Lectio 3 Lecture 3 Labor in Macedonia Work in Macedonia 2:12 Cum venissem autem Troadem propter Evangelium Christi, et ostium mihi apertum esset in Domino, [n. 67] 2:12 And when I had come to Troas on account of the Gospel of Christ and a door was opened to me in the Lord, [n. 67] 2:13 non habui requiem spiritui meo, eo quod non invenerim Titum fratrem meum, sed valefaciens eis, profectus sum in Macedoniam. 2:13 I had no rest in my spirit, because I did not find Titus my brother: but bidding them farewell, I went into Macedonia. 2:14 Deo autem gratias, qui semper triumphat nos in Christo Jesu, et odorem notitiae suae manifestat per nos in omni loco: [n. 71] 2:14 Now thanks be to God, who always makes us triumph in Christ Jesus and manifests the odor of his knowledge by us in every place. [n. 71] 2:15 quia Christi bonus odor sumus Deo in iis qui salvi fiunt, et in iis qui pereunt: [n. 74] 2:15 For we are the good odor of Christ unto God, in those who are saved and in those who perish. [n. 74] 2:16 aliis quidem odor mortis in mortem: aliis autem odor vitae in vitam. Et ad haec quis tam idoneus? 2:16 To the one indeed the odor of death unto death: but to the others the odor of life unto life. And for these things, who is so sufficient? 2:17 non enim sumus sicut plurimi, adulterantes verbum Dei, sed ex sinceritate, sed sicut ex Deo, coram Deo, in Christo loquimur. [n. 75] 2:17 For we are not as many, adulterating the word of God: but with sincerity: but as from God, before God, in Christ we speak. [n. 75] 67. Posita prima causa suae dilationis, ne scilicet cum tristitia iret ad eos, hic ponit causam secundam quae est ex fructu quem alicubi faciebat. 67. Having stated the first reason for his delay, namely, that he might avoid coming to them in sadness, he now states the second reason, which is the fruit he was producing elsewhere. Et circa hoc duo facit. In regard to this he does two things: Primo ponit sui itineris processum; first, he mentions his travels; secundo ipsius processus effectum, ibi Deo autem gratias, et cetera. second, their result, at now thanks be to God. Circa primum duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things: Primo ostendit impedimentum fructificandi, quod habuit in Troade; first, he mentions the obstacle he met at Troas; secundo subiungit processum suum in Macedoniam, ibi sed valefaciens, et cetera. second, his journey into Macedonia, at but bidding them farewell. 68. Dicit ergo cum venissem Troadem propter Evangelium, id est ad praedicandum Christum, Io. XV, 16: posui vos ut eatis, etc., et ostium mihi apertum esset, id est mentes hominum paratae et dispositae essent ad recipiendum praedicationis verba et Christum. I Cor. XVI, 9: ostium mihi apertum est, et cetera. Apoc. III, 20: ecce sto ad ostium, et cetera. Sed non in quocumque, imo in Domino, quia ipsa praeparatio mentis humanae est ex virtute divina. Nam licet facilitas qua mentes praeparantur, sit causa conversionis, tamen ipsius facilitatis et praeparationis causa est Deus. Thren. ult.: converte nos, Domine, ad te, et convertemur. 68. He says, therefore: when I had come to Troas on account of the Gospel of Christ, i.e., to preach Christ: but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit (John 15:16), a door was opened to me, i.e., men’s minds were prepared and disposed to receive the words of preaching and Christ: for a wide door for effective work has opened to me (1 Cor 16:9); behold, I stand at the door and knock (Rev 3:20). But not in anyone, but rather, in the Lord, because this preparation of the human mind is accomplished by God’s power. For although the ease with which minds are prepared is the cause of conversion, God is the cause of that ease and of the preparation: convert us to yourself, O Lord, that we may be converted (Lam 5:21). Cum, inquam, ita esset apertum mihi ostium in Domino, non habui requiem spiritui meo, id est non potui facere quod spiritus meus volebat, id est dictabat. Tunc enim dicitur habere spiritus requiem, quando efficit quod vult, sicut tunc dicitur caro requiescere, quando habet quod concupiscit. Lc. c. XII, 19: anima mea, habes multa bona, et cetera. Apostolus non dicit: non habui requiem carni meae vel corpori sed spiritui meo, id est voluntati meae spirituali, quae est ut Christum firmem in cordibus hominum. Et impediebar, quia videbam corda parata et disposita, et non poteram praedicare. When, I say, a door was opened to me in the Lord, I had no rest in my spirit, i.e., I was unable to do what my spirit wished, i.e., dictated. For the spirit is said to have rest, when it achieves what it wishes, just as the flesh is said to rest when it has what it desires: soul, you have ample goods laid up for many years; take your ease (Luke 12:19). The Apostle does not say, I had no rest in my flesh or my body, in my spirit, i.e., in my spiritual will, which is to establish Christ in the hearts of men. And I was hindered because I saw hearts prepared and disposed, and was unable to preach. 69. Sed quare non habuit requiem spiritui suo, subdit eo quod non inveni Titum fratrem meum, id est propter absentiam Titi, et hoc duplici de causa. 69. Then he tells why he had no rest in his spirit, when he adds, because I did not find Titus my brother, i.e., because of Titus’s absence. And this for two reasons. Una causa est, quod licet Apostolus sciret omnes linguas, ita ut diceret: gratias ago Deo meo, quod omnium vestrum lingua loquor, tamen magis expeditus et edoctus erat in lingua Hebraea, quam in Graeca; Titus autem magis in Graeca. Et ideo volebat eum habere praesentem, ut praedicaret in Troade. Et quia erat absens, nam Corinthii detinuerant eum, dicit non habui requiem spiritui meo. One reason was that although the Apostle knew all their languages, so that he could say: I thank God that I speak in tongues more than you all (1 Cor 14:18), he was more skilled in Hebrew than in Greek, but Titus more in Greek. Therefore, he wanted to have him present to preach in Troas. And because he was absent, for the Corinthians had detained him, he says, I had no rest in my spirit. Sed quia dona Dei non sunt imperfecta, et donum linguarum fuit specialiter apostolis collatum ad praedicandum per totum mundum, Ps. XVIII, 5: in omnem terram exivit sonus eorum, etc., et ideo alia causa est melior, quae est, quia apostolo imminebant in Troade multa facienda. Nam ex una parte imminebat ei praedicare his qui parati erant recipere Christum per fidem; ex alia parte imminebat ei resistere adversariis qui impediebant; et ideo quia ipse non poterat solus ista facere, angustiabatur de absentia Titi, qui institisset praedicationi et conversioni bonorum, et Apostolus restitisset adversariis. But because God’s gifts are not imperfect, and the gift of tongues was specifically given to the apostles for preaching throughout the whole world: their voice goes out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world (Ps 19:4), the other reason is better, namely, that many things remained for the Apostle to do in Troas. For on the one hand, he had to preach to those who were prepared to receive Christ by faith; and on the other, he had to resist the adversaries who opposed him; therefore, because he could not do these things alone, he was grieved by the absence of Titus, who could concentrate on preaching and converting the good, while the Apostle withstood the adversaries. Et specialiter etiam hoc scribit eis, ut innuat, quod non solum prima causa dilationis suae fuit ex eis, sed etiam secunda. Nam ipsi propter duritiam et dissensionem eorum detinuerant tanto tempore Titum, et ideo dicit eo quod non inveni Titum fratrem, vel in Christo, vel coadiutorem. Prov. XVIII, 19: frater qui iuvatur a fratre, et cetera. And he is at pains to write this to them in order to suggest that not only the first, but also the second reason for his delay was due to them. For on account of their hardness and quarreling, they delayed Titus for a long time. Hence he says, because I did not find Titus my brother, either in Christ or in my co-worker: a brother helped by a brother is like a strong city (Prov 18:19). 70. Et quia non inveni Titum in Troade, non remansi ibi, sed valefaciens eis, qui erant conversi, et in quibus ostium apertum erat, profectus sum in Macedoniam, ubi credebam eum invenire. 70. Because I did not find Titus in Troas, I did not stay there; but bidding them farewell, who were converted and in whom a door had been opened, I went into Macedonia, where I expected to find him. Causa autem essendi in Macedonia legitur Act. XVI, 9, ubi dicitur quod vir Macedo, et cetera. But his reason for going into Macedonia is given in Acts, where it says: a man of Macedonia was standing beseeching him and saying: come over to Macedonia and help us (Acts 16:9). 71. Consequenter cum dicit gratias autem Deo, etc., ponit profectum sui processus, 71. Then when he says, now thanks be to God, he describes the progress of his journey, et circa hoc duo facit. and does two things: Primo enim describit ordinem sui processus; first, he describes the order of his progress; secundo excludit ab isto processu pseudoapostolos, ibi ad hoc quis tam idoneus, et cetera. second, he excludes the false apostles from that progress, at and for these things, who is so sufficient. Circa primum duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things: Primo insinuat profectum quem faciebat; first, he hints at the progress he made; secundo exponit quoddam quod dixerat, ibi Christi bonus odor, et cetera. second, he explains something he had said, at for we are the good odor of Christ. 72. Circa primum sciendum quod Apostolus profectum et fructum quem faciebat, non attribuit sibi, neque propriae virtuti, sed Deo. I Cor. XV, 10: abundantius omnibus laboravi non ego, sed gratia, et cetera. Et ideo dicit gratias autem Deo, scilicet ago. I Thess. c. V, 18: in omnibus gratias agite. Eph. V, v. 20: gratias agentes, et cetera. Qui semper triumphat nos in Christo Iesu, id est triumphare nos facit in praedicatione Christi contra adversarios. 72. In regard to the first it should be noted that the Apostle did not attribute to himself the progress and fruit he had produced, or to his own power, but to God: on the contrary, I worked harder than any of them, though it was not I, but the grace of God with me (1 Cor 15:20). Thus he says thanks be to God; give thanks in all circumstances (1 Thess 5:18); always and for everything giving thanks in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ to God the Father (Eph 5:20), who always makes us triumph in Christ Jesus, i.e., makes us triumph in preaching Christ against our adversaries. Ubi sciendum est quod praedicatores veritatis duo debent facere, scilicet exhortari in doctrina sacra et contradicentem devincere. Et hoc dupliciter: disputatione haereticos, patientia vero persecutores. Unde per ordinem ista tangit hic Apostolus, et ideo dicit qui triumphat nos, quantum ad contradicentes. Rom. VIII, 37: in his omnibus superamus. Et I Mac. III, 19: non in fortitudine exercitus victoria belli, sed de caelo, et cetera. Et odorem notitiae suae manifestat per nos in omni loco, quantum ad exhortationem sacrae doctrinae. Here it should be noted that preachers of truth should do two things: namely, to exhort in sacred doctrine and to refute those who contradict it. This they do in two ways: by debating with heretics and by practicing patience toward persecutors. The Apostle touches on these in order; hence he says, who always makes us triumph, as to those who contradict. We are more than conquerors (Rom 8:37); it is not on the size of the army that victory in battle depends, but strength comes from heaven (1 Macc 3:19); and manifests the odor of his knowledge by us in every place, as to exhorting in sacred doctrine. 73. Sed odorem notitiae suae exponit Glossa, id est Filium suum; sed melius est ut hoc dicatur ad differentiam notitiae de Deo, quam faciunt aliae scientiae et quam facit fides. 73. A Gloss explains the odor of his knowledge, i.e., of his Son; but it is better to suppose that this is said to distinguish between knowledge of God obtained by other sciences and that obtained by faith. Nam notitia de Deo quae habetur per alias scientias, illuminat intellectum solum, ostendens quod Deus est causa prima, quod est unus et sapiens, et cetera. Sed notitia de Deo quae habetur per fidem et illuminat intellectum et delectat affectum, quia non solum dicit quod Deus est prima causa, sed quod est Salvator noster, quod est Redemptor, et quod diligit nos, quod est incarnatus pro nobis: quae omnia affectum inflammant. Et ideo dicendum quod odorem notitiae suae, id est notitiam suae suavitatis, credenti per nos in omni loco manifestat, quia iste odor longe lateque diffunditur. Eccli. XXIV, 23: ego quasi vitis fructificavi, et cetera. Gen. XXVII, v. 27: ecce odor filii, et cetera. For the knowledge of God obtained by other sciences enlightens the intellect only by showing that God is the first cause, that he is one and wise and so on. But the knowledge of God obtained by faith both enlightens the intellect and delights the affections, because it not only says that God is the first cause, but that he is our Savior, that he is our Redeemer, that he loves us and that he became incarnate for us: all of which inflame the affections. Therefore it should be said that the odor of his knowledge, i.e., the knowledge of his sweetness, he manifests by us to the faithful in every place, because that fragrance is diffused far and wide: like a vine I cause loveliness to bud (Sir 24:17); see, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the Lord has blessed (Gen 27:27). 74. Quia vero aliqui possent dicere: quid est odor Dei in omni loco? Nam multa loca sunt in quibus non recipitur praedicatio nostra. Ideo Apostolus exponit, dicens: non curo, quia sive recipiant praedicationem, sive non, tamen notitia Dei manifestatur ubique per nos, quia sumus bonus odor Christi Deo, id est ad honorem Dei. Et loquitur ad similitudinem legis, ubi dicitur quod sacrificium fiat in odorem suavitatis suavissimum Deo; quasi dicat: nos sumus holocaustum quod offertur Deo in odorem suavitatis. Et tam in his qui salvi fiunt, ut scilicet non pereant, quod est eis a Deo, quam in his qui pereunt, quod est eis ex seipsis. Unde Osee XIII, 9: perditio tua, Israel, ex te, et cetera. 74. But because some might say, what is the fragrance of God in every place? For there are many places in which our preaching is not accepted. The Apostle explains this, saying: I do not care, because whether they accept our preaching or not, the knowledge of God is manifest everywhere through us, for we are the good odor of Christ unto God, namely, to the honor of God. He says this in a likeness to the law, where it is said that a sacrifice becomes the sweetest fragrance of sweetness to God. As if to say: we are a holocaust offered to God as a fragrance of sweetness in those who are saved, namely, that they not perish, which is theirs from God; and in those who perish, which is theirs from themselves. Hence, it is written: destruction is your own, O Israel, your help is only in me (Hos 13:9). Sed estne odor bonis et malis eodem modo? Non, sed aliis quidem est odor mortis in mortem, id est, invidiae et malitiae occasionaliter ducentis eos in mortem aeternam, illis scilicet qui invidebant bonae famae Apostoli et impugnabant praedicationem Christi et conversionem fidelium. Lc. II, 34: positus est hic in ruinam, et in resurrectionem, et cetera. Aliis autem odor vitae, dilectionis et bonae opinionis ducentis eos in vitam aeternam scilicet illis qui gaudent et convertuntur ad praedicationem Apostoli. I Cor. I, 18: verbum crucis pereuntibus, et cetera. His autem qui salvi, et cetera. But is that fragrance related to the good and the wicked in the same way? No, but to the one ideed the odor of death unto death, i.e., of envy and malice, which are the occasion of bringing them to eternal death, i.e., those who envy the good reputation of the Apostle and strive against the preaching of Christ and the conversion of the faithful. This child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign that is spoken against (Luke 2:34). But to the others, the odor of life, of love and of good opinion leads them unto eternal life, namely, to those who rejoice and are converted by the preaching of the Apostle: for the word of the cross is folly to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God (1 Cor 1:18).