1:1 Paulus, Apostolus Jesu Christi per voluntatem Dei, et Timotheus frater, ecclesiae Dei, quae est Corinthi cum omnibus sanctis, qui sunt in universa Achaia. [n. 3]
1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother: to the church of God that is at Corinth, with all the saints who are in all Achaia: [n. 3]
1:2 Gratia vobis, et pax a Deo Patre nostro, et Domino Jesu Christo. [n. 7]
1:2 Grace unto you and peace from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ. [n. 7]
3. De istis ergo ministris tractat hic Apostolus, ostendens in hac epistola eorum dignitatem etiam scribens Corinthiis. In qua quaedam praemittit.
3. In this epistle to the Corinthians, the Apostle treats of these ministers and points out their dignity: in which it was sent forth.
First, he gives his greeting;
secundo prosequitur epistolam, ibi benedictus Deus, et cetera.
second, he begins his message, at blessed be the God.
In salutatione autem tria ponit:
In the greeting he does three things:
primo enim describit personas salutantes;
first, he mentions the persons who send the greeting;
secundo personas salutatas, ibi ecclesiae quae est, etc.;
second, those who are greeted, at to the church of God;
tertio bona optata, ibi gratia vobis, et cetera.
third, the good things he wishes them, at grace unto you.
Circa primum primo describitur persona salutans principalis, quia Paulus;
In regard to the first he does two things: first, he mentions the principal person who sends the greeting, namely Paul;
secundo persona adiuncta, quia Timotheus.
second, his companion, Timothy.
4. Persona salutans describitur ab humilitate, quia Paulus, qui Latine dicitur modicus. Iste est ille modicus, de quo Is. LX, 22: minimus erit in mille, et cetera.
4. The person who sends the greeting is described by his humility, because it is Paul, which in Latin means ‘humble.’ He is that humble person of whom it is said: the least one shall become a clan, and the smallest one a mighty nation (Isa 60:22).
Vel a doctrina, quia Paulus dicitur os tubae. Ista est illa tuba de qua Zach. IX, 14: Dominus in tuba canet, et cetera. Et competit quod dicitur Is. LVIII, 1: quasi tuba exalta vocem tuam, et cetera.
Or by his doctrine, because Paul is called the mouth of the trumpet. This is the trumpet mentioned in Zechariah: the Lord God will sound the trumpet, and march forth in the whirlwinds of the south (Zech 9:14). He fits what is said in Isaiah: lift up your voice like a trumpet (Isa 58:1).
A dignitatis auctoritate, quia apostolus, et cetera. Ubi tria ponuntur. Primo quod sit legatus, unde dicitur apostolus, id est principaliter missus. Soli enim duodecim apostoli electi missi sunt a Christo. Lc. VI, 13: elegit duodecim, quos et apostolos, et cetera. Alii autem discipuli non missi sunt principaliter, sed secundario. Et inde est quod apostolis succedunt episcopi, qui habent specialem curam gregis Domini. Alii autem sacerdotes succedunt septuaginta duobus discipulis, qui gerunt vices commissas sibi ab episcopis. Est ergo eius dignitas quia apostolus. I Cor. IX, 2: si aliis non sum apostolus, sed tamen vobis sum, et cetera. Gal. II, 8: qui operatus est Petro, et cetera.
By the authority of his dignity, because he says, an apostle of Jesus Christ. Here he mentions three things: first, that he is a representative; hence, he is called an apostle, i.e., principally sent, for only twelve apostles were sent by Christ. He chose from them twelve, whom he named apostles (Luke 6:13). But the other disciples were not sent principally, but secondarily. That is why the apostles are succeeded by bishops, who have a special care of the Lord’s flock; but other priests succeed the seventy-two disciples and perform duties committed to them by the bishops. His dignity, therefore, is that he is an apostle. If to others I am not an apostle, at least I am to you (1 Cor 9:2); he who worked through Peter for the ministry to the circumcised worked through me also for the Gentiles (Gal 2:8).
Sed quare vocat se hic apostolum, dicens Paulus apostolus, cum in epistola ad Romanos scribit se servum?
But why does Paul call himself an apostle, saying Paul, an apostle, whereas in the epistle to the Romans he calls himself a servant?
Ratio huius est, quia Romanos reprehendit de dissensione et superbia, quae est mater dissensionis, quia inter superbos semper iurgia sunt. Unde ut eos revocet a dissensione, inducit eos ad humilitatem, vocando se servum. Corinthii vero erant pertinaces et rebelles, et ideo, ut reprimat eorum proterviam, usus est hic nomine dignitatis, dicens se apostolum.
The reason for this is that he rebuked the Romans for quarreling and for pride, which is the mother of quarrels, because there are always disputes among the proud (Prov 13:10). Hence to cure them of quarreling he leads them to humility by calling himself a servant. But the Corinthians were obstinate and rebellious; so in order to curb their boldness, he uses a dignified name here, calling himself an apostle.
Tertio ponitur modus quo adeptus est legationem, quia non iniecit se ut pseudo. Ier. c. XXIII, 21: non mittebam eos, et ipsi currebant. Non est datus populo ex divino furore, iuxta illud Iob XXXIV, 30: qui facit regnare hypocritam, et cetera. Osee XIII, 11: dabo tibi regem, sed in furore meo. Est adeptus apostolatum ex voluntate Dei et beneplacito. Act. IX, 15: vas electionis est mihi iste. Et ideo dicit per voluntatem Dei.
Third, he mentions how he obtained his ambassadorship, because he is not coming as a false apostle. I did not send them and they ran (Jer 23:21); nor was he given to the people in God’s anger in the sense of Job: who makes a hypocrite to reign (Job 34:30); I have given you a king, but in my anger (Hos 13:11). But he obtained apostleship by God’s will and pleasure. He is a chosen vessel of mine (Acts 9:15). Therefore he says, by the will of God.
Secundo ponitur cuius sit legatus, quia Iesu Christi. Infra V, 20: pro Christo legatione fungimur.
Second, he mentions the one he represents, Jesus Christ. We are ambassadors for Christ (2 Cor 5:20).
5. Persona autem adiuncta est Timotheus. Unde dicit et Timotheus frater. Frater, inquam, propter fidem, Matth. XXIII, 8: omnes vos fratres estis, etc., et propter dignitatem, quia episcopus: et inde est quod Papa vocat omnes episcopos fratres.
5. The other person is Timothy; hence he says, and Timothy our brother. A brother, I say, because of the faith: you are all brothers (Matt 23:8), and because of his dignity, for he was a bishop. This is why the Pope calls all bishops brothers.
Connumerat autem sibi Timotheum, quia cum ipse transisset per eos, sicut dixit in I Epist., ult. cap., possent credere quod malitiose retulisset apostolo ea de quibus ipse scribit ad eos.
He mentions Timothy because, since Timothy had visited them, as he said in the first epistle, the people might believe that he had maliciously reported to the Apostle the things he is writing to them.
6. Consequenter ponuntur personae salutatae, et primo principales, secundo adiunctae principalibus, in hoc quod dicit ecclesiae Dei, quae est totus populus fidelis, tam clerici quam laici. I Tim. III, 15: ut scias quomodo oporteat te conversari. Quae est Corinthi, quia Corinthus erat metropolis Achaiae.
6. Then he mentions the persons greeted: first, the principal ones; second, those associated with the principal ones. He says, to the church of God, which includes all believers, both the clergy and the laity: that you may know how one ought to behave (1 Tim 3:15); that is at Corinth, because Corinth was the chief city of Achaia.
Sed adiunctae personae sunt omnes sancti, qui sunt unius Spiritus Sancti gratia renati. I Cor. VI, 11: sed abluti estis, sed sanctificati, et cetera. Qui sunt in Achaia, cuius metropolis est Corinthus.
But those associated with the principal ones are all the saints who are reborn by the grace of the one Holy Spirit: but you were washed, you were sanctified, in the Spirit of our God (1 Cor 6:11); who are in Achaia, whose chief city is Corinth.
7. Istis autem personis salutatis optat Apostolus bona. Unde dicit gratia vobis, et cetera.
7. The Apostle wishes good things to the persons greeted; hence, he says, grace unto to you.
Et circa hoc duo facit.
In regard to this he does two things:
Primo ponit ipsa bona;
first, he mentions the good things;
secundo ipsorum auctorem, ibi a Deo Patre, et cetera.
second, their author, at from God our Father.
8. Ponit autem ista duo extrema bona, ut in eis intelligantur media.
8. He mentions these two gifts as two extremes, between which are contained all other goods.
Primum enim bonum est gratia, quae est principium omnium bonorum. Nam ante gratiam nihil est nisi diminutum in nobis.
For the first good is grace, which is the beginning of all good things; because before grace there is only a diminished goodness in us.
Ultimum autem omnium bonorum est pax, quia pax est generalis finis mentis. Nam qualitercumque pax accipiatur, habet rationem finis; et in gloria aeterna et in regimine et in conversatione, finis est pax. Ps. CXLVII, 3: qui posuit fines tuos pacem.
The last of all goods is peace, because peace is the general end of the mind; for no matter how peace is defined, it has the character of an end. In eternal glory, in government and in the way one lives, the end is peace: he makes peace in your borders (Ps 147:14).
9. Quis autem sit auctor horum bonorum ostendit, subdens a Deo Patre, et cetera. Et haec duo possunt dupliciter distingui, quia cum dicit a Deo Patre, potest intelligi pro tota Trinitate.
9. He indicates the author of these goods when he says, from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ. These two expressions can be distinguished in two ways, because, when he says, from God our Father, it can be referred to the entire Trinity.
Nam, licet persona Patris dicatur Pater Christi per naturam, tamen tota Trinitas est Pater noster per creationem et gubernationem. Is. LXIII, 16: et nunc, Domine, Pater noster es tu. Ier. III, 19: Patrem vocabis me. A Deo ergo Patre nostro, id est a tota Trinitate proveniunt bona. Matth. VII, 11: si vos cum sitis mali, et cetera.
For although the person of the Father is called the Father of Christ by nature, the entire Trinity is our Father by creation and governance: for you are our Father (Isa 63:16); you would call me Father (Jer 3:19). Therefore good things come from God our Father, i.e., from the entire Trinity: if you, then, who are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give good things to those who ask him (Matt 7:11).
Sed si Deus Pater noster accipiatur pro tota Trinitate, quare additur persona Filii, cum dicit et Domino Iesu Christo? Numquid est alia persona a Trinitate?
But if God our Father is taken for the entire Trinity, why is the person of the Son added, when he says, and from the Lord Jesus Christ? Is there another person in the Trinity?
Dicendum quod additur non propter aliam personam sed propter aliam naturam, scilicet humanitatis assumptae a Filio in personam divinam: quam quidem Trinitati connumerat, quia omnia bona proveniunt nobis a Trinitate per Incarnationem Christi; et primo gratia, Io. I, 17: gratia et veritas, etc., secundo pax, Eph. II, 14: ipse est pax nostra, et cetera.
I answer that he is added, not as though he were an additional person, but on account of another nature, namely, of the humanity assumed by the Son to the divine person. The reason he lists him along with the Trinity is that all good things come to us from the Trinity through the Incarnation of Christ, first of all grace: grace and truth came through Jesus Christ (John 1:17), and second peace: he is our peace (Eph 2:14).
10. Item cum dicit a Deo Patre nostro, potest intelligi persona Patris solum; et, licet tota Trinitas sit Pater noster, ut dictum est, tamen persona Patris est Pater noster per appropriationem; et sic hoc quod dicit et Domino Iesu Christo, intelligitur de persona Filii.
10. Again, when he says, from God our Father, it can be taken to mean the person of the Father alone; and although the entire Trinity is our Father, as has been said, the person of the Father is our Father by appropriation. Then from the Lord Jesus Christ can be referred to the person of the Son.