Lectio 3 Lecture 3 Valete Farewell 13:11 De cetero, fratres, gaudete, perfecti estote, exhortamini, idem sapite, pacem habete, et Deus pacis et dilectionis erit vobiscum. [n. 536] 13:11 For the rest, brethren, rejoice, be perfect, be exhorted, be of one mind, have peace. And the God of peace and of love shall be with you. [n. 536] 13:12 Salutate invicem in osculo sancto. Salutant vos omnes sancti. [n. 541] 13:12 Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the saints salute you. [n. 541] 13:13 Gratia Domini nostri Jesu Christi, et caritas Dei, et communicatio Sancti Spiritus sit cum omnibus vobis. Amen. [n. 544] 13:13 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the charity of God and the communication of the Holy Spirit be with you all. Amen. [n. 544] 536. In praecedentibus Apostolus increpavit seductos a pseudo, hic vero consolatur persistentes in fide et doctrina sua. Et 536. Having rebuked those deceived by false apostles, the Apostle now comforts those who have persisted in his faith and doctrine. primo ponit monitionem; First, he gives an admonition; secundo subdit salutationem, ibi salutate in osculo, et cetera. second, he adds a greeting. In regard to the first he does two things, at salute one another. Circa primum, primo ponit monitionem; First, he gives the salutation; secundo praemium impletae monitionis, ibi et Deus pacis, et cetera. second, the reward of a fulfilled admonition, at and the God of peace. Monet autem ad tria. Primo qualiter se habeant in seipsis; secundo qualiter se habeant ad proximos; tertio qualiter debent esse omnes ad invicem. But he admonishes them on three points: first, what they should have been in themselves; second, in regard to their neighbor; third, how all should act towards one another. 537. In seipsis autem debent bona duo habere. Primo gaudium de bono habito, et quantum ad hoc dicit de caetero, fratres, qui constantes fuistis, gaudete, in his quae ad servitium Dei facitis. Et hoc est necessarium ad hoc quod sitis iusti et virtuosi, quia nullus est virtuosus, seu iustus, qui non gaudet iusta et virtuosa operatione. Et ideo dicitur in Ps. XCIX, 2: iubilate Deo, omnis terra, servite Domino in laetitia; Phil. IV, 4: gaudete in Domino semper; iterum dico, gaudete, et cetera. Et vere semper est gaudendum, quia gaudium conservat hominem in bono habitu, quia nullus potest esse diu in eo quod contristat. 537. They should have two qualities in themselves. The first is joy in the good they had; hence he says: for the rest, brethren, who have been constant, rejoice in the things you have done for God’s service. This is necessary, if you are to be just and virtuous, because no one is just or virtuous who does not take joy in just and virtuous activities. Therefore it is said: sing joyfully to God, all the earth: serve the Lord with gladness (Ps 100:2); rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say, rejoice (Phil 4:4). Indeed, a person should always rejoice because joy keeps a man in good condition, whereas one cannot continue long that which causes sorrow. Secundo debent habere boni in seipsis aemulationem perfectionis, et quantum ad hoc dicit perfecti estote, id est semper tendatis ad profectum. Hebr. VI, 1: quapropter intermittentes inchoationis Christi sermonem, ad perfectionem, et cetera. Second, the good should have in themselves a zeal for perfection; in regard to this he says, be perfect, i.e., always tend to what is perfect: therefore let us leave the elementary doctrine of Christ and go on to maturity (Heb 6:1). Non est autem hoc, quod hic dicitur, praeceptum, scilicet quod homo sit perfectus, sed hoc, quod semper tendat ad perfectionem. Et hoc est necessarium, quia qui non studet ad proficiendum, est in periculo deficiendi. Videmus enim quod nisi remiges conentur ascendere, navis semper descendit. Et ideo dicebat Dominus Mc. ult.: estote perfecti, et cetera. What is said here is not a precept to be perfect, but always tend toward perfection. And this is necessary because a person who does not aim at progressing is in danger of falling back. For we notice that unless the rowers strive to go forward, the ship always goes backward. This is what the Lord said: you, therefore, must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect (Matt 5:48). 538. Proximis autem est impendenda exhortatio ad bona. Et quantum ad hoc dicit exhortamini, et cetera. Eccli. XVII, 12: unicuique mandavit Deus de proximo, et cetera. Rom. c. XII, 8: qui exhortatur in exhortando, Apoc. ult.: qui audit, dicat, veni. 538. To our neighbor we must give exhortations to good; in regard to this he says, be exhorted. And he gave to every one of them commandment concerning his neighbor (Sir 17:12); he who exhorts, in his exhortation (Rom 12:8); and let him who hears say: come (Rev 22:17). 539. Communia autem omnibus debent esse duo, scilicet ut idem sapiant, et ideo dicit idem sapite, et ut pacem habeant, et ideo dicit pacem habete. Et haec duo ita se habent, quod unum est exterius, aliud interius. Constat enim quod corpora non possunt servari et ordinari, nisi membra ordinentur ad invicem. Similiter nec Ecclesia, nec Ecclesiae membra, nisi ordinentur et uniantur ad invicem. 539. There are two things which should be common to all, namely, that they agree: therefore he says, be of one mind; and that they be at peace: hence he says, have peace. These two things are so related that one is external and the other internal. For it is clear that bodies cannot be preserved and kept orderly unless the members are mutually coordinated. In like manner neither the Church nor the members of the Church, unless they are in proper order and united one with another. Est autem duplex unio necessaria ad membra Ecclesiae unienda. Una est interior, ut scilicet idem sapiant per fidem, quantum ad intellectum, idem credendo, et per amorem, quantum ad affectum, idem diligendo. Et ideo dicit idem sapite, id est idem sentiatis de fide, et idem diligatis affectu caritatis. Quia tunc est vera sapientia, quando operatio intellectus perficitur et consummatur per quietationem et delectationem affectus. Unde sapientia dicitur, quasi sapida scientia. Rom. XV, 6: ut sic unanimes, uno ore honorificetis Deum, et cetera. I Cor. I, 10: idipsum dicatis, et cetera. Phil. c. II, 2: idem sapiatis, et cetera. Alia est exterior, scilicet pax, et ideo dicit pacem habete inter vos. Hebr. XII, 14: pacem sequimini, et cetera. Ps. XXXIII, 15: inquire pacem. II Thess. III, v. 16: ipse Deus pacis det vobis pacem sempiternam in omni loco. But there is a double union required for uniting the members of the Church: one is interior, that is, that they agree by faith in regard to the intellect by believing the same things, and by love in the will by loving the same things. Hence he says, be of one mind, i.e., agree in regard to matters of faith, and love the same things with the affection of charity. For true wisdom is present when the activity of the intellect is perfected and consummated by the repose and delight experienced by the affections. That together you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ (Rom 15:6); that all of you agree (1 Cor 1:10); complete my joy by being of the same mind, having the same love, being in full accord and of one mind (Phil 2:2). The other is exterior, namely, peace: therefore he says, have peace among yourselves: strive for peace with all men (Heb 12:14); seek peace, and pursue it (Ps 34:15); now may the Lord of peace himself give you peace at all times in all ways (2 Thess 3:16). 540. Consequenter cum dicit et Deus pacis et dilectionis erit vobiscum, ponit praemium quod redditur implentibus monitionem praedictam; quasi dicat: si servabitis pacem inter vos, Deus pacis et dilectionis erit vobiscum. 540. Then when he says, and the God of peace and of love shall be with you, he mentions the reward given to those who fulfill these admonitions. As if to say: if you keep peace among you, the God of love and peace will be with you. Circa quod notandum est, quod apud gentiles consuetum erat, quod aliqui ex donis denominabant deos, quia licet esset unus Deus tantum, tamen singula dona sua denominabant deos ex illis donis, sicut ex dono pacis denominabant Deum pacis, et ex dono salutis, Deum salutis. Huic vocabulo alludens Apostolus dicit Deus pacis, et cetera. Non quod pax sit unus Deus, sicut illi dicebant, sed ideo Christus dicitur Deus pacis, quia est dator pacis et amator. Io. XIV, 27: pacem meam do vobis, et cetera. I Cor. XIV, 33: non est Deus dissensionis, sed pacis. Rom. V, 5: caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris, et cetera. Ipse etiam est auctor pacis. Io. XVI, 33: in me pacem habebitis, et cetera. Ipse in pace habitat. Ps. LXXV, 3: in pace factus est locus eius, et cetera. In regard to this it should be noted that among the gentiles was a custom that certain gifts be used as names for the gods, because although there is but one God, nevertheless certain special gifts were used for naming the gods from those gifts. Thus, from the gift of peace they call a god the god of peace, and from the gift of salvation, the god of salvation. Alluding to this practice, the Apostle says: the God of peace and of love shall be with you, not that peace is one god, as they said, but Christ is called the God of peace because he is the giver of peace and is one who loves. My peace I give to you (John 14:27); for God is not a God of confusion but of peace (1 Cor 14:53); God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us (Rom 5:5). He is also the author of peace. In me you may have peace. In the world you have tribulation (John 16:33); his abode has been established in peace (Ps 71:3). Item non solum est Deus pacis, sed etiam dilectionis. Et ideo dicit Deus pacis et dilectionis erit vobiscum. Et hoc ideo est, quia qui est in vera pace cordis et corporis, est in caritate, et qui manet in caritate, in Deo manet et Deus in eo, ut dicitur I Io. IV, 16, et quia homo non meretur nisi per pacem et dilectionem. Io. XIV, 23: si quis diligit me, et cetera. Furthermore, he is not only the God of peace, but also of love; hence, he says: the God of peace and of love shall be with you. This is so, because a person who exists in true peace of heart and body exists in charity, and: he who abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him (1 John 4:16); and because a person merits only through peace and love: if a man loves me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him (John 14:23). 541. Consequenter cum dicit salutate invicem in osculo, etc., ponit salutationem, et circa hoc 541. Then when he says, salute one another with a holy kiss, he gives the salutation. In regard to this he does three things. primo indicit eis mutuam salutationem; First, he enjoins on them a mutual greeting; secundo salutat eos ex parte aliorum, ibi salutant vos, etc.; second, he greets them on the part of others, at all the saints salute you; tertio salutat eos ex parte sua, ibi gratia Dei, et cetera. third, he greets them on his own part, at the grace of our Lord. 542. Mutuam salutationem indicit faciendam per osculum. Unde dicit salutate invicem, vos ipsos, in osculo sancto. 542. He requests that the mutual greeting be made with a kiss; hence he says: salute one another with a holy kiss. Ubi notandum est, quod osculum est signum pacis. Nam per os in quo datur osculum, homo respirat. Et ideo quando homines dant sibi mutua oscula signum est quod uniunt spiritum suum ad pacem. Here it should be noted that a kiss is a sign of peace. For a man breathes through the mouth with which a kiss is given. Therefore, when men give one another kisses, it is a sign that they are uniting their spirit of peace. Est autem pax simulata, et haec est eorum qui loquuntur pacem cum proximo suo, mala autem in cordibus eorum, etc., ut dicitur in Ps. XXVII, 3. Quae quidem fit per osculi fraudulentiam. Prov. XXVII, 6: meliora sunt verbera diligentis, et cetera. But there is a false peace, and this is done by those who speak peace with their neighbors, while mischief is in their hearts (Ps 28:3), which is accomplished with the deceit of a kiss: better are the wounds of a friend, than the deceitful kisses of an enemy (Prov 27:6). Est et pax mala et turpis, quando scilicet conveniunt ad malum faciendum. Sap. XIV, v. 22: in magno viventes inscientiae bello, et cetera. Et haec fit per osculum libidinosum. Prov. VII, 13 dicitur de mala muliere, quod apprehensum deosculatur iuvenem, et cetera. There is also an evil and degrading peace, namely, when men come together to commit evil. Afterward it was not enough for them to err about the knowledge of God, but they live in great strife due to ignorance, and they call such great evils peace (Wis 14:22). And this is sealed with a lustful kiss. It is said of an evil woman that catching the young man, she kisses him, and with an impudent face, flatters him (Prov 7:13). Est et pax sancta quam facit Deus. Phil. c. ult.: et pax Dei, quae exsuperat, et cetera. Et haec fit per osculum sanctum, quia unit spiritum ad sanctitatem. Et de hoc osculo dicitur hic in osculo sancto. Et ex hoc inolevit consuetudo, quod fideles et sancti viri, in signum caritatis et unionis, se invicem osculantur, et datur pax in Ecclesiis in osculo sancto. There is also a holy peace which God produces: and the peace of God, which passes all understanding, will keep your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus (Phil 4:7), and this is obtained by a holy kiss, because it unites the spirit with holiness. It is of this kiss that he says here: with a holy kiss. From this there arose the practice whereby believers and holy men kiss one another as a sign of charity and union, and peace is given in the Churches in the holy kiss. 543. Ex parte autem aliorum salutat eos, dicens salutant vos sancti omnes, quia omnes sancti et fideles sperant et desiderant, ac orationibus procurant salutem nostram; unde omnes fideles Christi ad invicem sperant et desiderant sibi salutem. Ps. CXVIII, participem me fac, Deus, et cetera. 543. He greets them on the part of the others when he says, all the saints salute you, because all the saints and faithful hope and desire and procure our salvation with their prayers. Hence, all of Christ’s faithful hope and desire salvation for one another: make me a partaker, O God (Ps 119). 544. Ex parte autem sua salutat eos apostolus, dicens gratia Domini nostri, et cetera. 544. He greets them on his own part, when he says: the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the charity of God and the communication of the Holy Spirit be with you all. Ubi sciendum quod duplex est modus appropriandi aliquid divinis personis. Unus est essentialiter, alius causaliter; essentialiter autem appropriatur divinis personis, sicut Patri potentia, quia ipse est potentia essentialiter, inquantum est principium; Filio sapientia, inquantum est Verbum; Spiritui Sancto amor, inquantum est bonitas. Here it should be noted that there are two modes of appropriating something to the divine persons: one is essentially and the other causally. Essentially power is appropriated to the Father because he is power essentially, inasmuch as he is the principle; to the Son, wisdom, inasmuch as he is the Word; to the Holy Spirit, love, inasmuch as he is goodness. Hic vero Apostolus non appropriat ista hoc modo, scilicet per essentiam, quia sic omnia appropriarentur Spiritui Sancto, sed appropriat per causam. Et ideo cum gratia sit donum, quo dimittuntur nobis peccata Rom. c. III, 24: iustificati gratis, etc., et remissio peccatorum sit nobis facta per Filium, qui, carnem nostram accipiens, pro peccatis nostris satisfecit, Io. I, 17: gratia et veritas per Iesum Christum facta est, etc.; propter hoc Apostolus attribuit gratiam Christo. Unde dicit gratia Domini nostri, et cetera. But here the Apostle does not appropriate those things in this way, namely, by essence, because then all things would be appropriated to the Holy Spirit; rather, he appropriates by cause. Therefore, since grace is a gift by which sins are forgiven: justified by his grace as a gift (Rom 3:24), and the remission of sin is accomplished in us by the Son who took our flesh and satisfied for our sins: grace and truth came through Jesus Christ (John 1:17): for this reason the Apostle attributes grace to Christ, when he says, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ. Caritas autem est nobis necessaria, quia oportet nos uniri Deo. I Io. IV, 16: qui manet in caritate, in Deo manet, et cetera. Et quia hoc est a Deo Patre, in quantum ipse sic dilexit mundum, ut Filium suum unigenitum daret, ut dicitur Io. III, 16, Rom. V, 8: commendat autem Deus suam caritatem, ideo sibi, ut principio istius caritatis, attribuit caritatem cum dicit et caritas Dei, scilicet Patris. But charity is necessary for us because we must become united to God: he who abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him (1 John 4:16). And because this is from God the Father, inasmuch as he so loved the world as to send his only begotten Son (John 3:16): God shows his love for us (Rom 5:8), he attributes charity to him as to its source, when he says, and the charity of God, namely, the Father. Communicatio vero divinorum fit per Spiritum Sanctum, quia est distributor donorum spiritualium. I Cor. XII, 11: haec omnia operatur unus atque idem Spiritus. Et ideo Spiritui Sancto attribuit communicationem, cum dicit et communicatio Sancti Spiritus. Vel attribuit sibi hoc, quia ipse est communis aliis duabus personis. Finally, the communication of divine gifts is accomplished by the Holy Spirit: all these are inspired by one and the same Spirit (1 Cor 12:11). Therefore he attributes communication to the Holy Spirit, when he says, and the communication of the Holy Spirit. Or, he attributes this to him because he is common to the other two persons. 545. Sic ergo Apostolus in salutatione sua optat omnia necessaria, cum dicit gratia Domini nostri Iesu Christi, et caritas Dei, et communicatio Spiritus Sancti, sit semper cum omnibus vobis. Amen. Gratia Christi, qua iustificamur et salvamur; caritas Dei Patris, qua sibi unimur; et communicatio Spiritus Sancti, divina nobis dona distribuentis. Amen. 545. Thus therefore the Apostle in his greeting wishes them all things that are necessary when he says: the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the charity of God and the communication of the Holy Spirit be with you all. Amen. The grace of Christ, by which we are made just and are saved; the charity of God the Father, by which we are united to him; and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit distributing divine gifts to us. Amen.