Posset enim aliquis dicere: quid enim mali est si nubant? Tu enim dicis I Cor. VII, v. 28: mulier non peccat si nubat. Ideo dicit: in hoc habent damnationem, quia primam fidem, etc., scilicet castitatis, quam voverunt. Alias enim non fuissent assumptae ad alimoniam. Unde dicit Augustinus hic, quod ex solo proposito quis incurrit damnationem. Verum est si sit ad determinatum et cum consensu. Eccli. V, 3: si quid vovisti Deo, ne moreris reddere. Lc. IX, 6: nemo mittens manum in aratrum et aspiciens retro, aptus est regno Dei. For someone might ask: wherein is the evil if they do marry? For you yourself say: a woman does not sin if she marry (1 Cor 7:36). Therefore, he says: having damnation, because they have made void their first faith, of chastity, which they vowed; for otherwise they would not have been accepted for support. Hence Augustine says here that a person incurs damnation from the mere proposal; and this is true, if it is directed to a definite person and accompanied by internal consent: if you have vowed anything to God, do not defer to pay it (Eccl 5:3); no man putting his hand to the plow and looking back is fit for the kingdom of God (Luke 9:62). 205. Ex secundo, scilicet quod non laborant, tria mala incurrunt. Primum malum est otiositas. Eccli. XXXIII, 29: multam malitiam docuit otiositas. Ez. XVI, 49: haec fuit iniquitas Sodomae sororis tuae, superbia, saturitas panis, et abundantia, et otium. Prov. c. XII, 11: qui sectatur otium stultissimus est. 205. From the second result, namely, that they do not labor, there flow three evils: the first evil is idleness: idleness has taught much evil (Sir 33:29); this was the sin of Sodom, your sister, fullness of bread, and abundance, and her idleness (Ezek 16:49); he who pursues idleness is very foolish (Prov 12:11). Ex otiositate sequuntur haec mala. Cor mulieris non est firmum sicut viri, et propter hoc ad diversa movetur. Si ergo non adstringatur ad operandum, oportet ferri ad diversa. Et ideo est periculum, quod mulieres sint otiosae, unde antiqui occupabant eas. From idleness flow three evils: a woman’s heart is not as firm as a man’s; hence it turns to many things. Therefore, if it is not channeled by work it flies off in all directions. Consequently, it is dangerous for women to be idle; that is why the ancients kept them busy. Item efficiuntur instabiles quantum ad locum, quia discunt circumire domos. Prov. c. VII, 12: nunc foris, nunc in plateis, nunc iuxta angulos insidians. Ier. XIV, 10: dilexit movere pedes suos, et non quievit, et Domino non placuit. Furthermore, they become restless in regard to place, because they go about from house to house: now abroad, now in the streets, now lying in wait near the corners (Prov 7:12); they have loved to move their feet and have not rested and have not pleased the Lord (Jer 14:10). Quantum ad verba dicit verbosae. Ex quo enim non occupantur, multum vacant nugis. Prov. VII, 10: garrula, vaga, quietis impatiens. As to speech he says, but tattlers also: for if they are not kept busy they kill time with trifles: talkative and wandering; not bearing to be quiet (Prov 7:10). Quantum ad cor curiosae, quia ex quo non occupantur in suis, intromittunt se de alienis, et ideo loquuntur quae non oportet, quia omnium facta diiudicant. Eccli. IX, 11: colloquium eius quasi ignis exardescit. As to the heart he says, busybodies, because since they are not occupied with themselves, they get involved in other people’s affairs. As a consequence they speak things which they ought not, because they set themselves up as judges of all cases: her conversation burns as a fire (Sir 9:11). 206. Deinde cum dicit volo ergo, etc., ostendit cui operi sint applicandae, scilicet ut nubant. Et proponit 206. Then when he says, I will, therefore, that the younger should marry, he shows what they should apply themselves to, namely, that they marry: primo documentum, first, he gives his teaching; secundo assignat rationem, ibi iam enim. second, the reason, at for some. 207. Dicit ergo volo iuniores, scilicet viduas, nubere. Contra I Cor. VII, 8: bonum est eis si sic permaneant; ergo debet melius dicere: volo continere. 207. He says, therefore: I will, therefore, that the younger, namely, widows, should marry. But this seems to be contrary to what he says in 1 Corinthians: but I say to the widows: it is good for them, if they so continue (1 Cor 7:8). Therefore, he should have said, I will that they continue in their state. Respondeo. Hieronymus dicit, quod illud I Cor. VII, 7, volebat ex principali intentione, sed unusquisque habet proprium donum a Deo. Et ideo subdit: melius est nubere quam uri. Et ideo in quo casu loquitur, videndum est, quia in hoc, ne primam fidem faciant irritam, et ideo quod hic dicit volo, intelligitur non ex principali intentione. I answer with Jerome that in that passage from 1 Corinthians the Apostle was describing what should be one’s principle intention; but each one has his own gift from God. That is why he continues: it is better to marry than to burn. Therefore, one must be careful to learn what case he has in mind, because in this case his aim is that they not make their first faith void; consequently, in saying, I will, he does not have in mind the primary aim. 208. Filios procreare, et non eos occulte occidere per abortum. Supra II, 15: salvabitur autem per filiorum generationem, si permanserit in fide. Matresfamilias esse, ut scilicet sint occupatae, nec verbosae discurrant per domos. Et etiam hoc volo, ut nullam occasionem dent adversario, id est, vel Diabolo, vel gentili, maledicti gratia, id est, ut possit maledicere Ecclesiis Dei. In quo sic concludit vitam viduarum, ut sic vivant, quod in nullo alios provocent ad lasciviam. I Petr. II, 15: si est voluntas Dei, ut bene facientes, obmutescere faciatis imprudentium hominum ignorantiam. 208. Bear children, and not kill them secretly by abortion: yet she shall be saved through childbearing, if she continue in the faith (1 Tim 2:15); be mistresses of families, namely, be kept busy and not be gadabouts from house to house. And I will also that they give no occasion to the adversary, i.e., to the Devil or the gentile, to speak evil, i.e., enable them to malign the Church of God. On this note he ends his description of the life that widows should lead, namely, that they should so live that they not provoke others to lewdness: for so is the will of God, that by doing well you may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men (1 Pet 2:15). 209. Et est eius haec ratio, quia quaedam voventes castitatem, conversae sunt retro, votum irritantes. Et tales vadunt post Satanam, per imitationem, quia apostatavit de societate angelorum. 209. His reason is this: for some are already turned aside after Satan, i.e., some who have vowed chastity have looked back, avoiding their vow, and they walk after Satan by imitating him who apostatized from the angel’s ranks. 210. Deinde cum dicit si quis, ostendit quae viduae sunt nutriendae a privatis personis; et primo ponit documentum; 210. Then when he says, if any of the faithful, he shows that the widows should be supported by private persons: first, he sets forth the doctrine; secundo rationem, ibi ut non gravetur. Dicit ergo, quod quae est vidua vere, speret in Deo, sed iam quod si qua habet fratres, vel parentes, sustentetur ab illis. Second, the reason, at do not let the Church be charged. He says, therefore, that one who is truly a widow should put her trust in God; but if she has brothers or sisters or parents, let her be supported by them. Et ideo dicit si quis fidelis, etc., quia hoc est opus pietatis. Et hoc ut Ecclesia non gravetur, et cetera. Et hoc necessarium est, quia tunc Ecclesia non habuit possessiones, sed modo habet possessiones deputatas ad hoc. I Thess. II, 9: nocte et die operantes, ne quem vestrum gravaremus. That is why he says, if any of the faithful have widows, let him minister to them, because this is a work of mercy; and this should be done lest the Church be charged. And this was necessary, because in those days the Church was without possessions; but today the Church has possessions that can be devoted to the support of widows: we worked night and day, lest we should be chargeable to any of you (1 Thess 3:8). Lectio 3 Lecture 3 Honoratio presbyterorum Honoring priests 5:17 Qui bene praesunt presbyteri, duplici honore digni habeantur: maxime qui laborant in verbo et doctrina. [n. 211] 5:17 Let the priests who rule well be esteemed worthy of double honor: especially those who labor in the word and doctrine. [n. 211] 5:18 Dicit enim Scriptura: Non alligabis os bovi trituranti. Et: Dignus est operarius mercede sua. [n. 214] 5:18 For the Scripture says: you shall not muzzle the ox that treads out the corn; and: the laborer is worthy of his reward. [n. 214] 5:19 Adversus presbyterum accusationem noli recipere, nisi sub duobus aut tribus testibus. [n. 218] 5:19 Do not receive an accusation against a priest, but under two or three witnesses. [n. 218] 5:20 Peccantes coram omnibus argue: ut et ceteri timorem habeant. [n. 220] 5:20 Reprove those who sin before all, so that the rest also may have fear. [n. 220] 5:21 Testor coram Deo et Christo Jesu, et electis angelis, ut haec custodias sine praejudicio, nihil faciens in alteram partem declinando. [n. 223] 5:21 I charge you, before God and Christ Jesus and the elect angels, that you observe these things without prejudice, doing nothing by declining to either side. [n. 223] 5:22 Manus cito nemini imposueris, neque communicaveris peccatis alienis. Teipsum castum custodi. [n. 225] 5:22 Do not impose hands lightly upon any man, neither be partaker of other men’s sins. Keep yourself chaste. [n. 225] 5:23 Noli adhuc aquam bibere, sed modico vino utere propter stomachum tuum, et frequentes tuas infirmitates. [n. 228] 5:23 Do not still drink water, but use a little wine for your stomach’s sake and your frequent infirmities. [n. 228] 5:24 Quorumdam hominum peccata manifesta sunt, praecedentia ad judicium: quosdam autem et subsequuntur. [n. 229] 5:24 Some men’s sins are manifest, going before to judgment: and some men they follow after. [n. 229] 5:25 Similiter et facta bona, manifesta sunt: et quae aliter se habent, abscondi non possunt. [n. 231] 5:25 In like manner also good deeds are manifest: and those that are otherwise cannot be hid. [n. 231] 211. Superius egit de viduis honorandis, quae stipendiis Ecclesiae sustentabantur, hic agit de honoratione presbyterorum; et 211. Above, he dealt with honorable widows who are supported by subsidies from the Church; here he deals with the honoring of bishops and priests: primo instituit Timotheum qualiter se habeat ad eos; first, he instructs Timothy how he should act toward them; secundo ostendit quomodo quaedam dicta sunt intelligenda, ibi quorumdam hominum. second, he shows how some of the things he said are to be understood, at some men’s sins are manifest. Circa primum duo facit: In regard to the first he does two things: Item primo ostendit, quod presbyteri sunt honorandi; first, he shows that priests should be honored; secundo confirmat per auctoritatem, ibi dicit enim Scriptura. Circa primum duo facit, quia primo ostendit quod sunt honorandi; second, he supports himself with an authority, at for the Scripture says. In regard to the first he does two things: first, he shows that they are to be honored; secundo ostendit qua ratione debetur eis honor, ibi maxime qui. second, he shows why they deserve honor, at especially those who labor. 212. Dicit ergo qui bene praesunt presbyteri. Presbyter idem est quod senior, et sicut senes aetate consueverunt habere prudentiam Iob XII, 12: in multo tempore prudentia ita qui sumitur ad regimen Ecclesiae, debet prudens esse, Lc. XII, v. 42: fidelis servus et prudens, et cetera. Et ideo praelati Ecclesiae, scilicet episcopi et sacerdotes, vocantur presbyteri. Et ideo dicit qui praesunt, et cetera. Nec hoc tantum, sed oportet quod bene praesint, scilicet ad Dei honorem, et non ad propriam commoditatem. Ez. c. XXXIV, 2: vae pastoribus Israel, qui pascebant semetipsos. Item prudens sit, ut unicuique det tempore suo. I Cor. IV, 2: hic iam quaeritur inter dispensatores, ut fidelis quis inveniatur. 212. He says, therefore, let the priests who rule well. For the presbyters is the same as the elder; and just as the old are wont to have prudence: in the ancient is wisdom (Job 12:12), so those who are appointed to rule in the Church should have prudence: who is the faithful and wise steward, whom his lord sets over his family? (Luke 12:42). That is why the Church’s prelates, i.e., bishops and priests, are called presbyters; hence he says, priests who rule. But this is not all, for they should rule well, namely, to the honor of God and not their own advantage: woe to the shepherds of Israel who fed themselves (Exod 34:2); and should be prudent, so that he might give to each in due season: here now it is required of dispensers that a man be found faithful (1 Cor 4:2). Isti duplici digni sunt honore, quorum unus est in ministratione necessariorum. Tob. I, v. 16: ex his quibus honoratus fuerat a rege, habuisset decem talenta argenti, et cetera. Prov. III, v. 9: honora Dominum de tua substantia. Item alius in exhibitione reverentiae. Eccli. IV, v. 7: presbytero humilia animam tuam. Hebr. c. XIII, 17: obedite praepositis vestris. Prov. c. ult. omnes domestici eius vestiti sunt duplicibus. Is. LXI, 7: in terra sua duplicia possidebunt. Esteemed worthy of double honor: one of which is that they be provided with the necessities of life: he had ten talents of silver so that with it he had been honored by the king (Tob 1:16); honor the Lord with your substance (Prov 3:9); and the other of which is that they be shown respect: humble your soul to the ancient (Sir 4:7); obey your prelates (Heb 13:17); all her domestics are clothed with double garments (Prov 31:21); they shall receive double in their land (Isa 61:7).