Servant of the Gospel
9:15 Ego autem nullo horum usus sum. Non autem scripsi haec ut ita fiant in me: bonum est enim mihi magis mori, quam ut gloriam meam quis evacuet. [n. 482]
9:15 But I have used none of these things. Neither have I written these things, that they should be so done unto me: for it is good for me to die rather than that any man should make my glory void. [n. 482]
9:16 Nam si evangelizavero, non est mihi gloria: necessitas enim mihi incumbit: vae enim mihi est, si non evangelizavero. [n. 486]
9:16 For if I preach the Gospel, it is no glory to me: for a necessity lies upon me. For woe is unto me if I preach not the Gospel. [n. 486]
9:17 Si enim volens hoc ago, mercedem habeo: si autem invitus, dispensatio mihi credita est.
9:17 For if I do this thing willingly, I have a reward: but if against my will, a dispensation is committed to me.
9:18 Quae est ergo merces mea? ut Evangelium praedicans, sine sumptu ponam Evangelium, ut non abutar potestate mea in Evangelio. [n. 488]
9:18 What is my reward then? That preaching the Gospel, I may deliver the Gospel without charge, that I abuse not my power in the Gospel. [n. 488]
482. Superius multipliciter probavit, quod sibi licet accipere sumptus, hic ostendit, quod nihilominus non vult accipere, sed abstinere tribus rationibus.
482. Above he proved in many ways that he is allowed to accept the means of living, here he shows that nevertheless he does not wish to accept it, but to abstain for three reasons.
Primo propter intentionem praemii;
First, because of the aim of recompense;
secundo propter dilectionem Evangelii, ibi nam cum liber essem ex omnibus, etc.;
second, because of his love of the Gospel, at for whereas I was free to all (1 Cor 9:19);
tertio propter expeditionem cursus sui, ibi nescitis quod hi, qui in stadio currunt.
third, because of the running of his race, at know you not that they that run in the race (1 Cor 9:24).
In prima, primo dicit quare non vult accipere, scilicet ne gloria sua evacuetur;
In the first, he says first that he does not wish to accept, namely so that his glory will not be made void;
secundo ostendit, quod accipiendo evacuaretur, ibi nam si evangelizavero, non est mihi gloria, etc.;
second, he shows that by accepting it might be made void, at for if I preach the Gospel, it is no glory to me;
tertio quod non accipiendo conservabitur, ibi quae est ergo merces mea, et cetera.
third, that he will not be preserved by accepting means, at what is my reward then?
483. In prima, primo ostendit quod potestate accipiendi uti noluit; secundo quod uti non intendit, ibi non autem scripsi hoc, ut, et cetera.
483. In the first, he shows first that he has not wished to make use of his power of receiving means of living; second that he does not intend to make use of it, at neither have I written these things.
Dicit ergo ego autem, etc., quasi dicat: tot modis constat, quod licet mihi sumptus accipere, sed tamen ego nulla horum auctoritate, ratione, exemplo, ad accipiendum usus sum. Ipse enim vel ab aliis ecclesiis accipiebat, ut II Cor. XI, 8: alias ecclesias spoliavi, etc., vel manibus operabatur, Act. XX, v. 34.
Therefore he says, but I, as though he were saying: it is clear in so many ways that I am permitted to receive my living expenses, but nevertheless, I have used not one of these arguments by authority, by reason, or by example, in order to accept them. For either he was receiving his means from other churches, as is said: I have taken wages from other churches (2 Cor 11:8) or he was working by his own hands (Acts 20:34).
Non autem, etc., quasi dicat: non sum usus, sed nec uti volo. Non enim scripsi haec, scilicet quod licet mihi accipere, ut ita fiat in me, sicut scripsi, id est, ut ego accipiam, quia non quaero datum, sed fructum.
Neither have I, as though he said: I have used none of these things, nor do I wish to use. For neither have I written these things, namely, that it is permissible for me to accept means, that they should be so done unto me, as I have written—that is, that I should receive—since I do not seek gifts, but fruit.
484. Deinde cum dicit bonum est enim mihi, etc., hic ostendit quare hoc fecit, scilicet ne gloria sua evacuetur. Ubi primo multiplicat afflictionem corporalem; secundo supponit ei gloriae diminutionem, ibi quam ut gloriam, et cetera.
484. Next when he says for it is good to me, here he shows why he did this, namely, so that his glory would not be made void. There he first lists his bodily afflictions; second, he supposes the diminution of his glory at rather than that any man.
Dicit ergo bonum est, etc., quasi diceret: non accipiam, nam si acciperem, gloriam meam evacuarem, quod nullatenus facerem. Bonum est enim mihi mori, non solum sumptuum egestate affligi, magis quam ut gloriam meam, quam habeo de gratuita sinceritate praedicationis, de praemio supererogationis, abstinendo a licitis, quis evacuet, ab aliquo importune accipiendo, vel propter sumptus evangelicos.
Therefore he says, it is good, as though he were saying: I do not accept living expenses, for if I did accept them, I might make my glory void, which I would never do for any reason. It is good for me to die, not only afflicted with need for bodily sustenance, rather than that any man should make my glory, which I have from the free sincerity of my preaching, from the prize of supererogation, by abstaining from what is permitted; should make my glory void because of accepting what is grudgingly given, or because of the living expenses of evangelizers.
Multi tamen moderni doctores gloriam istam evacuant, vel propter intentionem sumptuum, vel propter favorem humanum, dicente Iob XII, 19: ducit sacerdotes inglorios et optimates supplantat.
But many modern teachers make void this glory, either out of the design of making a good living, or on account of human favor, as in the saying: he leads away priests without glory and overthrows nobles (Job 12:19).
485. Notandum est hic, quod gloria amittitur septempliciter propter septem vitia.
485. Here it should be noted that glory is lost in seven ways, because of seven vices.
Nam gloria gulosorum evacuatur. Unde hic dicitur: bonum est enim mihi magis, et cetera.
First, the glory of the gluttonous is made void. Wherefore it is said here: for it is good for me to die rather;
Gloria luxuriosorum maculatur. Eccli. c. XLVII, 21 s.: inclinasti faemora tua mulieribus, dedisti maculam in gloria tua.
The glory of the lustful is stained: you have bowed your thighs to women, you gave stain to your glory (Sir 47:21–22).
Gloria superborum captivatur. I Mach. c. II, 9: vasa gloriae eius captiva ducta sunt.
The glory of the proud is taken prisoner: the vessels of her glory are carried off as captives (1 Macc 2:9).
Gloria iracundorum intermittitur. Ps. XII, v. 5: si reddidi retribuentibus mihi mala, etc., et post: persequatur inimicus animam meam, etc., et post: et gloriam meam in pulverem deducat.
The glory of the wrathful is interrupted: if I have rendered back to them who have repaid me evils . . . let the enemy pursue my soul . . . and bring down my glory in the dust (Ps 7:5ff).
Gloria invidorum excluditur. Rom. III, 27: ubi est gloriatio tua?
The glory of the envious is prevented: where is your boasting? (Rom 3:27)
Gloria avarorum annihilatur. Ps.: ne timueris dum dives factus erit homo, et cetera.
The glory of the greedy is brought to nothing: do not fear when a man has become rich (Ps 49:16).
Gloria accidiosorum culpatur. I Mach. IX, v. 10: moriamur in virtute propter fratres nostros, et non inferamus crimen gloriae nostrae. Eccli. XXXIII, 44: praecellens esto in operibus tuis, et ne dederis maculam in gloria tua.
The glory of the slothful is condemned: let us die bravely for our brothers, and let us not bring a blot upon our glory (1 Macc 9:10). Be excellent in all your works, and do not cast a stain upon your glory (Sir 33:44).
Ergo per gulam evacuatur gloria sobrietatis: per luxuriam maculatur gloria castitatis: per superbiam captivatur gloria humilitatis: per iracundiam intermittitur gloria mansuetudinis: per invidiam excluditur gloria caritatis: per avaritiam annihilatur gloria liberalitatis: per accidiam culpatur gloria strenuitatis.
Therefore, by gluttony the glory of sobriety is made void: by lust the glory of chastity is stained: by pride the glory of humility is taken captive: by wrathfulness the glory of meekness is interrupted: by envy the glory of charity is prevented: by greed the glory of generosity is destroyed: by slothfulness the glory of activity is turned to blame.
De istis dicitur Osee IV, 7: gloriam eorum in ignominiam commutabo.
Concerning these things it is said: I will change their glory into shame (Hos 4:7).
De primo exemplum in Esau, Gen. XXV, v. 29, in Holoferne, Iudith XIII, 1; de secundo in Salomone, III Reg. II, 13; de tertio in Lucifero, Is. XIV, 12; de quarto in Achitophel, II Reg. XVI, 20; de quinto in Cain, Gen. IV, v. 3; de sexto in Giezi, IV Reg. V, 20; de septimo in exploratoribus, Num. XIII et XIV.
We see an example of the first in Esau (Gen 25:29) and in Holofernes (Jdt 13:1); of the second, in Solomon (1 Kgs 2:13); of the third in Lucifer (Isa 14: 12); of the fourth in Achitophel (2 Sam 16:21); of the fifth in Cain, (Gen 4:3); of the sixth in Giezi, (2 Kgs 5:20); of the seventh in the scouts (Num 13, 14).
486. Nam et si evangelizavero, et cetera. Hic ostendit quod accipiendo sumptus evacuaretur gloria eius, quia non supererogaret. Et est sua ratio talis: gloria quae est praemium supererogationis, non debetur operibus necessitatis, ad quae tenemur ex praecepto; sed evangelizare tenebatur ex praecepto, ergo ex hoc non habebat gloriam supererogationis, sed potius ex hoc, quod non accipiebat sumptus.
486. For if I preach the Gospel. Here he shows that by accepting living expenses his glory might be made void, for he does not strive supererogatively. And his reason is as follows: the glory that is the prize of supererogation is not owed to the works of necessity, to which we are bound by divine command; but he was bound to preach the Gospel by divine command, therefore, from this fact he would not have the glory of supererogation, but rather from the fact that he did not accept the means of living.
Primo ergo tangit gloriae evacuationem; secundo evacuationis rationem, ibi necessitas enim mihi est, etc.; tertio rationis declarationem, ibi vae enim mihi est, etc.; quarto recte evangelizantium mercedem, ibi si volens hoc ago, et cetera.
Therefore, he first deals with the voiding of glory; second with the reason for this voiding, at for a necessity lies upon me; third, the declaration of this reason, at for woe is unto me; fourth, the reward for those who preach the Gospel rightly, at if I do this thing willingly.
Dicit ergo nam si evangelizavero, etc., quasi diceret: vere evacuaretur gloria mea, nam si evangelizavero, ita quod sumptus accipiam, non est mihi gloria, id est, supererogationis praemium; necessitas enim mihi incumbit, Act. XXII, 21: vade, quoniam ad nationes longe mittam te. Et vere necessitas vae enim mihi est, id est poena transgressionis in me manet, si non evangelizavero, Is. VI, 5: vae mihi, quia tacui.
Therefore he says for if I preach the Gospel, as though he had said: truly my glory would be voided, for if I preach the Gospel, such that I receive my living expenses, it is no glory to me, that is, the prize of supererogation; for a necessity lies upon me: go, for I will send you to the gentiles far away (Acts 22:21). And necessity indeed, for woe is unto me, that is, the punishment for transgressions remains for me, if I preach not the Gospel: woe is unto me because I have kept silent (Isa 6:5)
487. Aliter legitur secundum Glossam. Et hoc dupliciter. Primo modo sic nam si, etc., quasi dicat: utique evacuaretur gloria mea caelestis, scilicet si ideo praedicarem, ut sumptus acciperem. Nam si evangelizavero tantum, ita quod non ex dilectione Dei et proximi hoc faciam, nec libera voluntate, non est mihi gloria apud Deum; necessitas enim praecepti, quod non audeo omittere, mihi incumbit; unde si solo timore servili praedico, vae enim, id est, aeterna damnatio, mihi est si non evangelizavero, sicut mihi iniunctum est. Si autem volens, et cetera. Quasi dicat: si necessitate hoc facio, non est mihi gloria, si autem volens hoc ago, id est, si voluntatem adiungo necessitati, mercedem aeternam habeo; ideo Ps. LIII, 8 dicit: voluntarie sacrificabo tibi, et confitebor, et cetera. Si autem invitus, id est, solo praecepto coactus evangelizo, dispensatio mihi credita est, sicut servo, ut scilicet dispensem ad aliorum utilitatem, non meam; quasi dicat, aliis proficio, non mihi. Intelligit enim hoc de dispensatione servili, non filiali; secundum Glossam Augustini, nemo invitus bene facit, etsi bonum est, quod facit. Infra XIII, 3: si caritatem non habuero, factus sum velut aes sonans, et cetera.
487. It can be read otherwise according to the Gloss. And this in two ways. In the first way, as if he were saying by for if I preach the Gospel, it is not glory to me: my heavenly glory would certainly be made void if I were preaching for the sake of receiving a living. For if I preach the Gospel alone, such that I do it not out of love of God and my neighbor, nor by free will, it is no glory to me before God; for a necessity of divine command lies upon me, which I dare not fail; wherefore if I preach out of servile fear alone, woe, that is eternal damnation, is unto me if I preach not the Gospel, as was enjoined upon me. But if I do this thing willingly, as though he were saying: if I do this out of necessity, it is no glory to me, but if I do this thing willingly, that is, if I join my own will to the necessity, I have an eternal reward; therefore it is said: I will freely sacrifice to you, and will confess (Psalm 54:8). But if against my will, that is, if I preach the Gospel only compelled by divine precept, a dispensation is committed to me, like a slave, so that I dispense matters for the convenience of others, not myself; as though he said: I profit others, not myself. For he understands this as a servile dispensing, not a filial dispensing; according to the Gloss of Augustine: no one does well unwillingly, even if it is good what he does. And below: if I have not charity, I am become as sounding brass (1 Cor 13:1).
Secundo modo legitur sic: nam si evangelizavero pro sumptibus accipiendis, non est mihi gloria de supererogatione in praedicando. Peto enim contra me (Matth. X, 8: gratis accepistis, gratis date); necessitas enim vitae sustentandae mihi incumbit; quia pro necessitate vitae praedico. Vae enim mihi est, id est, famis cruciatio, si non evangelizavero. Si autem volens, id est, si non pro victus necessitate, sed pro caritate, hoc ago, mercedem aeternam habeo: si autem invitus, id est, pro necessitate coactus, dispensatio mihi credita est sicut servo, et cetera.
In the second way, it can be read thus: for if I preach the Gospel for the sake of receiving living expenses, it is no glory to me of supererogation in preaching. For I seek against myself —freely you have received, freely give (Matt 10:8)—for the necessity of sustaining my life lies upon me; since I preach for the sake of the necessities of life. For woe is unto me, that is, the torture of starving, if I preach not the Gospel. But if I do this thing willingly, that is if not out of the necessity of provisions, but out of charity, I have an eternal reward: but if against my will, that is, compelled by my necessity, a dispensation is committed to me, just as to a slave.
488. Deinde cum dicit quae est ergo merces mea, etc., hic ostendit, quod non capiendo sumptus, gloria eius conservatur. Ubi primo quaerit, secundo solvit, ibi ut Evangelium praedicans, et cetera.
488. Next when he says what is my reward then, here he shows that by not taking living expenses, his glory is preserved. Wherefore first he asks, and second he resolves it, at that preaching the Gospel.