Lectio 5 Lecture 5 Renovatio hominis inti Renewal of the inward man 4:16 Propter quod non deficimus: sed licet is, qui foris est, noster homo corrumpatur, tamen is, qui intus est, renovatur de die in diem. [n. 144] 4:16 For which cause we faint not: but though our outward man is corrupted, yet the inward man is renewed day by day. [n. 144] 4:17 Id enim, quod in praesenti est momentaneum et leve tribulationis nostrae, supra modum in sublimitate aeternum gloriae pondus operatur in nobis, [n. 148] 4:17 For that which is at present momentary and light of our tribulation works for us above measure, exceedingly an eternal weight of glory. [n. 148] 4:18 non contemplantibus nobis quae videntur, sed quae non videntur. Quae enim videntur, temporalia sunt: quae autem non videntur, aeterna sunt. [n. 151] 4:18 While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen. For the things which are seen are temporal: but the things which are not seen, are eternal. [n. 151] 144. Posita patientia quam apostoli habebant in tribulationibus, et praemio quod expectabant manifestato, hic consequenter agit de patientiae causa et patientiae modo, seu ratione. Et 144. Having mentioned the patience which the apostles showed in tribulations and manifested the reward they expected, he then treats of the cause of patience and the mode or reason for patience. circa hoc tria facit. In regard to this he does three things. Primo enim insinuat sanctorum patientiam; First, he hints at the patience of the saints; secundo patientiae causam, ibi non contemplantibus nobis, etc.; second, the cause of patience, at while we look not; tertio patientiae remunerationem, ibi id enim, et cetera. third, the reward of patience, at for that which. 145. Circa primum intendit ostendere, quod sanctorum patientia est invincibilis. Et hoc est quod dicit propter quod, scilicet quia sumus scientes quod qui suscitavit Iesum a mortuis, suscitabit nos et constituet vobiscum, ideo non deficimus, scilicet in tribulationibus, id est non deducimur ad hoc quod non possimus propter Christum amplius ferre et sustinere. Nam deficere idem est quod ferre non posse. Ier. XX, 9: defeci, ferre non sustinui. 145. In regard to the first he intends to show that the patience of the saints is unconquerable. Hence, he says, for which cause, i.e., because we know that he who raised Jesus from the dead will raise us and place us with you; therefore we faint not, namely, in our tribulations, i.e., we are reduced to the state in which we cannot bear and endure more for Christ. For to lose heart is the same as not being able to bear: I was wearied, not being able to bear it (Jer 20:9). 146. Causa autem quare non deficimus est quia licet quantum ad aliquid deficiamus, scilicet quantum ad exteriorem hominem, tamen quantum ad aliquid semper renovamur, scilicet quantum ad interiorem hominem. Et hoc est quod dicit sed licet is qui foris est, et cetera. 146. But the reason why we do not fail is that although we fail in a certain respect, namely as to the outward man, in another respect we are ever renewed, namely as to the inward man. Hence, he says, but though our outward man is corrupted, yet the inward man is renewed day by day. Ubi sciendum est, quod occasione istorum verborum haereticus, Tertullianus nomine, dixit quod anima rationalis, quae est in hominis corpore, habet corpoream figuram et membra corporea, sicut et corpus habet: et hoc dicitur homo interior; corpus vero, cum sensibus suis, dicitur homo exterior. Quod quidem falsum est. Unde, ad intellectum huius verbi, sciendum est quod etiam secundum Philosophum in Ethic., et secundum consuetudinem loquendi, unumquodque dicitur esse illud quod est principalius in ipso, puta, quia in civitate principalius est potestas et concilium, id quod facit potestas et concilium, dicitur tota civitas facere. Here it should be noted that by occasion of these words a certain heretic, Tertullian by name, said that the rational soul, which is in the body of a man, has a bodily shape and bodily members, just as the body has; and this is called the inward man. This, of course, is false. Hence, to understand the passage, it must be known that even according to the Philosopher in IX Ethics, and according to the way we speak, each thing is said to be that which is most important in it. For example, the most important thing in the city is the power and the council, so that whatever the power and council do, the city is said to do. Principalius autem in homine potest aliquid iudicari et secundum veritatem et secundum apparentiam. Secundum veritatem quidem principalius in homine est ipsa mens, unde secundum iudicium spiritualium virorum mens dicitur homo interior. Secundum apparentiam vero principalius in homine est corpus exterius cum sensibus suis; unde secundum iudicium illorum, qui tantum corporalia et sensibilia considerant et terrena sapiunt, quorum deus venter est, corpus cum sensibus dicitur homo exterior. Now something can be judged the most important thing in man either in truth or according to appearance. In truth the most important thing in man is the mind. Hence, according to the judgment of spiritual men, the mind is called the inward man. But according to appearance, the most important thing is the outward body with its senses. Hence, according to the judgment of those who consider only bodily and sense-perceptible things and savor earthly things, and whose god is the belly, the body with the sense is called the outward man. 147. Et ideo, secundum hunc modum, loquitur hic Apostolus, dicens licet homo noster, scilicet corpus cum natura sensitiva, corrumpatur, in tribulationibus, ieiuniis et abstinentiis et vigiliis, Rom. VI, 6: vetus homo noster simul, et cetera. Habac. III, 16: ingrediatur putredo, etc., tamen is homo, qui intus est, scilicet mens, seu ratio munita spe futuri praemii et firmata munimine fidei, renovatur. Quod sic intelligendum est: vetustas enim est via ad corruptionem. Hebr. VIII, v. 13: quod antiquatur et senescit, et cetera. Natura autem humana fuit in integritate condita et, si in illa integritate permansisset, semper esset nova: sed per peccatum incepit corrumpi; quo fit, quod quidquid consecutum est, sicut ignorantia, difficultas ad bonum, et pronitas ad malum, poenalitas et alia huiusmodi, totum pertinet ad vetustatem. 147. Therefore, it is according to this manner that the Apostle is speaking here when he says, though our outward man, i.e., the body with its sentient nature, is corrupted, in tribulations, fasts, abstinences and watchings: our old self was crucified with him (Rom 6:6); rottenness enters into my bones (Hab. 3:16), yet the inward man namely, the mind or reason strengthened with the shield of faith, is renewed. This should be understood in the following way: oldness is the road to corruption. And what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away (Heb 8:13). But human nature was established in wholeness, and if it had continued in that wholeness, it would have always been new. But through sin it began to be corrupted. As a result, whatever followed, such as ignorance, difficulty in doing good, inclination to evil, punishment, and so on, all pertain to oldness. Cum ergo natura humana huiusmodi peccatum sequentia deponit, tunc dicitur renovari. Quae quidem depositio hic incipit in sanctis, sed perfecte consummabitur in patria. Hic enim deponitur vetustas culpae: nam spiritus deponit vetustatem peccati et subiicitur novitati iustitiae. Hic intellectus deponit errores et assumit novitatem veritatis; et, secundum hoc, is, qui intus est homo, scilicet anima, renovatur. Eph. IV, 23: renovamini spiritu mentis vestrae. Sed in patria tolletur etiam vetustas poenae. Unde ibi erit consummata renovatio. Ps. CII, 5: renovabitur ut aquilae, et cetera. Therefore, when such a human nature gets rid of the results of sin, it is said to be renewed. Such riddance begins in the saints here, but is perfectly completed in heaven. For here the oldness of sin is put off; for the spirit removes the oldness of sin and is subjected to the newness of justice. Here the intellect removes errors and assumes the newness of truth. It is according to this that the inner man, namely, the soul, is renewed. Be renewed in the spirit of your minds (Eph 4:23). But in heaven, even the oldness of punishment is removed. Hence, there will be a complete renewal there: your youth is renewed like the eagle’s (Ps 103:5). Sed quia sancti quotidie proficiunt in puritate conscientiae et in cognitione divinorum, ideo dicit de die in diem. Ps. LXXXIII, 6: ascensiones in corde suo. Sic ergo patientia est invincibilis, quia renovatur de die in diem. But because the saints advance daily in purity of conscience and knowledge of divine things, he says, day by day: ascending in his heart (Ps 84:7). Consequently, patience is unconquerable, because it is renewed from day to day. 148. Tertium principale, scilicet huius patientiae causa, est recogitatio praemii, quae est efficacissima, quia, secundum Gregorium, recogitatio praemii, diminuit vim flagelli. Et hoc est quod dicit id enim quod, etc., quasi dicat: nihil sunt tribulationes quas hic patimur, si respiciatur ad gloriam, quam ex eis consequimur. 148. The third point, namely, the cause of this patience, is recognition of a reward. This recognition is most efficacious, because, according to Gregory, it lessens the force of a scourge. And this is what he says, for that which is, as if to say: the tribulations we suffer here are nothing, if we look to the glory we obtain from them. Unde comparat statum sanctorum, qui sunt in vita ista, ad statum eorum, qui sunt in patria, et ponit quinque in utroque statu correspondentia sibi invicem. Hence, he compares the condition of the saints in this life to the condition of those in heaven and mentions five things in each state that correspond. 149. Nam primo status istius vitae in sanctis est status, quantum in se est, parvus et quasi imperceptibilis. Unde dicit id, id est minimum. Is. LIV, 7: ad punctum, in modico dereliqui te. 149. First, the condition of the present life in the saints is of itself slight and, as it were, imperceptible. Hence, he says, that i.e., the least: for a brief moment I forsook you (Isa 54:7). Item transitorium. Unde dicit in praesenti, id est in vita ista, quae est in afflictionibus et aerumnis. Iob VII, 1: militia est vita hominis, et cetera. Likewise it is transitory; hence he says, at present, i.e., in this life, which is one of affliction and toil. The life of man is warfare (Job 7:1). Item temporis brevitas. Unde dicit momentaneum. Is. LIV, 8: in momento indignationis abscondi faciem meam parumper a te, et cetera. Nam totum tempus huius vitae comparatum ad aeternitatem, non est nisi momentaneum. Likewise it lasts a short time; hence he says, momentary: for a moment I hid my face from you (Isa 54:8). For the whole time of this present life compared to eternity is only momentary. Item est levis. Unde dicit leve. Nam licet supra I, 8 dicatur: Gravati sumus supra modum, quia scilicet grave est corpori, tamen spiritui caritate ferventi levissimum est. Augustinus: omnia gravia et immania facilia et prope nulla facit amor. Likewise it is light; hence he says, light. For although he said above, we were burdened beyond measure (2 Cor 1:8), because the body is heavy, yet it is very light to a spirit on fire with charity. Hence Augustine says: all that is heavy and huge love makes easy and almost nothing. Item est poenosus. Et ideo dicit tribulationis. Mich. VII, 9: iram Domini portabo, et cetera. Likewise it is penal; hence he says, of our tribulation. I will bear the indignation of the Lord because I have sinned against him (Mic 7:9). 150. Sed quantum ad statum beatitudinis ponit quinque, quia contra hoc, quod dicit, id, ponit supra modum, id est supra mensuram. Rom. VIII, 18: existimo quod non sunt condignae passiones, et cetera. 150. But as to the state of happiness, he lays down five things, because in contrast to this, he places above measure: I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing to the glory that is to be revealed to us (Rom 8:18). Sed contra Matth. XVI, 27: reddet unicuique iuxta opera sua. Non ergo supra mensuram. But on the other hand: he will give to each one according to his works (Matt 16:27). Therefore it will not be beyond all measure. Respondeo. Dicendum est, quod sed, non designat aequalitatem quantitatis, ut scilicet quantum quis meruit, tantum praemietur, sed designat aequalitatem proportionis, ut scilicet qui plus meruit, plus praemii accipiat. I answer that the word but does not denote an equality of amount, as though a person will be rewarded so much for so much merit, but an equality of proportion, so that one who merits more will receive more reward. Item contra id quod dicit in praesenti, ponit in sublimitate, id est in statu sublimi absque perturbatione. Is. LVIII, 14: sustollam te super altitudinem nubium, et cetera. Likewise, against that which is at present he places exceedingly, i.e., in an excellent state without disturbance: I will make you ride upon the heights of the earth (Isa 58:14). Contra id quod dicit momentaneum, ponit aeternum, Is. XXXV, 10: laetitia sempiterna super capita eorum, et cetera. Against that which is momentary, he places eternal: everlasting joy shall be upon their heads (Isa 35:10). Contra id quod dicit leve, ponit pondus. Et dicit pondus, propter duo. Pondus enim inclinat et trahit ad motum suum quae subsunt sibi. Sic gloria aeterna erit tanta, quod totum hominem faciet gloriosum, et in anima et in corpore; nihil erit in homine, quod non sequatur impetum gloriae. Against that which is light he places a weight. He says, weight for two reasons: first, because a weight inclines and draws to its motion all things under it. In the same way eternal glory will be so great that it will make the whole man glorious in soul and in body. There will be nothing in man that does not follow the impulse of glory. Vel dicitur pondus, propter pretiositatem. Nam pretiosa solum ponderari consueverunt. Or it is called weight, because it is precious, for only precious things are weighed. Contra hoc, quod dicit tribulationis, ponit gloriae. Against that which is called of tribulation he places of glory. Vel hoc quod dicit gloriae, potest esse commune ad alia quatuor, quae de statu patriae dicuntur; hoc vero quod dicit tribulationis, ad quatuor quae de statu praesentis vitae dicta sunt. Or of glory can be common to the other four, which are said of the state of glory, so that of tribulation is common to the four which are said of the present life. Operatur supra id, scilicet quod tribulationes patimur, nam haec sunt causa et meritum, quare Deus istam gloriam nobis conferat. It works, namely, above the tribulations we suffer, for these are the cause and merit for which God confers that glory on us. Est ergo sanctorum patientia invincibilis, eorum remuneratio ineffabilis, sed, remunerationis eorum recompensatio, recta et delectabilis. And so the patience of the saints is unconquerable, their reward ineffable, and the recompense of their reward right and delightful. 151. Unde dicit non contemplantibus nobis, etc., quasi dicat: licet haec, quae speramus, sint futura, et interim corpus nostrum corrumpatur, nihilominus tamen renovamur, quia non attendimus ad ista temporalia, sed ad caelestia. Et hoc est quod dicit: operatur in nobis pondus gloriae, nobis dico, non contemplantibus, id est non attendentibus ad ea quae videntur, id est ad terrena, sed ad ea quae non videntur, scilicet caelestia. Phil. III, 13: quae retro sunt obliviscens, et cetera. I Cor. II, 9: oculus non vidit, et cetera. 151. Hence he says, while we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen. As if to say: although the things we hope for are still to come, and in the meantime our body is corrupted, nevertheless, we are renewed, because we do not pay attention to those temporal things, but to eternal. And this is what he says: it works in us a weight of glory. In us, I say, while we look not at, i.e., not paying attention to, the things which are seen, i.e., earthly things, but at the things which are not seen, namely, heavenly things: forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead (Phil 3:13); eye has not seen nor ear heard, nor the heart of man conceived, God has prepared for those who love him (1 Cor 2:9).