2:5); put on your beautiful garments, O Jerusalem (Isa 52:1); deck yourself with majesty and dignity; clothe yourself with glory and splendor (Job 40:10).
1015. Sed contra hoc est, quia videtur impossibile quod corruptibile hoc induat incorruptionem, id est, quod corpora resurgant eadem numero, quia impossibile est ea, quae differunt genere vel specie, esse eadem numero; sed corruptibile et incorruptibile non solum differunt specie, sed genere; ergo impossibile est quod corpora resurgentium sint incorruptibilia, et remaneant eadem numero.
1015. But against this, it seems impossible that this corruptible should put on incorruption, i.e., that the same numerical bodies will rise, because it is impossible for things which differ in genus or species to be the same numerically. But corruptible and incorruptible do not differ in species, but in genus. Therefore, it is impossible that resurrected bodies will be incorruptible and will remain the same numerically.
Praeterea, Philosophus dicit, quod impossibile est quod illa quorum substantia corruptibilis mota est, reintegrentur eadem numero, sed eadem specie; substantia autem corporum humanorum est corruptibilis, ergo impossibile est reintegrari eadem numero.
Moreover, the Philosopher says that it is impossible that the corruptible substance which is changed be restored to the same numerically, but to the same in species. But the substance of human bodies is corruptible; therefore, it is impossible for it to be restored to the same numerically.
Respondeo. Dicendum est, ad primum, quod unumquodque consequitur genus et speciem ex sua natura et non ex aliquo extrinseco suae naturae, et ideo dico, quod si resurrectio corporum futura esset ex principiis naturae corporum, impossibile esset quod corpora resurgerent eadem numero. Sed dico quod incorruptio corporum resurgentium dabitur ab alio principio, quam a natura ipsorum corporum, scilicet a gloria animae, ex cuius beatitudine et incorruptione, tota beatitudo et incorruptio corporum derivabitur. Sicut ergo eiusdem naturae et idem numero est liberum arbitrium, modo dum est volubile ad utramque partem et cum erit firmatum in fine ultimo, ita et eiusdem naturae et idem numero erit corpus, quod modo est corruptibile et tunc, quando per liberum arbitrium firmatum erit per gloriam animae, erit incorruptibile.
I respond: it should be said first that each thing attains to its genus or species from its own nature, and not from something extrinsic to is own nature; and therefore I say that if the resurrection of bodies would be future from the principles of the nature of bodies, it would be impossible that bodies would rise the same numerically. But I say that the incorruption of resurrected bodies will be given from another principle, than from the nature of the bodies themselves, namely, from the glory of the soul, from whose beatitude and incorruption all beatitude and incorruption of bodies will be derived. Therefore, just as free will is of the same nature and the same numerically, while it is in a changeable mode to either side, and when it will be firmly fixed in the final state, so too the body will be of the same nature and the same numerically, in that corruptible mode and then, when by free will it will be firmly fixed by the glory of the soul, it will be incorruptible.
Ad secundum dicendum, quod ratio Philosophi procedit contra illos, qui ponebant omnia, in istis inferioribus, causari ex motu corporum caelestium, et quod revolutis eisdem revolutionibus corporum superiorum, sequebantur iidem effectus numero, qui aliquando fuerant. Unde dicebant quod adhuc Plato idem numero leget Athenis et quod habebit easdem scholas, et eosdem auditores quos habuit. Et ideo Philosophus contra eosdem arguit, quod licet idem caelum numero, et idem sol sit in eisdem revolutionibus, tamen effectus, qui inde proveniunt non consequuntur identitatem numero, sed specie, et hoc secundum viam naturae.
To the second objection, which the reason of the Philosopher advances against those who would maintain that all things in the sublunary bodies are caused by a change of the heavenly bodies, and that by the same turnings of the revolutions of superior bodies, the same numerical effects followed which were at some previous time. Hence they said that still the same numerical Plato will lecture to Athens and that he will have the same schools and the same pupils that he had. And so the Philosopher argues against this, that although there is the same numerical heaven, and the same sun is in its same revolutions, nonetheless the effects which arise from there do not result in numerical identity, but in identity of species, and this according to the course of nature.
Similiter dico, quod si corpora induerent incorruptionem, et surgerent secundum viam naturae, quod non resurgerent eadem numero, sed eadem specie. Sed cum reintegratio et resurrectio, sicut dictum est, fiant virtute divina, dicimus quod corpora erunt eadem numero, cum neque principia individuantia huius hominis sint aliud, quam haec anima, et hoc corpus. In resurrectione autem redibit et anima eadem numero, cum sit incorruptibilis, et hoc corpus idem numero ex eisdem pulveribus, in quibus resolutum fuit, ex virtute divina reparatum, sic erit idem homo numero resurgens.
In like manner, I say that if bodies were to put on incorruption, and were to rise according to the course of nature, they would not rise the same numerically, but the same in species. But since the renewal and the resurrection, as was said, will occur by divine power, we say that bodies will be the same numerically, since the individual principles of that man are nothing other than this soul and this body. In the resurrection the soul too will return the same numerically, since it is incorruptible, and this body will be the same numerically from the same dust from which is was dissolved, restored by divine power; thus it will be the same numerical man who rises.
Nec facio vim in formis intermediis, quia non pono esse aliquam aliam formam substantialem in homine, nisi animam rationalem, a qua habet corpus humanum quod sit animatum natura sensibili et vegetabili et quod sit rationale. Formae vero accidentales nihil impediunt identitatem numeralem quam ponimus.
I do not do violence to the intermediary forms, because I do not hold that there is any other substantial form in man except the rational soul, from which the human body will have it, that it is animated by a sensible and vegetable nature, and that it is rational. Accidental forms in no way hinder the numerical identity that we maintain.
1016. Consequenter cum dicit cum autem corruptibile, etc., confirmat quod dixerat per auctoritatem.
1016. Then when he says, for this corruptible, he confirms what he had said by authority.
Et circa hoc duo facit.
And concerning this he does two things.
Primo ponit auctoritatem;
First, he establishes the authority;
secundo ex ea concludit tria, ibi ubi enim est, mors, et cetera.
second, from this he concludes three things, at O death, where is your victory?
1017. Dicit ergo primo: dixi quod oportet corruptibile hoc induere, etc., sed cum mortale hoc induerit immortalitatem, tunc, scilicet in futuro, quod est contra illos qui dicunt iam resurrectionem factam, fiet sermo qui scriptus, scilicet, absorpta est, et cetera.
1017. Therefore he says first: I said that this corruptible must put on incorruption, but when this mortal has put on immortality, then, namely, in the future (which is against those who say that the resurrection has already happened), then shall come to pass the saying that is written, that is, death is swallowed up in victory.
Hoc secundum translationem nostram non invenitur in aliquo libro Bibliae; si tamen inveniatur in translatione Lxx, non est certum unde sumptum sit. Potest tamen dici hoc esse sumptum ex Is. XXVI, 19: vivent mortui, etc., et XXV, 8: praecipitabit mortem in sempiternum. Osee XIII, 14, ubi nos habemus: ero mors tua, o mors, LXX habent: absorpta est mors in victoria, id est propter victoriam Christi.
This saying, according to our translation, is not found in any book of the Bible; but if it be found in the Septuagint translation, it is not certain whence it is taken. It is possible to say that this saying is taken from Isaiah: the dead shall live, their bodies shall rise (Isa 26:19), and: he will swallow up death forever (Isa 25:8). In Hosea: I will be your death, O death (Hos 13:44); the Septuagint has death is swallowed up in victory, i.e., on account of the victory of Christ.
Et ponit praeteritum pro futuro, propter certitudinem prophetiae. I Petr. III, 22: deglutiens mortem, et cetera.
And he sets down the past for the future on account of the certitude of prophecy (1 Pet 3:22).
1018. Consequenter cum dicit ubi est, mors, victoria tua? etc., concludit tria ex praemissa auctoritate;
1018. Then when he says, O death, where is your victory?, he concludes three things on the basis of authority:
insultationem sanctorum contra mortem,
the scorn of the saints against death;
gratiarum actiones ad Deum, ibi Deo autem gratias,
the actions of thanks toward God, at but thanks be to God;
et admonitionem suam Corinthiis, ibi itaque, fratres mei, et cetera.
and his admonition to the Corinthians, at therefore, my beloved brethren.
Circa primum duo facit.
Concerning the first he does two things.
Primo ponit insultationem, secundo exponit, ibi stimulus autem, et cetera.
First, he mentions the scorn; second, he explains it, at now the sting of death.
1019. Loquens ergo Apostolus de victoria Christi contra mortem, quasi in quodam speciali gaudio positus, assumit personam virorum resurgentium, dicens ubi est, mors, victoria tua?
1019. The Apostle, therefore, speaking of the victory of Christ over death, as if established in some special joy, takes upon himself the person of resurrected man, saying, O death, where is your victory?