Wisdom of the saints
2:13 quae et loquimur non in doctis humanae sapientiae verbis, sed in doctrina Spiritus, spiritualibus spiritualia comparantes. [n. 109]
2:13 Which things also we speak: not in the learned words of human wisdom, but in the doctrine of the Spirit, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. [n. 109]
2:14 Animalis autem homo non percipit ea quae sunt Spiritus Dei: stultitia enim est illi, et non potest intelligere: quia spiritualiter examinatur. [n. 110]
2:14 But the sensual man perceives not these things that are of the Spirit of God. For it is foolishness to him: and he cannot understand, because it is spiritually examined. [n. 110]
2:15 Spiritualis autem judicat omnia: et ipse a nemine judicatur. [n. 116]
2:15 But the spiritual man judges all things: and he himself is judged of no man. [n. 116]
2:16 Quis enim cognovit sensum Domini, qui instruat eum? nos autem sensum Christi habemus. [n. 119]
2:16 For who has known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ. [n. 119]
108. Dixerat supra Apostolus sapientiam loquimur inter perfectos. Postquam ergo manifestavit qualis sit haec sapientia, quia mundanis hominibus incognita, cognita autem sanctis, hic manifestat qua ratione hanc sapientiam sancti inter perfectos loquuntur. Et
108. Above, the Apostle had said, we speak wisdom among the perfect (1 Cor 2:6). Therefore, after indicating that it is a mark of this wisdom not to be known by worldly men, but to be known by the saints, he now discloses the way in which the saints speak this wisdom among the perfect.
primo proponit quod intendit;
First, he states his proposition;
secundo assignat rationem, ibi animalis autem homo, et cetera.
second, he gives the reason, at but the sensual man.
109. Circa primum, primo proponit revelatorum manifestationem, dicens: dictum est quod Spiritum Dei accepimus, ut sciamus quae a Deo donata sunt nobis, quae scilicet nobis per Spiritum revelata sunt, loquimur. Sunt enim eis revelata ad utilitatem. Unde et Act. II, 4: repleti sunt omnes Spiritu Sancto, et coeperunt loqui.
109. As to the first he shows that the things revealed are now manifest, saying: I have said that we have received the Spirit of God, that we may know the things given us by God; which things, namely, revealed by the Spirit, we speak, for they were to them for a purpose. Hence it says in Acts: they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak (Acts 2:4).
Secundo tangit modum enarrandi, excludens modum inconvenientem, dicens non in doctis humanae sapientiae verbis, id est, non nitimur ad probandam nostram doctrinam per verba composita ex humana sapientia, sive quantum ad ornatum verborum, sive quantum ad subtilitatem rationum. Is. XXXIII, v. 19: populum alti sermonis non videbis. Astruit enim modum convenientem, cum dicit sed in doctrina Spiritus, id est, prout Spiritus Sanctus nos loquentes interius docet, et auditorum corda ad capiendum illustrat. Io. XVI, 13: cum venerit ille Spiritus veritatis, docebit vos omnem veritatem.
Second, he touches on the method they employed, and excludes an unsuitable method, saying: not in the learned words of human wisdom, i.e., we do not try to prove our doctrine with words drawn from human wisdom, for we depend neither on elegance of speech nor subtlety of reasoning: the people of profound speech you shall not see (Isa 33:19). But he indicates the suitable method, when he says, but in the doctrine of the Spirit, i.e., accordingly as the Holy Spirit teaches us inwardly and enlightens the hearts of our hearers to understand: when he shall come, the Spirit of truth, he will teach you all truth (John 16:13).
Tertio determinat auditores, dicens spiritualibus spiritualia comparantes, quasi dicat: recta comparatione spiritualia documenta tradimus spiritualibus viris, quibus sunt convenientia. II Tim. II, 2: haec commenda fidelibus viris, qui idonei erunt et alios docere. Eosdem autem hic nominat spirituales, quos supra perfectos, quia per Spiritum Sanctum homines perficiuntur in virtute, secundum illud Ps. XXXII, 6: spiritu oris eius omnis virtus eorum.
Third, he describes the hearers, saying, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. As if to say: it is a proper arrangement for us to deliver spiritual teachings to spiritual men to whom they are suited: commend the same to faithful men, who shall be fit to teach others also (2 Tim 2:2). Here he calls the same men spiritual, whom above he called perfect, because men are made perfect in virtue by the Holy Spirit: all their virtue by the spirit of his mouth (Ps 32:6).
110. Deinde, cum dicit animalis, etc., assignat rationem dictorum, et
110. Then when he says, but the sensual man, he assigns the reason for the above:
primo ostendit quare spiritualia non sunt tradenda animalibus hominibus;
first, he shows why spiritual things must not be entrusted to sensual men;
secundo quare sunt tradenda spiritualibus, ibi spiritualis, et cetera.
second, why they should be entrusted to spiritual men, at but the spiritual man.
Circa primum duo facit.
As to the first he does two things.
Primo ponit rationem;
First, he gives the reason;
secundo manifestat eam, ibi stultitia enim, et cetera.
second, he explains it, at for it is foolishness to him.
111. Ratio ergo talis est: nulli sunt tradenda documenta quae capere non potest, sed homines animales non possunt capere spiritualia documenta; ergo non sunt eis tradenda. Hoc est ergo quod dicit animalis homo, et cetera. Et ideo recta ratione non possunt tradi eis.
111. The reasoning is this: no one should be taught what he cannot grasp. But sensual men cannot grasp spiritual things. Therefore, they should not be taught to them. This, therefore, lies behind his statement that the sensual man perceives not these things that are of the Spirit of God. Therefore, there is good reason why they cannot be entrusted to him.
112. Ubi primo considerandum est quis homo dicatur animalis. Est ergo considerandum quod anima est forma corporis. Unde propriae animae intelliguntur illae vires quae sunt actus corporalium organorum, scilicet vires sensitivae. Dicuntur ergo homines animales qui huiusmodi vires sequuntur, inter quas est vis apprehensiva, et appetitiva, et ideo potest dici homo dupliciter animalis. Uno modo quantum ad vim apprehensivam, et hic dicitur animalis sensu, qui, sicut dicitur in Glossa, de Deo iuxta corporum phantasiam vel legis litteram, vel rationem philosophicam iudicat, quae secundum vires sensitivas accipiuntur.
112. Here should be noted the sort of man called sensual. Recall, therefore, that the soul is the body’s substantial form. Hence, those soul powers which are associated with bodily organs, namely, the sense-powers, are proper to the soul. Consequently, those men are called sensual who follow the lead of such powers, among which are the powers of perception and appetition. Hence, men are called sensual in two ways: first, on the basis of the perceptive power, where a man is called sensual in perception, because he judges about God in terms of bodily images or the letter of the law or philosophical reasons, all of which are interpreted in accordance with the sense-powers.
Alio modo dicitur quis animalis quantum ad vim appetitivam, qui scilicet afficitur solum ad ea quae sunt secundum appetitum sensitivum, et talis dicitur animalis vita, qui, sicut dicitur in Glossa, sequitur dissolutam lasciviam animae suae, quam intra naturalis ordinis metas spiritus rector non continet. Unde dicitur in canonica Iudae v. 19: hi sunt qui segregant semetipsos, animales Spiritum non habentes.
Second, on the basis of the appetitive power, which is attracted only to things that appeal to the sense appetite. In this case a man is called sensual in his manner of life, because he follows the dissolute wantonness of his soul, which his ruling spirit does not confine within the bounds of the natural order. Hence it is said: it is these that set up divisions, worldly people, devoid of the Spirit (Jude 1:19).
113. Secundo autem videndum quare tales non possunt percipere ea quae sunt Spiritus Dei: quod quidem manifestum est, et quantum ad animalem sensum, et quantum ad animalem vitam. Ea enim de quibus Spiritus Sanctus illustrat mentem, sunt supra sensum et rationem humanam, secundum illud Eccli. III, 25: plura supra sensum hominis ostensa sunt tibi, et ideo ab eo capi non possunt, qui soli cognitioni sensitivae innititur. Spiritus etiam Sanctus accendit affectum ad diligendum spiritualia bona, sensibilibus bonis contemptis, et ideo ille qui est animalis vitae, non potest capere huiusmodi spiritualia bona, quia Philosophus dicit in IV Ethic. quod qualis unusquisque est, talis finis videtur ei. Prov. XVIII, 2: non recipit stultus verba prudentiae, nisi ei dixeris quae versantur in corde eius. Eccli. XXII, 9: cum dormiente loquitur, qui narrat sapientiam stulto.
113. Second, we should note why such men cannot perceive these things that are of the Spirit of God, whether they are sensual in perception or in their manner of life. For the things about which the Holy Spirit enlightens the mind transcend sense and human reason, as Sirach attests: matters too great for human understanding have been shown you (Sir 3:23). Consequently, they cannot be grasped by a person who relies solely on sense perception. Again, the Holy Spirit inflames the affections to love spiritual goods and despise sensible goods. Hence, a person whose manner of life is sensual cannot grasp spiritual goods of this sort, because the Philosopher says in Ethics IV that as a person is, so his end appears to him: a fool takes no pleasure in understanding, but only in expressing his opinion (Prov 18:2); do not speak in the hearing of a fool, for he will despise the wisdom of your words (Sir 23:9).
114. Deinde, cum dicit stultitia enim, etc., manifestat quod dixerat per signum; cum enim aliquis aliqua sapienter dicta reprobat quasi stulta, signum est quod ea non capiat. Quia igitur animalis homo ea quae sunt Spiritus Dei reputat stulta, ex hoc manifestatur quod ea non capit. Et hoc est quod dicit stultitia enim est illi, scilicet animali. Iudicat enim esse stulta quae secundum Spiritum Dei aguntur. Eccle. X, 3: in via stultus ambulans, cum ipse sit insipiens, omnes stultos aestimat.
114. Then when he says, for it is foolishness, he supports what he had said with a sign: for when a person rejects wise statements as foolish, it is a sign that he does not understand them. Consequently, since the sensual man regards things of the Spirit of God as foolish, it is obvious that he does not understand them. This is what he says, namely, for it is foolishness to him, i.e., to the sensual man, for he judges things inspired by the Holy Spirit to be foolish: even when the fool walks on the road, he lacks sense, and he esteems everyone a fool (Eccl 10:3).
Quod autem homini animali quae secundum Spiritum sunt videantur stulta, non procedit ex rectitudine sensus: sicut sapientes aliqua iudicant esse stulta quae stultis videntur sapientia propter defectum intellectus; quia homo sensui deditus non potest intelligere ea quae supra sensum sunt, et homo carnalibus affectus non intelligit esse bonum, nisi quod est delectabile secundum carnem.
Now although wise men regard as foolish certain things that appear wise to a fool, because the former are sound in judgment, the sensual man’s estimation that things according to the Spirit are foolish does not proceed from sound judgment but from a lack of understanding, because a man given to sense cannot understand things that transcend sense, and a man attracted by carnal things does not realize that there are other goods besides those which please the senses.
Et hoc est quod sequitur et non potest intelligere, Ps. LXXXI, 5: nescierunt neque intellexerunt, in tenebris ambulant.
That is why he continues: and he cannot understand: they have neither knowledge nor understanding, they walk about in darkness (Ps 82:5).
115. Quare autem non possit intelligere, ostendit subdens quia spiritualiter examinatur, id est, spiritualium examinatio fit spiritualiter. Numquam enim inferior potest examinare et iudicare ea quae sunt superioris, sicut sensus non potest examinare ea quae sunt intellectus. Et similiter, neque sensus, neque ratio humana potest iudicare ea quae sunt Spiritus Dei. Et ita relinquitur quod huiusmodi solo Spiritu Sancto examinantur, secundum illud Ps. XVII, 31: eloquia Domini igne examinata, probata scilicet a Spiritu Sancto.
115. But why he cannot understand is shown when he says, because it is spiritually examined, i.e., spiritual things are examined in a spiritual way. For the lower can never examine and judge things that pertain to the higher, just as the sense cannot examine things that are strictly intellectual. Similarly, neither the senses nor human reason can judge things of the Spirit of God. The consequence is that things of this sort are examined by the Holy Spirit alone: the words of the Lord are examined by fire (Ps 18:30), i.e., proved by the Holy Spirit.
Quia ergo animalis homo caret Spiritu Sancto, non potest spiritualia examinare, et per consequens nec ea intelligere.
Therefore, because the sensual man lacks the Holy Spirit, he cannot examine spiritual things and, consequently, cannot understand them.
116. Deinde, cum dicit spiritualis autem iudicat omnia, etc., assignat rationem quare spiritualibus spiritualia tradantur, et
116. Then when he says, but the spiritual man, he gives the reason why spiritual things are imparted to spiritual men.
primo ponit rationem;
First, he gives the reason;
secundo manifestat causam, ibi quis enim novit.
second, he clarifies it, at for who has known.
117. Assignat autem talem rationem: illi tradenda sunt spiritualia qui potest iudicare, secundum illud Iob XII, 11: auris verba diiudicat; sed spiritualis est huiusmodi, ergo ei spiritualia sunt tradenda. Et hoc est quod dicit spiritualis autem diiudicat omnia, et ipse a nemine iudicatur.
117. The reason given is this: spiritual things should be entrusted to one who can discern: the ear discerns with words (Job 12:11); but the spiritual man is such. Therefore, spiritual things should be entrusted to him. And this is what he says: but the spiritual man judges all things: and he himself is judged of no man.
Ubi primo videndum est quis homo dicatur spiritualis. Est autem notandum quod spiritus nominare consuevimus substantias incorporeas; quia igitur aliqua pars animae est quae non est alicuius organi corporei actus, scilicet pars intellectiva comprehendens intellectum et voluntatem, huiusmodi pars animae spiritus hominis dicitur, quae tamen a Spiritu Dei et illuminatur secundum intellectum, et inflammatur secundum affectum et voluntatem.
Here it should be noted what sort of man is called spiritual. Recall, therefore, that we usually call incorporeal substances, spirits. Consequently, because there is a definite part of the soul not associated with any bodily organ, namely, the intellectual part, which includes both intellect and will, that part of the soul is called the man’s spirit. Now in this part of the soul the Spirit of God enlightens the intellect and enkindles the affections and will.
Dupliciter ergo dicitur homo spiritualis. Uno modo ex parte intellectus, Spiritu Dei illustrante. Et secundum hoc in Glossa dicitur quod homo spiritualis est, qui, Spiritui Dei subiectus, certissime ac fideliter spiritualia cognoscit. Alio modo ex parte voluntatis, Spiritu Dei inflammante: et hoc modo dicitur in Glossa quod spiritualis vita est, qua Spiritum Dei habens rectorem animam regit, id est animales vires. Gal. ult.: vos qui spirituales estis, instruite huiusmodi, etc.
Hence, man is called spiritual in two ways: first, on the part of the intellect enlightened by the Spirit of God. In this way man is called spiritual, because, being subjected to the Spirit of God, he knows spiritual things with the greatest certitude and fidelity. Second, on the part of the will enkindled by the Spirit of God. As it says in the Gloss, in this way a life is called spiritual because, having the Spirit of God as its guide, it rules the soul, i.e., the sensual powers: you who are spiritual should restore him in a spirit of gentleness (Gal 6:1).
118. Secundo considerandum est quare spiritualis diiudicat omnia, et ipse a nemine iudicatur.
118. Second, we should note why a spiritual man judges all things and is himself not judged by any man.
Ubi notandum est quod in omnibus ille qui recte se habet, rectum iudicium habet circa singula. Ille autem qui in se rectitudinis defectum patitur, deficit etiam in iudicando: vigilans enim recte iudicat et se vigilare et alium dormire; sed dormiens non habet rectum iudicium de se, nec de vigilante. Unde non sunt res tales quales videntur dormienti, sed quales videntur vigilanti. Et eadem ratio est de sano et infirmo circa iudicium saporum, et de debili et forti circa iudicium ponderum, et virtuoso et vitioso circa agibilia. Unde et Philosophus dicit in V Ethicorum quod virtuosus est regula et mensura omnium humanorum, quia scilicet in rebus humanis talia sunt singularia, qualia virtuosus iudicat ea esse. Et secundum hunc modum Apostolus hic dicit quod spiritualis iudicat omnia, quia scilicet homo habens intellectum illustratum et affectum ordinatum per Spiritum Sanctum, de singulis quae pertinent ad salutem, rectum iudicium habet.
The explanation is this: in all matters a person who is sound has a sound judgment regarding individual cases; whereas a person who is unsound in any way fails in his judgements. Thus, a person who is awake makes the sound judgment that he is awake and that someone else is sleeping, but one who is sleeping has no sound judgment about himself or a person who is awake. Hence things are not as they appear to be to a person asleep, but as they appear to be to a person awake. The same holds for a healthy man’s judgment of savors and that of a sick man; or a strong man’s judgment of the weight of an object and that of a weak man’s, and for a virtuous man’s judgment of morals and that of a vicious man. Hence the Philosopher says in the Ethics V that the virtuous man is the rule and standard of all human acts, because in all human affairs particular acts are such as a virtuous man judges them to be. It is in this vein that the Apostle says here that the spiritual man judges all things, namely, because a man with an intellect enlightened by the Holy Spirit and set in good order by him has a sound judgment about the particulars which pertain to salvation.
Ille autem qui non est spiritualis habet etiam intellectum obscuratum et affectum inordinatum circa spiritualia bona, et ideo ab homine non spirituali, spiritualis homo iudicari non potest, sicut nec vigilans a dormiente.
But a person who is not spiritual has his intellect darkened and his will disarranged, as far as spiritual goods are concerned. Consequently, the spiritual man cannot be judged by a man who is not spiritual any more than a man who is awake by one who is asleep.