Lectio 1 Lecture 1 Militia spiritualis Spiritual warfare 10:1 Ipse autem ego Paulus obsecro vos per mansuetudinem et modestiam Christi, qui in facie quidem humilis sum inter vos, absens autem confido in vos. [n. 343] 10:1 Now I Paul, myself beseech you, by the mildness and modesty of Christ: who in presence indeed am lowly among you, but being absent am bold toward you. [n. 343] 10:2 Rogo autem vos ne praesens audeam per eam confidentiam, qua existimor audere in quosdam, qui arbitrantur nos tamquam secundum carnem ambulemus. [n. 346] 10:2 But I beseech you, that I may not be bold when I am present with that confidence with which I am thought to be bold, against some who reckon us as if we walked according to the flesh. [n. 346] 10:3 In carne enim ambulantes, non secundum carnem militamus. [n. 349] 10:3 For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh. [n. 349] 10:4 Nam arma militiae nostrae non carnalia sunt, sed potentia Deo [n. 350] ad destructionem munitionum, consilia destruentes, [n. 351] 10:4 For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal but mighty to God, [n. 350] unto the pulling down of fortifications, destroying counsels, [n. 351] 10:5 et omnem altitudinem extollentem se adversus scientiam Dei, et in captivitatem redigentes omnem intellectum in obsequium Christi, 10:5 And every height that exalts itself against the knowledge of God: and bringing into captivity every understanding unto the obedience of Christ: 10:6 et in promptu habentes ulcisci omnem inobedientiam, cum impleta fuerit vestra obedientia. [n. 352] 10:6 And having in readiness to revenge all disobedience, when your obedience shall be fulfilled. [n. 352] 343. Postquam tractavit de bonis ministris Christi et fidei, consequenter Apostolus invehitur contra falsos ministros et pseudo-prophetas. Et 343. After dealing with the good ministers of Christ and of the faith, the Apostle now attacks false ministers and false apostles. primo invehitur contra eos; First, he attacks these; Secundo vero contra illos, qui, decepti ab eis, adhaerebant eis, in XIII cap., ibi ecce tertio, et cetera. second, those who, being deceived by them, have adhered to them, in chapter thirteen, at behold, now for the third time. Circa primum duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things. Primo excusat se de eis quae imponuntur sibi per rationem; First, he gives the reason, excusing himself from the task imposed on him; secundo vero per facti evidentiam, ibi quae autem secundum faciem sunt, et cetera. second, he gives the evidence for the fact, at see the things that are according to outward appearance. Circa primum duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things. Primo recusat se excusare per experimentum, cum tamen posset; First, he refuses to make a test; secundo vero excusat per rationem, ibi qui arbitrantur, et cetera. second, he excuses himself with a reason, at who reckon us. Circa primum tria facit. In regard to the first he does three things. Primo praemittit obsecrationem; First, he entreats them; secundo interponit illud quod imponitur sibi a pseudo, ibi qui in facie quidem, etc.; second, he interjects what is imposed on them by the false apostles, at who in presence indeed; tertio recusat experimentum, ibi rogo autem. third, he refuses the test, at but I beseech you. 344. Dicit ergo ipse autem ego Paulus, qui vos et alios ad eleemosynas exhortor; ego, inquam, ipse, obsecro vos per mansuetudinem et modestiam Christi. De mansuetudine Christi habetur Matth. XI, 29: discite a me, quia mitis sum, et cetera. De modestia Sap. c. XI, 21: omnia in numero, pondere et mensura disposuisti, et cetera. Modestia enim nihil aliud est quam modum servare in agendis. 344. He says, therefore: Now I, Paul, myself, who am urging you and others to give alms; I myself, I say, beseech you, by the mildness and modesty of Christ. Of the mildness of Christ: take my yoke upon you, and learn from me; for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls (Matt 11:29); of his modesty: for it is always in your power to show great strength, and who can withstand the might of your arm? (Wis 11:21). For modesty consists in nothing less than observing the measure in acting. Facit autem specialiter hic mentionem de mansuetudine et modestia Christi, quia pseudo, et Corinthii, specialiter imponebant Paulo quod cum esset praesens apud eos conversaretur humiliter, et cum esset absens scriberet eis valde dure. Et ideo posuit illa duo quae Christus habuit, ut sciant quod Apostolus haec etiam ostendit et servavit exemplo Christi. But he makes special mention of Christ’s mildness and modesty, because the false apostles and the Corinthians accused Paul of acting humbly when he was among them, but when he was absent he wrote very harshly. Therefore, he mentioned those two qualities of Christ to show that the Apostle also has them and observes them after the example of Christ. 345. Et ideo consequenter interponit vitium sibi impositum, dicens: ego ipse Paulus, id est vere humilis, quia Paulus humilis et quietus interpretatur. I Cor. XV, 9: ego sum minimus, et cetera. Unde ego ipse, id est, vere Paulus. Ps. ci, 28: tu quidem ipse es. Eccli. c. XIX, 23: est qui nequiter humiliat se, et cetera. Et Iac. III, 16: ubi zelus et contentio, ibi inconstantia, et cetera. 345. Hence, he introduces the vice ascribed to him, saying, I, Paul, myself, i.e., truly humble, because Paul means humble and quiet: for I am the least of the apostles (1 Cor 15:9); hence, I myself, i.e., truly Paul: but you are the same (Ps 102:27); there is one who humbles himself wickedly, and his interior is full of deceit (Sir 19:23); for where jealousy and selfish ambition exist, there will be disorder and every vile practice (Jas 3:16). Ego inquam obsecro, qui in facie, id est exterius, ut dicitis, humilis sum inter vos, id est humiliter conversatus, cum sum vobis praesens, absens autem, id est cum sum absens a vobis, quando scilicet non timeo laedi ab aliquo vestrum, confido in vobis, id est confidenter ago, aspere vobis per epistolam scribens. Prov. XXVIII, 1: iustus quasi leo confidens, et cetera. I, I say, beseech you, who in presence, i.e., outwardly, as you say, am lowly among you, acting humbly while I am present with you, but being absent, namely, when there is no fear of being injured by any of you, am bold toward you, i.e., act boldly, writing harsh epistles to you: but the righteous are bold as a lion (Prov 28:1). 346. Consequenter cum dicit rogo autem, etc., recusat sumere experimentum. 346. Then when he says, but I beseech you, he refuses to make a test. Isti enim credebant quod Apostolus ex timore ductus conversaretur humiliter inter eos, et ideo dicit: vos ita creditis, sed ego rogo vos, qui et ipse obsecro, ut velitis experiri, utrum ego, si necesse sit, faciam in praesentia, quomodo facio in absentia. Et ideo dicit ne praesens, id est cum fuero apud vos, audeam facere in vobis, si necesse sit, per eam confidentiam, id est ita confidenter, sicut existimor a vobis audere, id est audacter et confidenter agere, in quosdam, incorrectos dure reprehendendo, per litteras etiam corrigendo. Iob XXXI: exaltat audacter, et cetera. For they believed that the Apostle acted humbly among them because of fear; hence, he says: you believe so, but I beseech you—since you would like to experience whether I, if it were necessary, would do when I am present as I do in my absence. And so he says: that I may not be bold when I am present, i.e., when I am among you, to do anything, if it is necessary, with that confidence, i.e., as confidently as I am thought by you to be bold, i.e., to act boldly and confidently against some uncorrected persons, by rebuking and correcting through letters: he exults in his strength (Job 39:20). 347. Deinde excusat se per rationem, dicens qui arbitrantur, etc., quasi dicat: et licet nolim experimento me excusare propter vos, tamen ratio in promptu est ad excusandum me sufficienter. 347. Then he excuses himself with a reason, saying: who reckon us as if we walked according to the flesh. As if to say: although I am not willing to justify myself for your sake with a test, nevertheless, there is a reason at hand to justify me. Circa hoc ergo tria facit. In regard to this he does three things. Primo ponit causam, quare imponunt ei quod dictum est; First, he gives the reason why they lay this charge against him; secundo destruit causam illam; second, he destroys the reason; tertio confirmat per rationem. third, he confirms it with a reason. 348. Causa autem quare hoc sibi imponitur, scilicet quod praesens sit humilis, absens autem severus et austerus, est quia isti arbitrabantur Apostolum secundum carnem ambulare. 348. The reason why this charge is laid to him, namely that he is humble when present but harsh and severe when absent, is that they consider that the Apostle acts in a worldly manner, i.e., walks according to the flesh. Et quia unusquisque secundum regulam operis operatur, finis autem habet rationem regulae, ideo quilibet dirigit opus suum ad finem quem intendit. Qui ergo ponunt finem suum in bonis carnalibus dicuntur ambulare secundum carnem. Et inde est quod ita regulant opera sua, ut consequantur ea quae sunt carnis; quae quidem, quia possunt subtrahi ab hominibus, ideo homines, qui in carnalia tendunt, blande se habent ad homines et humiliter. Et ideo, quia credebant Apostolum ambulare secundum carnem ideo credebant quod propter hoc humiliter conversatus sit inter eos. And because every person works according to what rules the work, and the end should be the rule, it follows that everyone directs his own work to the end he intends. Therefore, those who place their end in carnal goods are said to walk according to the flesh. And because these things can be taken from them, men who tend to carnal things behave gently and humbly toward others. Therefore, because they believed that the Apostle walked according to the flesh, they supposed that this was the reason he behaved humbly among them. 349. Sed haec ratio nulla est et vana, et ideo destruit eam. Dicens in carne enim, etc., quasi dicat: quod nos sumus in carne non possumus negare, quia Rom. VIII, 12 dicitur: debitores sumus non carni, etc.; sed quod nos regulemur secundum carnem, ponendo in bonis carnalibus finem, sive intentionem nostram, hoc est falsum, quia non secundum carnem militamus, id est vitam nostram, quae est quaedam militia, ut dicitur Iob VII, 1, non regulamus secundum carnem. 349. But this reason is null and void; therefore, he destroys it, saying: for though we walk in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh. As if to say: we cannot deny that we are in the flesh, because it is said: so then, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh (Rom 8:12), but that we are ruled according to the flesh, by placing our end or our intention in carnal goods, this is false, because we do not war according to the flesh, i.e., we do not regulate our life, which is a warfare according to the flesh (Job 7:1). 350. Et quod non militemus secundum carnem probat, cum dicit nam arma nostra, etc., et primo, ex militaribus armis, sicut unusquisque pugnator habet arma accommoda militiae et pugnae suae. Sed constat quod arma eorum qui pugnant secundum carnem, seu militant, sunt divitiae, voluptates, honores et potentiae mundanae et temporales, cum ergo arma nostra non sint huiusmodi, quia arma militiae nostrae non sunt carnalia, sed potentia Deo, id est secundum Deum, vel ad honorem Dei, ergo nos non militamus secundum carnem. 350. That we do not war according to the flesh he proves when he says, for the weapons of our warfare are not carnal; and first of all, from the weapons of warfare, as a fighter has weapons suitable to his warfare. Now it is plain that the weapons of those who fight according to the flesh, or wage war, are riches, pleasures, and worldly and temporal honors and power. But since our weapons are not of this sort, for the weapons of our warfare are not carnal but mighty to God, i.e., according to God or to the honor of God, therefore, we do not war according to the flesh.