Lectio 1 Lecture 1 Desideratio habitationem in caelis Longing for heavenly habitation 5:1 Scimus enim quoniam si terrestris domus nostra hujus habitationis dissolvatur, quod aedificationem ex Deo habemus, domum non manufactam, aeternam in caelis. [n. 152] 5:1 For we know that if our earthly house of this habitation be dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in heaven. [n. 152] 5:2 Nam et in hoc ingemiscimus, habitationem nostram, quae de caelo est, superindui cupientes: [n. 155] 5:2 For in this also we groan, desiring to be clothed upon with our habitation that is from heaven: [n. 155] 5:3 si tamen vestiti, non nudi inveniamur. [n. 157] 5:3 Yet so that we be found clothed, not naked. [n. 157] 5:4 Nam et qui sumus in hoc tabernaculo, ingemiscimus gravati: eo quod nolumus expoliari, sed supervestiri, ut absorbeatur quod mortale est, a vita. [n. 158] 5:4 For we also, who are in this tabernacle, do groan, being burdened; because we would not be unclothed, but clothed upon, that that which is mortal may be swallowed up by life. [n. 158] 152. Postquam Apostolus commendavit ministerium Novi Testamenti, et quantum ad dignitatem, et quantum ad usum, consequenter hic commendat illud quantum ad praemium, licet de praemio, quantum ad aliquid aliqualiter et incomplete supra tractavit, hic tamen de hoc complete tractat. Circa quod tria facit. 152. After commending the ministry of the New Testament, both as to its dignity and its use, the Apostle now commends it as to its reward. For although he had already said something about the reward, it was partial and incomplete; so now he deals with it at greater length. In regard to this he does three things: Primo enim agit de praemio; first, he treats of the reward; secundo vero de praeparatione et praemii susceptione, ibi et ideo contendimus sive, etc.; second, of the preparation for and reception of the reward, at and therefore we labor; tertio vero de causa utriusque, scilicet praeparationis et praemii quod expectatur, ibi omnia autem ex Deo, qui reconciliavit, et cetera. third, the cause of each, namely, of the preparation and of the reward that is expected, at but all things are of God, who has reconciled. Circa primum duo facit. In regard to the first he does two things: Primo ponit praemium, quod expectatur; first, he mentions the reward expected; secundo exprimit desiderium praemii expectati, ibi nam in hoc ingemiscimus, et cetera. second, he expresses a desire for the expected reward, at for in this also we groan. 153. Sed quia praemium quod expectatur est inaestimabile, scilicet gloriae caelestis, et ideo dicit scimus quoniam, etc., quasi dicat secundum Glossam vere operatur in nobis pondus gloriae, quia in corporibus erit haec gloria, non tantum in animabus. Enim, id est quia, scimus, id est certi sumus, quia iam habemus in spe, quoniam si terrestris domus nostra, id est, corpus. 153. Since the awaited reward is inestimable, namely, of heavenly glory, he says, for we know. As if to say according to a Gloss: indeed he works in us a weight of glory, because this glory will be not only in our souls, but in our bodies. For, i.e., because we know, i.e., are certain, because we already have it in hope, that if our earthly house, i.e., the body. Homo enim, ut dictum est, dicitur mens, cum sit principalius in homine; quae quidem mens se habet ad corpus, sicut homo ad domum. Sicut enim destructa domo, non destruitur homo eam inhabitans sed manet, sic, destructo corpore, non destruitur mens seu anima rationalis, sed manet. Corpus ergo terrestre dicitur domus habitationis, id est, in qua habitamus. Iob IV, 19: qui habitant domos luteas, et cetera. Dissolvatur, id est destruatur. Scimus, inquam, quod habemus aedificationem, id est aedificium, ex Deo, id est paratum a Deo. Aedificium, dico, domum non manufactam, id est non opere hominis, nec opere naturae, sed corpus incorruptibile, quod assumemus; quod quidem non est manufactum, quia incorruptibilitas in corporibus nostris provenit solum ex operatione divina. Phil. III, 21: reformabit corpus humilitatis nostrae, et cetera. Domum aeternam, id est domum ab aeterno praeparatam. Is. XXXIII, v. 20: tabernaculum quod nequaquam destruetur in caelis. Matth. V, 12: merces vestra copiosa est in caelis. Hanc autem commutationem, ut scilicet pro terrestri domo habeant caelestem, desiderabat Iob, dicens c. XIV, 14: cunctis diebus quibus nunc milito. For as has been said, man is called a mind, since that is the most important thing in man. Now this mind is to the body as a man is to a house. For just as the man living in a house is not destroyed, when the house is destroyed, but he continues to exist, so when the body is destroyed, the mind, i.e., the rational soul, is not destroyed, but continues to exist. The body, therefore, is called the earthly house we live in. Those who dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust, who are crushed before the moth (Job 4:19). Be dissolved, i.e., destroyed. We know, I say, that we have a building of God, i.e., prepared by God; a building, I say, a house not made with hands, i.e., not a work of man or of nature, but an incorruptible body, which we shall assume. It is not made with hands, because incorruptibility in our bodies is the result of a divine action alone. He will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body (Phil 3:21). Eternal in heaven, i.e., a house prepared for us from all eternity. A tabernacle that shall never be destroyed in heaven (Isa 33:20); your reward shall be great in heaven (Matt 5:12). This exchange, namely, to get a heavenly home for an earthly one, is what Job desired: all the days of my service I would wait, till my release should come (Job 14:14). 154. Expositio est secundum Glossam. Sed tamen non est secundum intellectum apostolicum, nec praecedentibus, nec sequentibus concordat. Nam ipse cum habeat unam materiam continuam de qua loquitur, non interponit aliam. Et ideo videamus quid intendat Apostolus dicere. 154. The explanation is based on a Gloss, but it does not agree with the Apostle’s meaning, nor with what preceded and what follows. For when he is dealing with one continuous subject, he does not interject another. Therefore let us see what the Apostle intends to say. Sciendum est autem, quod Apostolus vult hic ostendere quod sancti rationabiliter sustinent tribulationes, ex quibus vita praesens corrumpitur, quia ex hoc statim perveniunt ad gloriam, non ad gloriosum corpus, ut dicitur in Glossa. Et ideo dicit: ideo sustinuimus enim, id est quia, scimus, id est, pro certo habemus, quoniam si terrestris domus nostra huius habitationis, id est, corpus, dissolvatur, id est, corrumpatur per mortem, habemus, statim, non in spe sed in re, meliorem domum, scilicet aedificationem, domum non manufactam, id est, gloriam caelestem, non corpus gloriosum. De hac autem domo dicitur Io. XIV, 2: in domo Patris mei mansiones multae, et cetera. Quae quidem est ex Deo non manufacta, quia gloria aeterna est ipse Deus. Ps. XXX, 3: esto mihi in Deum protectorem et in domum, et cetera. Et aeternam, ad litteram, quia ipse Deus est aeternus. In caelis, id est, in excelsis, quia statim corrupto corpore, anima sancta consequitur hanc gloriam non in spe, sed in re. Nam et antequam corpus dissolvatur, habemus hanc domum in spe. Now one should know that the Apostle wants to show that the saints are reasonable in enduring the tribulations by which the present life is destroyed, because this results in obtaining glory at once, and not a glorified body, as the Gloss says. Therefore he says: the reason we endure these things is that we know, i.e., we hold it as certain, that if our earthly house of this habitation, i.e., the body, be dissolved i.e., corrupted by death, we have at once, not in hope but in reality, a better house, namely, a building, a house not made with hands, i.e., heavenly glory, not a glorified body. Of this house it is said: in my Father’s house are many rooms (John 14:2). This house is of God, not made with hands, because eternal glory is God himself: be a rock of refuge for me, a strong fortress to save me (Ps 31:2), and eternal in the literal sense, because it is the eternal God. In the heavens, i.e., on high, because as soon as the body is dead, the holy soul obtains this glory, not in hope but in reality. For thus even before the body is dissolved, we have this home in hope. Sic ergo praemium sanctorum est admirabile et desiderabile, quia gloria caelestis est. Thus, the reward of the saints is wonderful and desirable, because it is heavenly glory. 155. Ideo consequenter subiungit desiderium sanctorum ad ipsum praemium, dicens nam in hoc ingemiscimus, et cetera. Ubi tria facit. 155. Hence, he links the desire of the saints with this reward, saying: for in this also we groan, desiring to be clothed upon with our habitation that is from heaven. Here he does three things. Primo exprimit desiderium gratiae ad praemium ipsum; First, he expresses the desire of grace for its reward; secundo ostendit quod desiderium gratiae retardatur ex desiderio naturae, ibi nam et qui sumus in hoc tabernaculo, etc.; second, he shows that the desire of grace is retarded by the desire of nature, at for we also, who are in this tabernacle; tertio ostendit quomodo desiderium gratiae vincit desiderium naturae, ibi audentes igitur, et cetera. third, he shows that the desire of grace overcomes the desire of nature, at therefore, always having confidence. 156. Sed desiderium gratiae est cum fervore. Nam in hoc ingemiscimus, etc., quasi dicat: haec est vera probatio, quod habemus domum non manufactam, quia si desiderium naturae non est frustra, multo minus desiderium gratiae frustra est. 156. The desire of grace is fervent: for in this we also groan, and long to put on our heavenly dwelling. As if to say: this is the real proof that we have a house not made with hands, because if the desire of nature is not in vain, much less is the desire of grace in vain. Cum igitur nos habeamus ferventissimum desiderium gratiae de gloria caelesti, impossibile est, quod sit frustra. Et hoc est, quod dicit ingemiscimus, id est, ingemendo desideramus, in hoc, scilicet animae desiderio retardati. Ps. CXIX, 5: heu mihi, quia incolatus meus, et cetera. In hoc enim quod cupientes sumus, id est cupimus, superindui habitationem nostram, id est fruitionem gloriae, quae de caelo est, id est caelestis; quae dicitur habitatio, quia in ipsa gloria sancti habitant sicut in suo consolatorio. Matth. XXV, 21–23: intra in gaudium Domini tui. Therefore, since we have a most fervent desire of grace for heavenly glory, it is impossible for it to be in vain; and this is what he says, we groan, i.e., groaning we desire, namely with our soul’s desire that we are delayed. Woe is me that I sojourn in Meshech (Ps 120:5). We groan, I say, desiring to be clothed upon with our habitation, i.e., the enjoyment of glory, that is from heaven, i.e., heavenly. It is called a dwelling because the saints dwell in that glory as their place of consolation. Enter into the joy of the Lord (Matt 25:21). Per hoc autem quod dicit superindui, dat intelligere quod illa domus caelestis, de qua supra dixerat, non est aliquid ab homine separatum, sed aliquid homini inhaerens. Non enim dicitur homo induere domum sed vestimentum, domum autem dicitur aliquis inhabitare. Haec ergo duo coniungit, dicens superindui habitationem, per quod ostendit, quod illud desiderium est aliquid inhaerens, quia induitur, et aliquid continens et excedens, quia inhabitatur. In saying, clothed upon he is stating that the heavenly home of which he spoke above is not something separated from man, but something inhering in him. For a man is not said to be clothed with a house, but with clothes: clothed upon with our habitation. In this way he shows that the desire is for something that inheres, because it is put on, and something which contains and exceeds because it is inhabited. 157. Sed quia non simpliciter dixit: indui, sed superindui, rationem sui dicti subdit, dicens si tamen vestiti, et non nudi inveniamur. Quasi dicat: si anima indueretur habitatione caelesti, quod non exueretur habitatione terrena, id est non corrumperetur corpus nostrum per mortem, sed caelestis adeptio illius habitationis esset superinduitio. Sed quia oportet quod evacuetur habitatione terrena, ad hoc quod induatur caelesti, non potest dici superinduitio, sed induitio simplex. Et ideo dicit si tamen vestiti et non nudi inveniamur, quasi dicat: superindueremur quidem, si inveniremur induti, et non nudi. Nudus enim non dicitur superindui, sed indui tantum. 157. But because he did not merely say, clothed, but clothed upon, he gives the reason for this, when he says, yet so that we be found clothed, not naked. As if to say: if the soul were to be clothed with a heavenly dwelling, in such a way that the earthly dwelling were not taken off, i.e., in such a way that our body were not dissolved by death, the attainment of that heavenly dwelling would be to be clothed upon. But because it is necessary to be divested of that earthly dwelling, if the heavenly is to be put on, it cannot be a being clothed upon, but simply a being clothed. Hence he says, yet so that we be found clothed, not naked. As if to say: we would indeed be clothed upon, if we were found clothed and not naked. For a naked person is not said to be clothed upon, but to be clothed. Glossa vero aliter exponit de vestimento spirituali, dicens: cupimus superindui, quod utique fiet, tamen hac conditione, si nos inveniamur vestiti, scilicet virtutibus, et non nudi, scilicet virtutibus. De istis vestibus dicitur Col. III, 12: induite vos sicut electi Dei, et cetera. Quasi dicat: nullus ad illam gloriam perveniet, nisi habeat virtutes. Quae quidem expositio non videtur concordare intentioni Apostoli. But a Gloss explains it as a spiritual dress, saying: we desire to be clothed upon, and this will indeed be done, but under this condition, that we be found clothed, namely, with the virtues, and not naked, namely, of the virtues. Of this clothing it is said: put on then, as God’s chosen ones, holy and beloved, compassion, kindness, lowliness, meekness, and patience (Col 3:12). As if to say: no one will attain to this glory, unless he has the virtues. But this explanation does not seem to agree with the Apostle’s intention. 158. Sic ergo desiderium gratiae fervet ad praemium, sed tamen retardatur a desiderio naturae, quod ostendit cum dicit nam dum sumus in tabernaculo isto, et cetera. Ubi 158. Thus, therefore, the desire of grace burns for a reward, but it is retarded by the desire of nature. He shows this when he says: for we also, who are in this tabernacle, do groan. primo ponit conditionem desiderii naturalis; Herein, therefore, he first shows the condition of the natural desire; secundo ostendit, quod etiam hic status desiderii naturalis est a Deo, ibi qui autem efficit nos, et cetera. second, he shows that even this condition of the natural desire is from God, at now he who makes us. 159. Conditio autem desiderii est naturalis retardans desiderium gratiae, quia vellemus inveniri vestiti et non nudi, id est ita vellemus quod anima perveniret ad gloriam, quod corpus non corrumperetur per mortem. Cuius ratio est quia naturale desiderium inest animae esse unitam corpori, alias mors non esset poenalis. Et hoc est quod dicit nam, nos, qui sumus in hoc tabernaculo, id est, qui habitamus in isto mortali corpore, II Petr. c. I, 14. scio quod velox sit depositio tabernaculi mei, ingemiscimus, id est intus in corde, non solum extra in voce, gemimus, Is. LIX, 11: ut columbae meditantes gememus, quia durum est cogitare mortem. Et tamen gravati, quasi aliquo existente contra desiderium nostrum, eo quod non possumus pervenire ad gloriam, nisi deponamus corpus, quod est ita contra naturale desiderium, ut dicit Augustinus, quod nec ipsa senectus a Petro timorem mortis auferre potuit. Et ideo dicit eo quod nolumus spoliari, scilicet tabernaculo terreno, sed supervestiri, gloria supercaelesti, vel, secundum Glossam, corpore glorioso. 159. The condition of the desire is natural, delaying the desire of grace, because we would prefer to be found clothed and not naked, i.e., we would prefer that the soul attain to glory without the body’s being dissolved by death. The reason for this is that there is a natural desire in the soul to be united to the body; otherwise, death would not be a punishment. And this is what he says: for we also, who are in this tabernacle, i.e., who live in this mortal body: since I know that the putting off of my body will be soon (2 Pet 1:14), do groan i.e., inwardly in the heart, and not outwardly with our voice: we moan and moan like doves (Isa 59:11), because it is hard to think of death, and yet burdened as with something against our desire, in that we cannot attain to glory without the putting off of the body. This is so much against our natural desire that, as Augustine says, not even old age itself could remove the fear of death from Peter. And so he says, we would not be unclothed, namely, of our earthly tent, but clothed upon, that that which is mortal may be swallowed up by life, or, according to a Gloss, with a glorified body. Sed quia posset videri indecens, quod corpus ex una parte esset corruptibile ex sui natura, si non fuisset ante dissolutum, et ex parte gloriae esset gloriosum, subdit modum quomodo fieri vellet, dicens ut absorbeatur quod mortale est, etc., quasi dicat: non sic supervestiri volumus, quod corpus remaneat mortale, sed ita quod gloria auferat ex toto corruptionem corporis, absque corporali dissolutione. Et ideo dicit absorbeatur quod mortale est, id est ipsa corruptio corporis, a vita, scilicet gloriae. I Cor. XV, 54: absorpta est mors in victoria, et cetera. But because it could seem unbecoming that the body, on the one hand should be corruptible of its very nature, if it had not been dissolved before, and, on the other hand, glorified, he mentions the way in which he would like this to happen, saying, so that that which is mortal may be swallowed up by life. As if to say: we do not desire to be clothed over in such a way that the body remains mortal, but so that the glory take away corruption altogether from the body without its dissolution. Hence he says, that that which is mortal, i.e., the very corruption of the body, may be swallowed up by life, i.e., glory: death is swallowed up in victory (1 Cor 15:54). Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Ambulate per fidem et non speciem Walk by faith and not by sight 5:5 Qui autem efficit nos in hoc ipsum, Deus, qui dedit nobis pignus Spiritus. [n. 160] 5:5 Now he who makes us for this very thing is God, who has given us the pledge of the Spirit, [n. 160] 5:6 Audentes igitur semper, scientes quoniam dum sumus in corpore, peregrinamur a Domino [n. 162] 5:6 Therefore, always having confidence, knowing that while we are in the body we are absent from the Lord. [n. 162]