Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Passio et consolatio in Christo Suffering and comfort in Christ 1:3 Benedictus Deus et Pater Domini nostri Jesu Christi, Pater misericordiarum, et Deus totius consolationis, [n. 11] 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and the God of all comfort: [n. 11] 1:4 qui consolatur nos in omni tribulatione nostra: ut possimus et ipsi consolari eos qui in omni pressura sunt, per exhortationem, qua exhortamur et ipsi a Deo. [n. 14] 1:4 Who comforts us in all our tribulation, that we also may be able to comfort those who are in all distress, by the exhortation with which we also are exhorted by God. [n. 14] 1:5 Quoniam sicut abundant passiones Christi in nobis: ita et per Christum abundat consolatio nostra. [n. 17] 1:5 For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us: so also by Christ does our comfort abound. [n. 17] 11. Hic incipit epistola in qua Apostolus duo facit. 11. Here begins the message, in which the Apostle does two things: Primo enim excusat se de eo quod non iverat ad eos, sicut promiserat; first, he excuses himself for not visiting them as he had promised; secundo prosequitur intentionem suam, cap. III, ibi incipimus iterum, et cetera. second, he begins to follow out his intention, in the third chapter, at do we begin again (2 Cor 3:1). Circa primum duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things: Primo ponit excusationem de mora; first, he sets out an excuse for his delay; secundo morae assignat causam, secundo cap., ibi statui autem, et cetera. second, he gives a reason for the delay, in the second chapter, at but I determined (2 Cor 2:1). Circa primum duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things: Primo enim reddit eos benevolos; first, he wins their good will; secundo excusationem ponit, ibi et hac confidentia, et cetera. second, he sets out an excuse, at and in this confidence (2 Cor 1:15). Circa primum duo facit. Concerning the first, he does two things: Primo captat eorum benevolentiam, recitando quaedam in generali; first, he wins their good will by citing some general facts; secundo quaedam in speciali, ibi non enim, et cetera. second, some special ones, at for we would not. Benevolentiam autem eorum captat Apostolus ostendendo quod quidquid facit, totum facit ad eorum utilitatem. The Apostle wins their good will by showing that whatever he does, it is all for their benefit. Et circa hoc duo facit. In regard to this he does two things: Primo praemittit utilitatem quae ex ipso aliis provenit; first, he mentions the profit others have obtained from him; secundo rationem eorum assignat, ibi quoniam sicut abundant, et cetera. second, the reason, at for as the sufferings of Christ abound. Circa primum tria facit. In regard to the first he does three things: Primo enim ponitur gratiarum actio; first, he gives thanks; secundo actionis gratiarum modus, ibi qui consolatur, etc.; second, the manner of the thanks, at who comforts. tertio causa, ibi ut possimus et ipsi consolari. third, the cause, at that we also may be able to comfort. 12. Agit ergo gratias toti Trinitati, a qua provenit omne bonum. Et ideo dicit benedictus Deus, id est tota Trinitas. Item personae Patris, cum dicit et Pater Domini nostri Iesu Christi, per quem, scilicet Christum, Pater nobis omnia donavit. 12. He gives thanks, therefore, to the entire Trinity, the source of every good; hence he says, blessed be the God, i.e., the entire Trinity; and to the person of the Father when he says, and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom the Father has given us all things. Sed sciendum quod nos benedicimus Deum, et Deus benedicit nobis, sed aliter et aliter. Nam dicere Dei, est facere. Ps. XXXII, 9: dixit et facta sunt. Unde benedicere Dei est bonum facere, et bonum infundere, et sic habet rationem causalitatis. Gen. I, 28, et XXII, v. 17: benedicens benedicam tibi, et cetera. It should be noted that we bless God and God blesses us, but in different ways. For when God speaks, he accomplishes: he spoke and they were made (Ps 148:5). Hence, for God to bless is to produce something good, and to infuse something good, and so to be a cause: I will indeed bless you and multiply your descendants (Gen 22:17). Dicere autem nostrum non est causale, sed recognoscitivum seu expressivum. Unde benedicere nostrum idem est quod bonum recognoscere. Cum ergo gratias agimus Deo, benedicimus sibi, id est recognoscimus eum bonum et datorem omnium bonorum. Tob. XII, v. 6: benedicite Deum caeli, et cetera. Dan. III, v. 57: benedicite, omnia opera, et cetera. But our speech does not cause things, but acknowledges or expresses them; hence, our blessing is the same as recognizing good. Therefore, when we thank God, we bless him, i.e., acknowledge that he is good and the giver of all good: bless God and acknowledge him in the presence of all the living for the good things he has done for you (Tob 12:6); bless the Lord, all you works of the Lord; praise and exalt him above all for ever (Dan 3:57). 13. Recte ergo gratias agit Patri, quia misericors est, unde dicit Pater misericordiarum, et quia consolator, unde dicit et Deus totius consolationis. 13. It is fitting therefore that he thank the Father, because he is merciful; hence he says, the Father of mercies: and because he is a comforter he says, and the God of all comfort. Et agit gratias de duobus, quibus homines maxime indigent. Primo enim indigent, ut auferantur ab eis mala, et hoc facit misericordia, quae aufert miseriam; et misereri est proprium patri. Ps. CII, 13: quomodo miseretur pater filiorum, et cetera. He thanks God for the two things men especially need: first, to have evil removed from them, and this is done by mercy which takes away misery, for it is characteristic of a father to have compassion: as a father pities his children, so the Lord pities those who fear him (Ps 103:13). Secundo indigent ut sustententur in malis quae adveniunt. Et illud est proprie consolari, quia nisi homo haberet aliquid in quo quiesceret cor eius, quando superveniunt mala, non subsisteret. Tunc ergo aliquis consolatur aliquem, quando affert ei aliquod refrigerium, in quo quiescat in malis. Et licet in aliquibus malis homo possit in aliquo consolari et quiescere et sustentari, tamen solus Deus est, qui nos consolatur in omnibus malis. Et ideo dicit Deus totius consolationis; quia si peccas, consolatur te Deus, quia ipse misericors est. Si affligeris, consolatur te, vel eruendo ab afflictione per potentiam suam, vel iudicando per iustitiam. Si laboras, consolatur te remunerando, Gen. XV, 1: ego merces tua, et cetera. Et ideo dicitur Matth. V, 5: beati qui lugent, et cetera. Second, they need to be supported in the face of evils which occur, and that is to receive comfort. Because unless a man had something in which his heart could rest, he would not stand firm when evils come upon him. Therefore a person comforts another by affording him something refreshing, in which he can rest in evil times. And although a man might be comforted by something and find rest and be supported by it in the case of some evils, it is God alone who comforts us in all evils; hence he says, the God of all comfort. For if you sin, God comforts you, because he is merciful; if you are afflicted, he comforts you either by rooting out the affliction by his power or by judging justly; if you labor, he comforts you with a reward: I am your shield; your reward shall be very great (Gen 15:1). Therefore, it is said: blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted (Matt 5:5). 14. Materiam autem gratiarum actionis subdit dicens qui consolatur, et cetera. Quasi dicat: ideo benedictus, quia consolatur nos in omni tribulatione. Infra VII, 6: qui consolatur, et cetera. 14. He tells us why he is thankful when he adds, who comforts us in all our tribulation. As if to say: he is blessed, because he comforts us in all our tribulation. God who comforts the humble (2 Cor 7:6). 15. Causam autem huius ponit, cum dicit ut possimus et ipsi consolari. 15. He gives the reason for this when he says, that we also may be able to comfort those who are in all distress. Ubi notandum est, quod in donis divinis est ordo. Ad hoc enim Deus dat aliquibus specialia dona, ut ipsi effundant illa in utilitatem aliorum. Non enim dat lumen soli, ut sibi soli luceat sed ut toti mundo. Unde vult quod de omnibus bonis nostris, sive sint divitiae, sive potentia, sive scientia, sive sapientia, accrescat aliqua utilitas aliis. I Petr. c. IV, 10: unusquisque gratiam quam accepit, et cetera. Here it should be noted that there is an order among God’s gifts. For God gives special gifts to some, that they may pour them out for the benefit of others; for he does not give light to the sun in order that the sun may shine for itself alone, but for the whole world. Hence, God desires that some profit accrue to others from all our gifts, whether they be riches or power of knowledge or wisdom. As each has received a gift, employ it for one another (1 Pet 4:10). Hoc est ergo quod Apostolus dicit consolatur nos in omni tribulatione. This then is what the Apostle says, who comforts us in all our tribulation. 16. Sed quare? Non ut solum nobis hoc sit ad bonum, sed etiam ut aliis prosit. Unde dicit ut possimus et ipsi consolari eos, et cetera. 16. But why? Not only for our benefit, but that it profit others too. Hence, he says, that we also may be able to comfort those who are in all distress.