Judges of grievances
6:1 Audet aliquis vestrum habens negotium adversus alterum, judicari apud iniquos, et non apud sanctos? [n. 264]
6:1 Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to be judged before the unjust: and not before the saints? [n. 264]
6:2 an nescitis quoniam sancti de hoc mundo judicabunt? et si in vobis judicabitur mundus, indigni estis qui de minimis judicetis? [n. 268]
6:2 Know you not that the saints shall judge this world? And if the world shall be judged by you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters? [n. 268]
6:3 Nescitis quoniam angelos judicabimus? quanto magis saecularia? [n. 271]
6:3 Know you not that we shall judge angels? How much more things of this world? [n. 271]
6:4 Saecularia igitur judicia si habueritis: contemptibiles, qui sunt in Ecclesia, illos constituite ad judicandum. [n. 273]
6:4 If therefore you have judgments of things pertaining to this world, set them to judge who are the most despised in the Church. [n. 273]
6:5 Ad verecundiam vestram dico. Sic non est inter vos sapiens quisquam, qui possit judicare inter fratrem suum? [n. 275]
6:5 I speak to your shame. Is it so that there is not among you any one wise man that is able to judge between his brethren? [n. 275]
6:6 Sed frater cum fratre judicio contendit: et hoc apud infideles?
6:6 But brother goes to law with brother: and that before unbelievers?
264. Supra Apostolus reprehenderat Corinthios de negligentia iudicii, hic reprehendit in eis quaedam alia peccata circa iudicia. Et
264. After rebuking the Corinthians for failing to judge, the Apostle now rebukes them for other failings in matters of judgment.
primo quantum ad iudices eorum coram quibus litigabant;
First, in regard to the judges before whom they present their grievances;
secundo quantum ad ipsa iudicia, ibi iam quidem omnino.
second, in regard to the grievances themselves, at already indeed (1 Cor 6:7).
Circa primum tria facit.
In regard to the first he does three things.
Primo arguit eos de inordinatione;
First, he charges them with unbecoming conduct;
secundo rationem reprehensionis assignat, ibi an nescitis;
second, he gives the reason for this charge, at know you not that the saints;
tertio remedium adhibet, ibi saecularia igitur iudicia.
third, he applies a remedy, at if therefore you have judgments.
265. Dicit ergo primo: ita negligitis in iudicando vestros, sed tamen praesumptuosi estis subire infidelium iudicia, et hoc est quod dicit audet, id est, praesumit, aliquis vestrum habens negotium, scilicet saeculare, adversus alium, iudicari apud iniquos, id est, subire iudicium infidelium, et non apud sanctos, id est, apud fideles, qui sunt sacramentis fidei sanctificati.
265. First, therefore, he says: you fail to judge yourselves but allow yourselves to be judged by the unrighteous. Hence he says: dare i.e., presume, any of you, having a matter, i.e., secular business, against another, go to be judged before the unjust, i.e., submit to the decision of an unbeliever, and not before the saints, i.e., before believers, who have been sanctified by the sacraments of faith?
266. Hoc enim est inordinatum multipliciter. Primo quidem, quia per hoc derogatur auctoritati fidelium; secundo, quia derogatur dignitati fidelium quantum ad hoc quod infidelium iudicia subeunt; tertio quia per hoc datur occasio infidelibus iudicibus contemnendi fideles, quos dissentire vident; quarto, quia per hoc datur occasio infidelibus iudicibus calumniandi et opprimendi fideles, quos odio habent propter fidem et ritus diversitatem. Et ideo dicitur Deut. I, v. 15 s.: tuli de tribubus vestris viros sapientes et nobiles, praecepique eis, dicens: audite illos, et quod iustum est iudicate. Et eod. XVII, 15: non poteris alterius gentis facere regem, qui non sit frater tuus.
266. This is unbecoming in a number of ways. First, because it detracts from the full power of believers; second, it insults the dignity of believers to take their lawsuits to unbelievers; third, it gives unbelieving judges occasion for looking down on believers, whom they see at odds among themselves; fourth, it gives the same judges occasion for calumniating and oppressing believers, whom they hate on account of their faith and rites which differ from their own. Hence it says: I took the heads of your tribes, wise and experienced men, and set them as heads over you. And I charged them: hear the cases between your brethren, and judge righteously (Deut 1:15). Again: you may not put a foreigner over you, who is not your brother (Deut 17:15).
267. Sed videtur esse contra id quod dicitur I Petr. II, 13: subditi estote omni humanae creaturae propter Deum, sive regi tamquam praecellenti, sive ducibus tamquam ab eo missis: pertinet enim ad auctoritatem principis iudicare de subditis. Est ergo contra ius divinum prohibere quod eius iudicio non stetur, si sit infidelis.
267. But this seems contrary to what is commanded by Peter: be subject for the Lord’s sake to every human institution, whether it be to the emperor as supreme, or to governors sent by him (1 Pet 2:13); for it pertains to the prince’s authority to judge his subjects. Therefore, it is against the divine law to forbid one’s conforming to the decision of a judge, who is an unbeliever.
Sed dicendum quod Apostolus non prohibet, quin fideles, sub infidelibus principibus constituti, eorum iudicio compareant, si vocentur, hoc enim esset contra subiectionem, quae debetur principibus; sed prohibet quod fideles non eligant voluntarie infidelium iudicium.
The answer is that the Apostle is not forbidding believers who are under the jurisdiction of unbelieving princes to accept their judgment, if they are summoned; for this would be contrary to the loyalty owed to princes, but he is forbidding believers voluntarily to prefer being judged by unbelievers.
268. Deinde cum dicit an nescitis, etc., assignat rationem contra id, quod illi faciebant, sumptam ex hoc, quod derogabant auctoritati sanctorum. Et
268. Then when he says, know you not, he gives a reason against this policy, inasmuch as it detracts from the full power of the saints.
primo quantum ad auctoritatem quam habent super res mundanas;
First, in regard to the power they have over worldly affairs;
secundo quantum ad auctoritatem quam habent ad res supermundanas, id est, super angelos, ibi an nescitis, quoniam angelos iudicabimus?
second, in regard to the power they have over other-worldly things, i.e., over angels, at know you not that we shall judge angels.
269. Dicit ergo primo: inordinatum est iudicium apud infideles, quia fideles habent auctoritatem iudicandi, an nescitis, quia sancti de hoc mundo iudicabunt, id est, de hominibus mundanis huius mundi?
269. First, therefore, he says: it is unbecoming to take your lawsuits to unbelievers, because believers have authority to judge, know you not that the saints shall judge this world, i.e., the worldly men of this world?
Quod quidem impletur tripliciter. Primo quidem secundum comparationem, scilicet secundum quod non solum boni iudicabunt malos, et sancti mundanos; sed etiam secundum quod boni iudicabuntur a melioribus, et mali iudicabunt peiores, secundum illud Matth. c. XII, 41: viri Ninivitae surgent in iudicio cum generatione ista, et condemnabunt eam.
They do this in three ways: first, comparatively, i.e., not only in the sense that good men will judge evil men, and saints the worldly, but also that the good will be judged by the better and the evil by the worse, according to Matthew: the men of Nineveh will arise at the judgment with this generation and condemn it (Matt 12:41).
Secundo iudicabunt approbando sententiam iudicis, scilicet Christi, et hoc erit proprie iustorum, secundum illud Ps.: laetabitur iustus cum viderit vindictam. Unde Sap. III, 8 dicitur: iudicabunt sancti nationes.
Second, they will judge by approving the sentence of the judge, i.e., Christ; and this will be reserved to the just: the just man will rejoice when he sees the vengeance (Ps 58:10); the saints shall judge nations (Wis 3:8).
Tertio modo per sententiae prolationem. Et hoc erit apostolorum et similium, qui contemptis rebus mundi, solis spiritualibus inhaeserunt. Spiritualis enim iudicat omnia, ut dictum est supra II, 15. Unde et Matth. c. XIX, 28 dicitur: vos qui secuti estis me, sedebitis super sedes, iudicantes duodecim tribus Israel. Et in Ps. CXLIX, 6 s. dicitur: gladii ancipites in manibus eorum, ad faciendam vindictam in nationibus.
In a third way by passing sentence, and this will be done by the apostles and those like them who held worldly things in contempt and clung only to spiritual things, for as was said above: the spiritual man judges all things (1 Cor 2:15). Hence it is said: you who have followed me will sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt 19:28), and: two edged swords in their hands to wreak vengeance on the nations (Ps 149:4).
Intelligitur autem ista prolatio sententiae non vocalis, sed spiritualis, inquantum per superiores sanctos inferiores vel etiam peccatores spirituali quadam illuminatione illuminabuntur, quales poenae, et qualia praemia eis debeantur: sicut etiam nunc homines illuminantur ab angelis, vel etiam inferiores angeli a superioribus.
This passing of sentence will not be vocal but spiritual, inasmuch as lesser saints or even sinners will be enlightened with a spiritual light by the higher saints to understand what sort of punishments or rewards are owed to them; just as even now men are enlightened by angels, or even lesser angels by higher ones.
270. Secundo ex hoc, quod dictum est, argumentatur ad propositum, dicens et si in vobis, id est, per vos, iudicabitur mundus, id est, mundani homines, numquid indigni estis, qui iudicetis de minimis, scilicet de negotiis saecularibus, Lc. XVI, 10: qui in modico iniquus est, et in maiori iniquus erit.
270. Second, from what has been stated he argues to his proposition, saying: and if the world, i.e., worldly men, shall be judged by you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters, i.e., worldly business? He who is dishonest in a very little, is dishonest also in much (Luke 16:10).
271. Deinde cum dicit nescitis, etc., argumentatur ad idem ex auctoritate sanctorum super angelos.
271. Then when he says, know you not that we shall judge angels, he argues to the same conclusion, from the authority of the saints over angels.
Et primo ponit eam, dicens an nescitis, quoniam nos, scilicet fideles Christi, iudicabimus angelos? Quod quidem potest intelligi de malis angelis, qui condemnabuntur a sanctis, quorum virtute sunt victi. Unde Dominus, Lc. X, 19, dicit: ecce dedi vobis potestatem calcandi super serpentes, et super omnem virtutem inimici. Et in Ps. XC, 13: super aspidem et basiliscum ambulabis.
And first he lays down the argument, saying, know you not that we, namely, the faithful of Christ, shall judge angels? This can be understood of bad angels, who will be condemned by the saints, by whose virtue they were overcome. Hence the Lord says: I have given you power to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and all the power of the enemy (Luke 10:19). And in a psalm: the young lion and the serpent you will trample under foot (Ps 91:3).
Potest etiam hoc intelligi de bonis angelis, quorum plurimi in comparatione quadam invenientur Paulo et similibus sibi inferiores. Unde signanter non dicit: iudicabitis, sed iudicabimus. Quamvis etiam dici possit, quod ex consequenti, si sancti iudicabunt homines bonos et malos, erit iudicium de bonis angelis, quorum accidentale praemium augetur ex praemio sanctorum per angelos illuminatorum, et etiam de malis angelis, quorum poena augetur ex poena hominum per eos seductorum.
It can also be understood of good angels, most of whom in some way will be found inferior to Paul and others like him. Hence, it is significant that he does not say you shall judge but we shall judge. Although it might also be said, as a consequence, that if saints will judge good and evil men, there will be a judgment of good angels, whose accidental reward is increased by the reward of saints enlightened by angels and a judgment of evil angels, whose punishment is increased by the punishment of men led astray by them.
272. Secundo argumentatur ad propositum, dicens quanto magis saecularia, scilicet iudicia, idonei erimus iudicare: qui enim est idoneus ad maiora, multo magis est idoneus ad minora. Unde et Dominus, cui commiserat quinque talenta, postmodum commisit unum, ut habetur Matth. XXV, 28.
272. Second, he argues to the proposition, saying: how much more things of this world, namely, judgments, will we be fit to judge. For one capable of greater things is even more capable of lesser. Hence to the person entrusted with five talents the Lord later entrusted one (Matt 25:28).
273. Deinde cum dicit saecularia igitur iudicia, adhibet remedium contra culpam eorum. Et
273. Then when he says, if therefore you have judgments, he applies the remedy for their fault.
primo ponit remedium;
First he mentions the remedy;
secundo exponit, ibi ad verecundiam vestram dico.
second, he explains, at I speak to your shame.
274. Dicit ergo primo: ergo ex quo sancti de hoc mundo iudicabunt, si habueritis inter vos saecularia iudicia, quae tamen habere non debetis, illos qui sunt contemptibiles in Ecclesia constituite ad iudicandum, potius scilicet quam iudicemini apud infideles. Unde et in Ps. CXL, 5 dicitur: corripiet me iustus in misericordia, et increpabit me, oleum autem peccatoris non impinguet caput meum. Et Eccle. IX, 4 dicitur: melius est canis vivus leone mortuo.
274. First, therefore, he says: therefore, since the saints shall judge this world, if you should have secular trials among you, which, nevertheless you should not have, those most despised in the Church should be appointed to judge, rather than be judged by unbelievers. Let a good man strike or rebuke me in kindness, but let the oil of the wicked never anoint my head (Ps 141:5); and it says: a living dog is better than a dead lion (Eccl 9:4).