Explanatio promissi antea facti
Explanation of former promise
1:15 Et hac confidentia volui prius venire ad vos, ut secundum gratiam haberetis: [n. 35]
1:15 And in this confidence I wanted to come to you before, that you might have a second grace: [n. 35]
1:16 et per vos transire in Macedoniam, et iterum a Macedonia venire ad vos, et a vobis deduci in Judaeam.
1:16 And to pass by you into Macedonia: and again from Macedonia to come to you, and by you to be brought on my way towards Judea.
1:17 Cum ergo hoc voluissem, numquid levitate usus sum? aut quae cogito, secundum carnem cogito, ut sit apud me est et non? [n. 37]
1:17 Therefore when I had wanted this, did I use lightness? Or, the things that I intend, do I intend according to the flesh, that there should be with me, it is, and it is not? [n. 37]
1:18 Fidelis autem Deus, quia sermo noster, qui fuit apud vos, non est in illo est et non. [n. 38]
1:18 But God is faithful: for our speech, which was to you, is not in him, it is, and it is not. [n. 38]
1:19 Dei enim Filius Jesus Christus, qui in vobis per nos praedicatus est, per me, et Silvanum, et Timotheum, non fuit est et non, sed est in illo fuit. [n. 40]
1:19 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, by me and Sylvanus and Timothy, was not: it is and it is not. But, it is, was in him. [n. 40]
1:20 Quotquot enim promissiones Dei sunt, in illo est: ideo et per ipsum amen Deo ad gloriam nostram. [n. 42]
1:20 For however many promises of God there are, is in him. Therefore also by him, amen to God, unto our glory. [n. 42]
1:21 Qui autem confirmat nos vobiscum in Christo, et qui unxit nos Deus: [n. 44]
1:21 Now he who confirms us with you in Christ and who has anointed us, is God: [n. 44]
1:22 qui et signavit nos, et dedit pignus Spiritus in cordibus nostris.
1:22 Who also has sealed us and given the pledge of the Spirit in our hearts.
1:23 Ego autem testem Deum invoco in animam meam, quod parcens vobis, non veni ultra Corinthum: [n. 47]
1:23 But I call God to witness upon my soul that to spare you, I came no more to Corinth: [n. 47]
1:24 non quia dominamur fidei vestae, sed adjutores sumus gaudii vestri: nam fide statis.
1:24 not because we exercise dominion over your faith: but we are helpers of your joy. For in faith you stand.
35. Apostolus, captata benevolentia Corinthiorum, consequenter excusationem suam addit, et
35. After winning the good will of the Corinthians, the Apostle adds his excuse.
circa hoc tria facit.
In regard to this he does three things:
Primo enim ponit intentum;
first, he mentions what he intends;
secundo sub quaestione accusationem contra eum ab eis factam exponit, ibi cum ergo hoc, etc.;
second, in the form of a question he answers an accusation they made against him, at therefore when;
tertio excusat se, ibi fidelis autem Deus.
third, he excuses himself, at but God is faithful.
36. Circa primum sciendum est quod Apostolus in prima epistola (quam nos non habemus) missa ab eo Corinthiis, vel per nuntium, promiserat eis quod primo iret ad eos antequam iret in Macedoniam, et per eos iret in Macedoniam, et iterum inde rediret in Achaiam, in qua est Corinthus, et de Achaia in Iudaeam; postmodum, in secunda epistola, quam nos habemus primam, scribit eis quod primo iret in Macedoniam, et postmodum iret in Corinthum.
36. In regard to the first it should be noted that in a previous epistle (which we do not have), which the Apostle has sent to the Corinthians by a messenger, he had promised them that he would visit them before going to Macedonia, and that he would return again to Achaia, where Corinth is, and from Achaia to Judea. Then in a second epistle, which we call the first, he wrote them that he would first go to Macedonia and later to Corinth.
Quia ergo videtur secundum hoc contrarium primae promissioni, Apostolus excusat se modo de hoc, ponens primo ipsam promissionem primo factam, et ideo dicit et hac confidentia, quasi dicat: vos scitis puritatem et sinceritatem meam, et estis testes mei, et gloria mea, ideo in hac confidentia, id est in hoc confisus, quia per alterutrum glorificari speramus, volui primo venire ad vos, ut secundam gratiam haberetis, quia secunda visitatio et confirmatio in fide, dicitur secunda gratia respectu conversionis, quam primo habuerunt ministerio et praedicatione ipsius. Et per vos transire in Macedoniam, et iterum a Macedonia venire ad vos, et a vobis deduci in Iudaeam. Iste est ordo primae promissionis, sed in praecedenti epistola est ordo contrarius, sicut dictum est.
Therefore, because this seemed contrary to the first promise, the Apostle now excuses himself for this by first mentioning the promise he originally made; hence, he says, and in this confidence. As if to say: you know my honesty and sincerity and you are my witnesses and my glory; therefore, in this confidence, i.e., relying on this, because we hope to be glorified by you, I wanted to come to you before, that you might have a second grace, because a second visit and strengthening of the faith is called a second grace in relation to the time they were first converted by his ministry and his teaching. And to pass by you into Macedonia, and again from Macedonia to come to you, and by you to be brought on my way towards Judea. This is the sequence of the first promise, but in the preceding epistle this is a contrary sequence, as has been said.
37. Consequenter huius mutationis accusationem, qua accusabant eum Corinthii, ponit sub quaestione, dicens cum ergo hoc voluissem, et cetera.
37. Then he puts the accusation for this change, for which the Corinthians accused him, in the form of a question, saying, therefore when I had wanted this, did I use lightness?
Duo imponebant ei ex hoc, levitatem, quia mutaverat propositum, Eccli. XXVII, 12: stultus ut luna mutatur, et carnalitatem, quia visum erat eis, quod ex aliquo carnali et humano affectu hoc fecisset. Unde haec duo tangit, et primo levitatem, unde dicit numquid levitate usus sum, si non feci quod aliquando volui? Absit. Est. XVI, 9: nec putare debetis, si diversa iubeamus, ex animi levitate venire. Ps. XXXIV, 18: in populo gravi, et cetera.
For on account of this they charged him with two things: light-mindedness, because he changed his mind: the fool changes like the moon (Sir 27:11); and carnal love, because it seemed to them that he had done this from some carnal and human affection. Hence, he touches on two points: first, light-mindedness, and he says, did I use lightness?, if I failed to do what I once wanted to do? God forbid! Neither must you think, if we command different things, that it comes from the levity of our mind (Est 16:9); in the mighty throng I will praise you (Ps 35:18).
Secundo tangit carnalitatem cum dicit aut numquid ea quae cogito, facienda vel dimittenda, secundum carnem cogito, id est secundum aliquem carnalem affectum, ut sit apud me, est et non, id est affirmatio et negatio? Infra X, 2: arbitrantur nos tamquam secundum carnem ambulemus. Iac. c. I, 8: vir duplex animo, et cetera.
Second he touches on carnal affection, when he says, the things that I intend, either to do or to dismiss, do I intend according to the flesh, i.e., according to carnal affection, that there should be with me, it is, and it is not, i.e., to affirm and deny. Some reckon us as if we walked according to the flesh (2 Cor 10:2); a double-minded man is unstable in all his ways (Jas 1:8).
38. Exposita eorum accusatione, consequenter excusat se, dicens fidelis autem Deus, etc., et
38. Having enlarged upon their accusation, he excuses himself, saying, but God is faithful, and
circa hoc duo facit.
in regard to this he does two things:
Primo insinuat se non fuisse mentitum;
first, he declares that he did not lie;
secundo ostendit modum quomodo non fuit mentitus, ibi qui autem confirmat, et cetera.
second, he shows how he did not lie, at now he who confirms us.
39. Quod autem non fuerit mentitus, excusat se dupliciter, scilicet ex consuetudine, et ex causa.
39. He shows in two ways that he had not lied, namely, from his character and from the cause.
Ex consuetudine quidem, quia non debet credi quod aliquis de facili mentiatur, qui numquam inventus est mendax, et secundum hanc expositionem fidelis Deus, etc., accipitur in vi iuramenti, quasi: testis sit mihi Deus, quod sermo meus, scilicet praedicationis, qui fuit apud vos, non est in illo est et non, id est, non est in illo falsitas. Deut. XXXII, 4: Deus fidelis, et absque ulla, et cetera.
From his character, because we should not suppose that a person would easily lie, if he has never been found to be a liar. According to this explanation, but God is faithful, is spoken with the force of an oath. As if to say: God is my witness that our speech, namely, our preaching, which was to you, was not, it is, it is not, i.e., there is no falsity in it. A faithful God, without deceit, just and upright is he (Deut 32:4).
Si autem sumatur fidelis Deus, etc., pro veritate divinae promissionis, tunc est sensus: fidelis est Deus, id est servat promissa sua. Promiserat autem mittere ad vos praedicatores veritatis, Ier. III, 15: dabo vobis pastores iuxta cor, etc., et ideo cum sim missus ab eo, sermo noster qui fuit, etc., sicut supra.
But if God is faithful is taken for the truth of the divine promise, then the sense is: God is faithful, i.e., he keeps his promises, but he had promised to send you preachers of the truth: I will give you shepherds after my own heart (Jer 3:15). Therefore, since I was sent by him, our speech which was to you, is not in him, it is, and it is not.
40. Ex causa excusat se, cum dicit Dei enim filius. Et hoc dupliciter, scilicet motiva et efficiente, ibi qui autem confirmat, et cetera.
40. In regard to the cause, he excuses himself, at for the Son of God. He does this for two reasons, namely, from the motive and the efficient cause, at now he who confirms us.
Causa autem motiva ad non mentiendum est, quia qui assumit aliquod officium, naturaliter movetur ad ea quae congruunt illi officio, et non ad contraria. Sed constat quod officium apostolicum est praedicare veritatem; non ergo movetur ad contrarium veritatis, quod est mentiri.
His motive for not lying is that a person who assumes an office is naturally moved to what suits that office and not to what is contrary; but it is obvious that the Apostle’s office is to preach the truth. Therefore, he is not moved to the contrary of the truth, which is to lie.
Et circa hoc tria facit.
In regard to this he does three things:
Primo probat veritatem dicti sui per dictum Christi;
first, he proves the truth of his word by the word of Christ;
secundo veritatem Christi per dictum Dei, ibi quotquot autem, etc.;
second, he proves the truth of Christ by the word of God, at for all the promises;
tertio concludit suum propositum, ibi ideo et per ipsum, et cetera.
third, he concludes to what he intended, at therefore also by him.
41. Dicit ergo primo: dico quod dicta nostra debent reputari vera, et vera sunt, quia praedicavimus Christum in quo non fuit aliqua falsitas. Et hoc est quod dicit Dei enim Filius Christus, qui est praedicatus per nos in vobis; per me, scilicet principaliter, et Sylvanum, secundario (iste est Sylas de quo habetur Act. XVIII, 5) et Timotheum, de quo supra. Isti enim duo fuerunt cum apostolo, quando primo convertit eos.
41. He says, therefore: I say that our words should be regarded as true, and true they are, because we have preached Christ, in whom there is no falsehood. And this is what he says, for the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you, by us, by me, i.e., to say principally, and Sylvanus, secondarily (he is the Silas of Acts 18:5), and Timothy mentioned above. For those two were with the Apostle when he first converted them.