Lectio 1 Lecture 1 Probatio Christi in Paulo Proof of Christ in Paul 13:1 Ecce tertio hoc venio ad vos: in ore duorum vel trium testium stabit omne verbum. [n. 515] 13:1 Behold, this is the third time I am coming to you: in the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word stand. [n. 515] 13:2 Praedixi, et praedico, ut praesens, et nunc absens iis qui ante peccaverunt, et ceteris omnibus, quoniam si venero iterum, non parcam. [n. 518] 13:2 I have told before and foretell, as present and now absent, to those who sinned before and to all the rest, that if I come again, I will not spare. [n. 518] 13:3 An experimentum quaeritis ejus, qui in me loquitur Christus, qui in vobis non infirmatur, sed potens est in vobis? [n. 519] 13:3 Do you seek a proof of Christ who speaks in me, who is not weak towards you, but is mighty in you? [n. 519] 13:4 Nam etsi crucifixus est ex infirmitate: sed vivit ex virtute Dei. Nam et nos infirmi sumus in illo: sed vivemus cum eo ex virtute Dei in vobis. [n. 522] 13:4 For although he was crucified through weakness, yet he lives by the power of God. For we also are weak in him: but we shall live with him by the power of God towards you. [n. 522] 515. In praecedentibus Apostolus multa locutus est ad detestationem pseudo, hic consequenter loquitur contra illos qui a pseudo sunt seducti. Et 515. Having said many things to the disadvantage of the false apostles, the Apostle now speaks against those who have been misled by them. circa hoc duo facit. In regard to this he does two things. Primo increpat seductos; First, he rebukes those who have been misled; secundo consolatur persistentes, ibi de caetero, fratres, gaudete, et cetera. second, he congratulates those who remained faithful, at for the rest, brethren, rejoice. Circa primum, primo comminatur sententiae severitatem; First, he threatens a severe sentence; secundo ostendit suam iudiciariam potestatem, ibi an experimentum quaeritis, etc.; second, he discloses his judiciary power, at do you seek a proof; tertio monet ad correctionem, ibi vosmetipsos tentate, et cetera. third, he warns them to amend themselves, at try yourselves. In regard to the first he does three things. Circa primum, primo promittit suam praesentiam; First, he promises his presence; secundo praedeterminat sui iudicii formam, ibi in ore duorum vel trium, etc.; second, he indicates the form of his judgment, at in the mouth of two or three; tertio comminatur severam sententiam, ibi praedixi enim, et praedico, et cetera. third, he threatens a severe sentence, at I have told before and foretell. 516. Promittit ergo, primo, suum adventum, dicens ecce ego venio, quasi dicat: certum sit vobis, quod venio ad vos, et ideo cavete vobis ne inveniam vos imparatos. 516. Therefore, he first promises to come, saying, behold, I am coming. As if to say: be assured that I am coming to you, so take care that I do not find you unprepared. Et dicit tertio, non quod tertio iverit, sed quia tertio iam paraverat ire, etsi non iverat nisi semel, in secundo apparatu impeditus. I Cor. IV, 19: veniam ad vos cito, et cetera. He says: this is the third time, not that he had come a third time, but because he was prepared a third time to come; for he actually came only once so far, although he was ready to come the second time but was prevented: but I will come to you soon, if the Lord wills (1 Cor 4:19). 517. Veniam, inquam, et iudicabo malos, secundum ordinem tamen, ita scilicet quod in ore duorum vel trium testium, accusantium seu testantium contra aliquem, sit omne verbum, accusatorum; quod quidem dicitur Deut. XVII, 6: nemo occidetur, uno teste dicente testimonium, et eiusdem XIX, 15: non stabit testis unus contra aliquem. 517. I will come, I say, and judge the wicked; in an orderly fashion, however, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses accusing or bearing witness against anyone, shall every word of the accusers stand. This is based on: a person shall not be put to death on the evidence of one witness (Deut 17:6), and: a single witness shall not prevail against a man (Deut 19:15). Vel aliter in ore duorum, etc., quasi dicat: hoc quod dico de adventu meo ad vos, ita est certum, sicut testimonium duorum, vel trium. Sic ergo ordo iudicii erit. Or another way: in the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word stand. As if to say: that which I say about my coming to you is as certain as the testimony of two or three. Thus there will be an order in the judgment. 518. Sed severitatem sententiae comminatur, dicens praedixi enim, et cetera. Ubi, primo, insinuat ordinem iudiciarium quo est procedendum, in quo exigitur ut praecedat trina admonitio. Et quantum ad hoc dicit praedixi vobis ut praesens, bis, quando scilicet eram vobiscum, et nunc absens praedico, ut sic ter admoneat. Praedico, inquam, his qui ante peccaverunt, et omnibus aliis; quasi dicat: omnes moneo. 518. But he threatens a severe sentence, saying: I have told before and foretell. Here he first suggests the judicial process to be followed, which requires that three warnings have been given. In regard to this he says: I have told before twice, as present, namely, when I was among you, so I foretell now, that is, while absent. Thus he warns them three times. I foretell, I say, to those who sinned before and all the others. As if to say: I warn everyone. Secundo, praemissa monitione, comminatur sententiam. Unde dicit quoniam si venero, non parcam iterum, quasi dicat: illis qui peccaverunt peperci prima vice, sed, si iterum peccaverint, vel si non egerint poenitentiam, non parcam eis iterum. Et hoc iuste fit, quia ille cui semel remittitur et iterum peccat, si remitteretur sibi, cresceret in malitia, et efficeretur insolens. Et ideo dicit sapiens Prov. XIII, 24: qui parcit virgae, odit filium suum, et cetera. Second, having given the warning, he threatens the sentence; hence, he says, that if I come again, I will not spare. As if to say: those who sinned I spared the first time; but if they sin again, or have not done penance, I will not spare them again. This would be just, because a person who is forgiven once and sins again, if he were forgiven, would grow in malice and become insolent. Hence the wise man says: he who spares the rod hates his son (Prov 13:24). Ex hoc ergo ordinatum est in Ecclesia, ut praecedat trina monitio antequam quis sententiam excommunicationis fulminet, quia contingit, quod aliqui, licet sint in peccatis et offendant, tamen ex solo verbo admonitionis corriguntur et satisfaciunt. Et etiam a levioribus semper incipiendum est. Quod si admonitione non ducitur, ne magis insolescat, adhibenda est severitas sententiae. Eccle. VIII, v. 11: ex eo quod non profertur cito contra malos sententia, et cetera. As a result the Church has decreed that three admonitions must be given before it declares one excommunicated, because it happens that some, although they are in sin and offend, are corrected by a mere word of warning and make satisfaction. But if they are not influenced by warnings, the severity of sentence must be applied, lest they grow more insolent: because sentence against an evil deed is not executed speedily, the heart of the sons of men is fully set to do evil (Eccl 8:11). 519. Consequenter ne possent calumniari de potestate Apostoli, ostendit Apostolus suam iudiciariam potestatem, dicens an experimentum, et cetera. Ubi tria facit. 519. Then, lest they belittle the Apostle’s power, he discloses his judicial power, saying: do you seek a proof? Here he does three things. Primo ostendit se habere legationem et potestatem iudicandi a Christo; First, he shows that he has delegation and power to judge from Christ; secundo ostendit virtutem Christi, ibi qui in vobis non infirmatur, etc.; second, he shows Christ’s power, at who is not weak towards you; tertio ostendit, quod virtus Christi etiam ad alios derivatur, ibi nam et nos infirmi sumus in illo. third, he shows that Christ’s power is distributed to others, at for we also are weak in him. 520. Dicit ergo: si venero, non parcam, immo severissime iudicabo, et hoc bene possum, quia habeo auctoritatem Christi in puniendo et remittendo. Supra II, 10: nam si quid donavi, et cetera. Supra V, 20: pro Christo legatione fungimur, et cetera. Et ideo dicit an experimentum, etc., quasi dicat: non est dubitandum de potestate mea, quia quidquid ego loquor, vel proferendo sententias, vel remittendo, vel praedicando, loquor a Christo. Ex. IV, 12: perge, ergo, ego ero in ore tuo. Lc. XXI, 15: ego dabo vobis os et sapientiam, et cetera. 520. He says, therefore: if I come again, I will not spare; rather, I shall judge most severely. And I can do this, because I have Christ’s authority to punish and forgive. For, what have I pardoned, if I have pardoned any thing, I have done it for your sakes, in the person of Christ (2 Cor 2:10); for Christ, therefore, we are ambassadors, God as it were exhorting by us (2 Cor 5:20). Therefore, he says: do you seek a proof of Christ who speaks in me? As if to say: have no doubts about my power, because whatever I utter either by passing sentence or forgiving or preaching, I say from Christ. Now therefore go, and I will be with your mouth (Exod 4:12); for I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict (Luke 21:15). Quae ergo homo facit ex instinctu Spiritus Sancti, dicitur quod Spiritus Sanctus facit; ideo Apostolus quia a Christo motus hoc loquebatur, attribuit Christo tamquam principali, dicens qui in me loquitur Christus, et cetera. Therefore, whatever a man says under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, the Holy Spirit is said to do. Therefore, the Apostle, because he was moved by Christ to say this, attributed it to Christ as to the principal cause, saying, Christ who speaks in me. 521. Sed ne dubitetur de potestate et virtute Christi, ideo consequenter Apostolus ostendit virtutem Christi, cum dicit qui in vobis, et cetera. Ubi primo ostendit virtutem Christi, quantum ad ea quae in eis apparuerunt; secundo quantum ad ea quae in Christo sunt, ibi nam etsi, et cetera. 521. But lest there be any doubt about Christ’s power and might, the Apostle discusses the might of Christ, when he says, who is not weak towards you, but is mighty in you. Herein he shows Christ’s power as to things which are manifested in them; second, as to things which are in Christ, at for although. Dicit ergo: habeo potestatem iudiciariam a Christo, qui in me loquitur, qui magnae virtutis est in vobis, dando dona gratiarum, distributionem Spiritus et alia multa, quae experti estis; et non solum non infirmatur, sed potens est in vobis, quia potenter vos liberavit a peccato, potenter vos convertit ad bonum. Ps. XXIII, 8: Dominus fortis et potens, et cetera. Sap. XII, 18: subest tibi cum volueris posse. Et paulo ante: virtutem enim ostendis tu, et cetera. He says, therefore: I have judiciary power from Christ, who speaks in me, who is mighty in you by giving the gifts of grace, the distribution of the Spirit and many other things you have experienced; and not only is he not weak towards you, but is mighty in you, because he has mightily delivered you from sin and turned you to good. The Lord, strong and mighty (Ps 24:8); your power is at hand when you will (Wis 12:18); and a little before: for you show your strength when men doubt the completeness of your power (Wis 12:17). 522. Et non solum potentia Christi apparuit in vobis, sed etiam in seipso, scilicet inquantum a morte crucis, quam sustinuit ex infirmitate humana, quam assumpsit infirmatam in paupertate, surrexit, et vivit ex virtute Dei, quae est ipse Deus. Talis enim erat illa susceptio, quae Deum hominem faceret, et hominem Deum. I Cor. I, 25: quod infirmum est Dei, fortius est hominibus, et cetera. Vel, ex virtute Dei, scilicet Patris, qui est etiam virtus Christi, quia eadem est virtus Patris et Filii. Apoc. I, 18: fuit mortuus, et cetera. 522. Not only in you has Christ’s power appeared, but also in himself, inasmuch as he rose from the death of the cross, which he endured from human weakness, which he assumed in poverty, and lives by the power of God, which is God himself: the weakness of God is stronger than men (1 Cor 1:25). Or by the power of God, namely, of the Father who is also the power of Christ, because the power of the Father and of the Son are the same: I died, and behold, I am alive forevermore (Rev 1:18). Haec etiam virtus Christi derivatur ad nos. Nam et nos infirmi, etc., quasi dicat: ad nos etiam pertinet illa virtus, quia et nos infirmi sumus in illo, id est ad intentionem illius, inquantum propter ipsum multa patimur, et mortificamus nosmetipsos, et humiliamus nos. I Cor. IV, 10: nos infirmi propter Christum, et cetera. Supra X, 10: praesentia corporis infirma. Supra IV, 10: semper mortificationem, et cetera. Et ideo vivemus, id est vivificabimur, ex virtute Dei in vobis, iudicandis. Gal. I, 1: qui suscitavit Iesum Christum, et cetera. But this power of Christ is also distributed to us, for we also are weak in him. As if to say: that power pertains to us also, because we also are weak in him, i.e., as to its aim, inasmuch as we suffer many things and mortify ourselves and humiliate ourselves for him. We are weak for Christ’s sake (1 Cor 4:10); his bodily presence is weak (2 Cor 10:10); always bearing about in our body the mortification of Jesus (2 Cor 4:10). Therefore, we shall live, i.e., shall be brought to life, by the power of God towards you, who are to be judged: through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead (Gal 1:1). Et est sensus: nos ex virtute qua Christus vivit, resuscitamur; et illa virtute habemus etiam potestatem iudicandi in vobis, vel vivemus, simili beatitudine, cum eo, et hoc ex virtute Dei, quae quidem virtus Dei est in vobis, id est in conscientiis vestris. The sense is this: we are raised by the power by which Christ lives, and from that power we also have the power to judge among you; hence, we shall live with him with a happiness similar to his, and this by the power of God, which power is towards you, i.e., in your consciences. Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Oratio consummationis Prayer for perfection