208. Filios procreare, et non eos occulte occidere per abortum. Supra II, 15: salvabitur autem per filiorum generationem, si permanserit in fide. Matresfamilias esse, ut scilicet sint occupatae, nec verbosae discurrant per domos. Et etiam hoc volo, ut nullam occasionem dent adversario, id est, vel Diabolo, vel gentili, maledicti gratia, id est, ut possit maledicere Ecclesiis Dei. In quo sic concludit vitam viduarum, ut sic vivant, quod in nullo alios provocent ad lasciviam. I Petr. II, 15: si est voluntas Dei, ut bene facientes, obmutescere faciatis imprudentium hominum ignorantiam. 208. Bear children, and not kill them secretly by abortion: yet she shall be saved through childbearing, if she continue in the faith (1 Tim 2:15); be mistresses of families, namely, be kept busy and not be gadabouts from house to house. And I will also that they give no occasion to the adversary, i.e., to the Devil or the gentile, to speak evil, i.e., enable them to malign the Church of God. On this note he ends his description of the life that widows should lead, namely, that they should so live that they not provoke others to lewdness: for so is the will of God, that by doing well you may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men (1 Pet 2:15). 209. Et est eius haec ratio, quia quaedam voventes castitatem, conversae sunt retro, votum irritantes. Et tales vadunt post Satanam, per imitationem, quia apostatavit de societate angelorum. 209. His reason is this: for some are already turned aside after Satan, i.e., some who have vowed chastity have looked back, avoiding their vow, and they walk after Satan by imitating him who apostatized from the angel’s ranks. 210. Deinde cum dicit si quis, ostendit quae viduae sunt nutriendae a privatis personis; et primo ponit documentum; 210. Then when he says, if any of the faithful, he shows that the widows should be supported by private persons: first, he sets forth the doctrine; secundo rationem, ibi ut non gravetur. Dicit ergo, quod quae est vidua vere, speret in Deo, sed iam quod si qua habet fratres, vel parentes, sustentetur ab illis. Second, the reason, at do not let the Church be charged. He says, therefore, that one who is truly a widow should put her trust in God; but if she has brothers or sisters or parents, let her be supported by them. Et ideo dicit si quis fidelis, etc., quia hoc est opus pietatis. Et hoc ut Ecclesia non gravetur, et cetera. Et hoc necessarium est, quia tunc Ecclesia non habuit possessiones, sed modo habet possessiones deputatas ad hoc. I Thess. II, 9: nocte et die operantes, ne quem vestrum gravaremus. That is why he says, if any of the faithful have widows, let him minister to them, because this is a work of mercy; and this should be done lest the Church be charged. And this was necessary, because in those days the Church was without possessions; but today the Church has possessions that can be devoted to the support of widows: we worked night and day, lest we should be chargeable to any of you (1 Thess 3:8). Lectio 3 Lecture 3 Honoratio presbyterorum Honoring priests 5:17 Qui bene praesunt presbyteri, duplici honore digni habeantur: maxime qui laborant in verbo et doctrina. [n. 211] 5:17 Let the priests who rule well be esteemed worthy of double honor: especially those who labor in the word and doctrine. [n. 211] 5:18 Dicit enim Scriptura: Non alligabis os bovi trituranti. Et: Dignus est operarius mercede sua. [n. 214] 5:18 For the Scripture says: you shall not muzzle the ox that treads out the corn; and: the laborer is worthy of his reward. [n. 214] 5:19 Adversus presbyterum accusationem noli recipere, nisi sub duobus aut tribus testibus. [n. 218] 5:19 Do not receive an accusation against a priest, but under two or three witnesses. [n. 218] 5:20 Peccantes coram omnibus argue: ut et ceteri timorem habeant. [n. 220] 5:20 Reprove those who sin before all, so that the rest also may have fear. [n. 220] 5:21 Testor coram Deo et Christo Jesu, et electis angelis, ut haec custodias sine praejudicio, nihil faciens in alteram partem declinando. [n. 223] 5:21 I charge you, before God and Christ Jesus and the elect angels, that you observe these things without prejudice, doing nothing by declining to either side. [n. 223] 5:22 Manus cito nemini imposueris, neque communicaveris peccatis alienis. Teipsum castum custodi. [n. 225] 5:22 Do not impose hands lightly upon any man, neither be partaker of other men’s sins. Keep yourself chaste. [n. 225] 5:23 Noli adhuc aquam bibere, sed modico vino utere propter stomachum tuum, et frequentes tuas infirmitates. [n. 228] 5:23 Do not still drink water, but use a little wine for your stomach’s sake and your frequent infirmities. [n. 228] 5:24 Quorumdam hominum peccata manifesta sunt, praecedentia ad judicium: quosdam autem et subsequuntur. [n. 229] 5:24 Some men’s sins are manifest, going before to judgment: and some men they follow after. [n. 229] 5:25 Similiter et facta bona, manifesta sunt: et quae aliter se habent, abscondi non possunt. [n. 231] 5:25 In like manner also good deeds are manifest: and those that are otherwise cannot be hid. [n. 231] 211. Superius egit de viduis honorandis, quae stipendiis Ecclesiae sustentabantur, hic agit de honoratione presbyterorum; et 211. Above, he dealt with honorable widows who are supported by subsidies from the Church; here he deals with the honoring of bishops and priests: primo instituit Timotheum qualiter se habeat ad eos; first, he instructs Timothy how he should act toward them; secundo ostendit quomodo quaedam dicta sunt intelligenda, ibi quorumdam hominum. second, he shows how some of the things he said are to be understood, at some men’s sins are manifest. Circa primum duo facit: In regard to the first he does two things: Item primo ostendit, quod presbyteri sunt honorandi; first, he shows that priests should be honored; secundo confirmat per auctoritatem, ibi dicit enim Scriptura. Circa primum duo facit, quia primo ostendit quod sunt honorandi; second, he supports himself with an authority, at for the Scripture says. In regard to the first he does two things: first, he shows that they are to be honored; secundo ostendit qua ratione debetur eis honor, ibi maxime qui. second, he shows why they deserve honor, at especially those who labor. 212. Dicit ergo qui bene praesunt presbyteri. Presbyter idem est quod senior, et sicut senes aetate consueverunt habere prudentiam Iob XII, 12: in multo tempore prudentia ita qui sumitur ad regimen Ecclesiae, debet prudens esse, Lc. XII, v. 42: fidelis servus et prudens, et cetera. Et ideo praelati Ecclesiae, scilicet episcopi et sacerdotes, vocantur presbyteri. Et ideo dicit qui praesunt, et cetera. Nec hoc tantum, sed oportet quod bene praesint, scilicet ad Dei honorem, et non ad propriam commoditatem. Ez. c. XXXIV, 2: vae pastoribus Israel, qui pascebant semetipsos. Item prudens sit, ut unicuique det tempore suo. I Cor. IV, 2: hic iam quaeritur inter dispensatores, ut fidelis quis inveniatur. 212. He says, therefore, let the priests who rule well. For the presbyters is the same as the elder; and just as the old are wont to have prudence: in the ancient is wisdom (Job 12:12), so those who are appointed to rule in the Church should have prudence: who is the faithful and wise steward, whom his lord sets over his family? (Luke 12:42). That is why the Church’s prelates, i.e., bishops and priests, are called presbyters; hence he says, priests who rule. But this is not all, for they should rule well, namely, to the honor of God and not their own advantage: woe to the shepherds of Israel who fed themselves (Exod 34:2); and should be prudent, so that he might give to each in due season: here now it is required of dispensers that a man be found faithful (1 Cor 4:2). Isti duplici digni sunt honore, quorum unus est in ministratione necessariorum. Tob. I, v. 16: ex his quibus honoratus fuerat a rege, habuisset decem talenta argenti, et cetera. Prov. III, v. 9: honora Dominum de tua substantia. Item alius in exhibitione reverentiae. Eccli. IV, v. 7: presbytero humilia animam tuam. Hebr. c. XIII, 17: obedite praepositis vestris. Prov. c. ult. omnes domestici eius vestiti sunt duplicibus. Is. LXI, 7: in terra sua duplicia possidebunt. Esteemed worthy of double honor: one of which is that they be provided with the necessities of life: he had ten talents of silver so that with it he had been honored by the king (Tob 1:16); honor the Lord with your substance (Prov 3:9); and the other of which is that they be shown respect: humble your soul to the ancient (Sir 4:7); obey your prelates (Heb 13:17); all her domestics are clothed with double garments (Prov 31:21); they shall receive double in their land (Isa 61:7). 213. Sed maxime praecipue hic honor est illis exhibendus, qui hoc merentur suo labore, scilicet qui laborant in verbo praedicationis. Phil. II, 15: inter quos lucetis sicut luminaria in mundo, verbum vitae continentes. Col. III, 16: verbum Christi habitet in vobis abundanter, in omni sapientia docentes. Item in doctrina, id est, in eruditione. Ier. III, 15: dabo vobis pastores iuxta cor meum, et pascent vos scientia et doctrina. Et Eph. IV, 11 iungit pastores et doctores, quia hoc est officium episcopi. 213. But especially is this honor to be shown to those who merit it by their labors, namely, those who labor in the word of preaching: among whom you shine as lights in the world (Phil 2:15); Let the word of Christ dwell in you abundantly in all wisdom teaching (Col 3:16); and doctrine, i.e., in erudition: I will give you pastors according to my own heart, and they shall feed you with knowledge and doctrine (Jer 3:15); and in Ephesians he links pastors with teachers, because this is the bishop’s function (Eph 4:11). 214. Deinde cum dicit dicit enim, probat per duplicem auctoritatem, et unam introducit secundum sensum mysticum, aliam secundum litteralem, ibi dignus est. 214. Then when he says, for the Scripture says, he proves his statement with two authorities: one is used in the mystical sense and the other in the literal sense, at the laborer is worthy of his reward. 215. Dicit ergo dicit enim Scriptura, scilicet Deut. XXV, 4: non alligabis os bovi trituranti. I Cor. IX, 8 probat Apostolus hoc esse intelligendum de doctoribus, quia Deo non est cura de bobus, non quin subsint divinae providentiae, sed quia Deo non est cura qualiter homines tractent boves, qui possunt eis uti ut volunt. Unde illa lex non est de bobus, sed per similitudinem dicitur. Quasi dicat: homini laboranti in officio praedicationis et regiminis non prohibeas quin vivat de illo officio. Per boves enim intelliguntur docentes. Prov. XIV, 4: ubi plurimae segetes, ibi manifesta est fortitudo bovis. Per messes, fideles. Matth. IX, 37: messis quidem multa, et cetera. Ergo non sunt prohibendi praedicatores et doctores quin sumptus habeant. 215. He says, therefore, for the Scripture says, namely, Deuteronomy: you shall not muzzle the ox that treads out the corn (Deut 25:4). In 1 Corinthians the Apostle shows that this passage is to be understood for teachers, for does God take care for oxen? (1 Cor 9:8). Not that they are not included under divine providence, but that he is not concerned how men treat them, since they can use them as they will. Consequently, that law is not concerned with oxen, but is a law presented under a figure. As if to say: do not prevent a man who labors in the office of preaching and ruling from living off his office. By oxen are understood teachers: where there are no oxen, the crib is empty; but where is much corn, there the strength of the ox is manifest (Prov 14:4); by corn is understood the faithful: the harvest indeed is great (Matt 9:37). Therefore, teachers and preachers are not to be prevented from having their honorarium. 216. Alia auctoritas est dignus est operarius cibo suo, Matth. VII. Vel potius in Veteri Testamento est, licet non sic scripta sit. Nec consuevit Apostolus de Evangelio adducere auctoritatem, nisi cum expressione dicentis; sed sumitur haec de Lev. IX: non morabitur apud te merces mercenarii tui usque mane. 216. The other authority is in Matthew: the laborer is worthy of his food (Matt 10:10); but it is better to say that it is from the Old Testament, although it is not stated in those words: for the Apostle never quotes the Gospel without explicitly saying so. But this authority is taken from Leviticus: the wages of him who has been hired by you shall not abide with you until the morning (Lev 19:13). 217. Sed numquid isti sumptus sunt merces? Dicit Augustinus in Glossa quod sic: non tamen venale est Evangelium, ut pro istis praedicetur. Merces enim quandoque dicitur, quod homini redditur pro praemio finali, et sic absit quod praedicatorum merces sint huiusmodi sumptus; quandoque dicitur merces solum, quo quis fit dignus laborando, et hoc modo large hic dicitur merces. Et ideo dicit Augustinus: accipiant ergo, et cetera. 217. But are those honoraria considered to be wages? Augustine in a Gloss says that they are not. For the Gospel is not something that can be bought and sold in the sense that one preaches for a price. For sometimes that which is given to a person as a final reward is called a wage; but God forbid that a preacher’s wages be that sort of honorarium: but sometimes a wage refers to that which a person deserves for his labor; and this is taking wage in a broad sense. Accordingly, Augustine says: let them accept. 218. Deinde cum dicit adversus presbyterum, agit de correctione presbyteri, dicens quod presbyteri qui bene praesunt, duplici honore sunt honorandi, sed mali sunt corrigendi. 218. Then when he says, do not receive not an accusation, he treats of the correction of prelates, saying that priests who have ruled well are worthy of a double honor; but those who are wicked must be corrected. Circa quod tria facit. In regard to this he does three things: Primo dicit, quod faciliter eorum accusatio non admittatur; first, he says that accusations against them must not be readily admitted; secundo quod culpabiles sunt publice corrigendi, ibi peccantes; second, that guilty ones must be publicly corrected, at reprove those who sin; tertio quod non damnentur temere, ibi sine praeiudicio. third, that they should not be condemned rashly, at without prejudice. 219. Dicit ergo: tu maior presbyter, noli adversus presbyterum accusationem, et cetera. Duo sufficiunt si boni sunt. Cuius dicti ratio est in Glossa, quia non est facile accusanda tam alti ordinis persona, quae sit vice Christi. 219. He says, therefore: as major prelate, do not receive an accusation against a priest, but under two or three witnesses. Two suffice, if they are good. The reason for this statement is found in a Gloss, that a person in such a lofty position should not be readily accused, for he is Christ’s representative.