Manifest to God
5:11 Scientes ergo timorem Domini, hominibus suademus, Deo autem manifesti sumus. Spero autem et in conscientiis vestris manifestos nos esse. [n. 173]
5:11 Knowing therefore the fear of the Lord, we use persuasion to men: but to God we are manifest. And I trust also that in your consciences we are manifest. [n. 173]
5:12 Non iterum commendamus nos vobis, sed occasionem damus vobis gloriandi pro nobis: ut habeatis ad eos qui in facie gloriantur, et non in corde. [n. 176]
5:12 We do not commend ourselves again to you, but we give you occasion to glory in our behalf: that you may have something to answer them who glory in face, and not in heart. [n. 176]
5:13 Sive enim mente excedimus Deo: sive sobrii sumus, vobis. [n. 178]
5:13 For whether we be transported in mind, it is to God: or whether we be sober, it is for you. [n. 178]
5:14 Caritas enim Christi urget nos: aestimantes hoc, quoniam si unus pro omnibus mortuus est, ergo omnes mortui sunt: [n. 180]
5:14 For the charity of Christ presses us: judging this, that if one died for all, then all were dead. [n. 180]
5:15 et pro omnibus mortuus est Christus: ut, et qui vivunt, jam non sibi vivant, sed ei qui pro ipsis mortuus est et resurrexit. [n. 185]
5:15 And Christ died for all: that they also who live may now live not to themselves, but unto him who died for them and rose again. [n. 185]
173. Ostenso qualiter sancti se praeparant ad praemium aeternae gloriae placendo Deo, hic ostendit consequenter quomodo praeparant se ad hoc proficiendo proximo. Et
173. Having shown how the saints prepare themselves for the reward of eternal glory by pleasing God, the Apostle now shows how they prepare themselves for this by helping their neighbor.
circa hoc duo facit.
In regard to the first he does two things.
Primo ostendit sollicitudinem suam, quam habet de salute proximorum;
First, he shows his own solicitude for the salvation of his neighbor;
secundo vero huius sollicitudinis causam assignat, ibi caritas Christi, et cetera.
second, he assigns the cause of this solicitude, at the charity of Christ.
Circa primum tria facit.
In regard to the first he does three things.
Primo ponit curam quam habet de salute proximorum persuadendo eis;
First, he mentions the care he has for the salvation of his neighbor by persuading them;
secundo excludit quamdam falsam suspicionem, ibi non iterum nos, etc.;
second, he excludes a certain false suspicion, at we do not commend;
tertio ostendit quod etiam in modo docendi proximorum utilitatem intendat, ibi sive enim mente, et cetera.
third, he shows that he aims at profiting his neighbors also in the way he teaches, at for whether we be transported.
Circa primum duo facit.
Concerning the first, he does two things.
Primo, ponit studium suum de utilitate proximorum;
First, he sets out his zeal for profiting his neighbors;
secundo, manifestat hoc, ibi Deo autem, et cetera.
second, he manifests it, at but to God.
174. Dicit ergo: dico quod oportet nos manifestari ante tribunal, etc., et haec consideratio inducit homines ad timendum iudicium.
174. He says, therefore: I say that we must all be manifested before the judgment seat of Christ, and this consideration induces men to fear the judgment.
Et ideo dicit scientes ergo timorem Domini, id est quam pure et caste timendus sit Dominus Iesus Christus, suademus hominibus, ut timeant et credant. Iob XXIII, 15: considerans eum timore sollicitor. Ier. X, 7: quis non timebit te, o rex gentium? Is. VIII, v. 13: Dominum exercituum, ipsum sanctificate, et cetera.
Hence, he says, therefore, knowing therefore the fear of the Lord, i.e., how purely and chastely the Lord Jesus should be feared, we use persuasion to men to fear and believe. When I consider, I am in dread of him (Job 23:15); who would not fear you, O King of the nations (Jer 10:7); but the Lord of hosts, him you shall regard as holy (Isa 8:13).
175. Sed quia aliquis posset dicere quod non ex conscientia bona, sed ex commodo suo suadebat hominibus, et ideo manifestat hoc esse falsum duplici testimonio, scilicet Dei, unde dicit Deo autem manifesti sumus, quod scilicet ex timore Dei loquimur. Deus enim videt intentionem cordis nostri. Ier. c. XVII, 9: pravum est cor hominis et inscrutabile, et quis cognoscet illud? Ego Dominus, et cetera. Io. II, 25: ipse sciebat, et cetera.
175. But because someone could say that it is not from a good conscience, but for his own advantage that he persuades men, he shows that this is false by appealing to two testimonies, namely, of God, when he says, but to God we are manifest, i.e., that he is speaking from fear of God, for God sees the intention of our heart. The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately corrupt; who can understand it? I the Lord search the mind and try the heart (Jer 17:9–10); for he himself knew what was in man (John 2:25).
Item testimonio conscientiarum ipsorum, unde dicit spero autem in conscientiis vestris, et cetera. Et vere spero, quia sic me exhibui ut vos scire possitis nos esse probatos, et firmiter hoc tenere etsi non confiteamini ore. Supra IV, 2: commendantes nosmetipsos ad omnem conscientiam, et cetera.
And by the testimony of their consciences; hence he says, I trust also that in your consciences we are manifest. Truly I hope, because I have shown myself to you in such a way that you might know we are approved and might firmly hold this, even though you do not admit it by mouth: commending ourselves to every man’s conscience in the sight of God (2 Cor 4:2)
176. Consequenter, quia possent credere quod hoc dixerit Apostolus ad commendationem propriam, removet hanc suspicionem falsam dicens non iterum nos commendamus vobis id est non dicimus hoc ad commendationem nostram ut quasi iterum velimus nos commendare: supra enim, III, et etiam I Cor. III, aliqua dixerat ad commendationem suam. Et ideo dicit iterum. Infra X, 18: non enim qui seipsum commendat, et cetera.
176. Then because they might suppose that the Apostle said this to commend himself, he removes this false supposition, saying, we do not commend ourselves to you again, i.e., we are not saying this for our commendation, as though trying to commend ourselves again. For above he said certain things for his commendation: for it is not he who commends himself who is approved, but he whom the Lord commends (2 Cor 10:18).
Sed hoc dicimus propter utilitatem vestram, quasi dicat damus vobis occasionem gloriandi, id est materiam gloriandi. Pseudo-apostoli enim per elationem gloriabantur, dicentes se fuisse doctos ab apostolis, qui fuerunt a Domino, scilicet a Petro et Iacobo, qui erant columnae fidei, detrahentes in hoc Apostolo, quasi non fuerit cum Domino Iesu, et volentes eius doctrinam destruere. Ut ergo et Corinthii haberent in quo gloriarentur contra ipsos pseudo-apostolos, scilicet de gratia Apostolo data, ut eos et refellant et non seducantur ab eis, ideo dicit hoc. Unde subdit ut habeatis ad eos, id est contra eos, vel ad eos reprimendos, quid possitis dicere.
But we say this for your benefit. As if to say, but we give you occasion to glory in our behalf, i.e., matter for glorifying. For the false apostles took glory in elation, saying that they were taught by the apostles, who were from the Lord, namely, by Peter and James, who were pillars of the faith, thus detracting from the Apostle, as though he had not been with the Lord Jesus, and wishing to destroy his teaching. Therefore, in order that the Corinthians, too, might have something in which to glory against those false apostles, namely, the grace given to the Apostle, so as to refute them and not be seduced by them, he said this. Hence, he continues, that you may have something to answer them, i.e., against them, or to those reprimanding, what you can speak.
177. Ad eos, dico, qui in facie gloriantur, et non in corde.
177. To them, I say, who glory in face, and not in heart.
Quod tripliciter exponitur sic: in facie gloriantur, id est exterioribus observantiis legalibus, quia ad litteram docebant servare legalia. Et non in corde, id est in virtute Christi, quae est in corde, quia in spiritualibus, sicut Apostolus, qui in virtute crucis Christi dicebat: mihi autem absit gloriari, et cetera.
This can be explained in three ways. First, they glory in face, i.e., in the external observances of the law, because that is what they taught, and not in heart, i.e., in the virtue of Christ, which is in the heart, unlike the Apostle, who in virtue of the cross of Christ, said: far be it from me to glory except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ (Gal 6:14).
Item in facie gloriantur, id est in conspectu hominum, sicut hypocritae faciunt, et non in corde, id est in testimonio conscientiae, sicut Apostolus. Unde dicit: gloria nostra haec est, et cetera.
Likewise they glory in face, i.e., in the presence of men, as hypocrites do, and not in heart, i.e., in the testimony of conscience, as the Apostle says above: for our glory is this: the testimony of our conscience (2 Cor 1:12).
Vel in facie gloriantur, quia aliqua praetendebant exterius, quae tamen non ita sentiebant interius in corde, scilicet quod dicebant se doctos ab apostolis, et quod sequerentur eorum doctrinam, quam tamen nitebantur destruere.
Or they glory in face, because they pretend some things outwardly, which they do not feel in the heart, namely, that they claimed to have been instructed by the apostles and were following their doctrine, which on the contrary they were trying to destroy.
Patet ergo qualiter Apostolus in docendo proximorum salutem procurabat.
It is clear, therefore, how the Apostle procured the salvation of his neighbor by teaching.
178. Sequitur videre quomodo ipsorum salutem procurabat etiam in modo docendi. Unde dicit sive enim mente, etc., quod exponitur dupliciter.
178. Now we must see how he procured their salvation even in the way he taught. Hence he says, for whether we be transported in mind, it is to God; or whether we be sober it is for you. This is explained in two ways:
Uno modo sic, ut Apostolus dicat se excedere, quando loquitur eis, commendando se sobrium esse; quando non loquitur de commendatione propria. Secundum hoc dicit: quocumque modo doceamus, vel est honor Dei vel utilitas proximi, quia si excedimus mente, id est commendamus nos, Deo, scilicet est, id est ad honorem Dei, vel de servando iudicio Dei: sive sobrii sumus, id est non alta dicamus de nobis, hoc est vobis, id est, ad utilitatem vestram.
in one way so that the Apostle calls himself transported when he speaks to them by commending himself, and sober when he is not speaking of his own commendation. According to this he is saying: no matter how we teach, it is either for the honor of God or the benefit of his neighbor; for if we be transported in mind, i.e., commend ourselves, it is for God, i.e., for the honor of God or for observing God’s judgment; if we be sober, i.e., not saying great things about ourselves, this is for you, i.e., for your profit.
179. Sed aliter, et est magis litteralis sensus. Dico quod damus vobis occasionem gloriandi pro nobis, quia nos, in omnibus quae facimus et etiam in modo faciendi, intendimus bonum vestrum.
179. But there is another and more literal sense. I say that we give you occasion to glory in our behalf, because in everything we do and even in the way we do it, we intend your good.
Unde sciendum quod apostoli sunt medii inter Deum et populum. Deut. V, 5: ego sequester et medius fui, et cetera. Oportebat ergo quod haurirent a Deo quod effunderent populo. Et ideo necessarium erat quod quandoque elevarent se per contemplationem in Deum ad percipiendum caelestia, quandoque conformarent se populo ad tradendum quae a Deo perceperant, et hoc totum in eorum utilitatem cedebat. Et ideo dicit sive enim excedimus mente, id est elevamur ad hoc quod percipiamus dona gratiarum, et hoc ut Deo scilicet uniamur, quod fit per excessum rerum temporalium. Ps. CXV, 11: ego dixi in excessu meo. Dionysius: est enim extasim faciens divinus amor, et cetera. Sive sobrii simus, id est commensuremus nos vobis, tradendo divina praecepta, hoc est vobis, id est ad utilitatem vestram. Sobrietas enim idem est, quod commensuratio. Bria enim in Graeco idem est quod mensura. Haec sobrietas non opponitur ebrietati, quae est de vino, quae ad bella trahit in terra, sed opponitur ebrietati quae est a Spiritu Sancto, quae rapit hominem ad divina, de qua dicitur Cant. V, 1: bibite, amici, et inebriamini, charissimi. Nam illa scilicet sobrietas est propter utilitatem proximi, sed haec ebrietas est propter amorem Dei.
Hence it should be noted that the apostles were midway between God and the people: while I stood between the Lord and you at that time (Deut 5:5). Therefore, they were required to draw from God whatever they poured out upon the people. Hence it was necessary that sometimes they raised themselves to God by contemplation to obtain heavenly things, and sometimes conformed themselves to the people to deliver what they had received from God; and all this tended to their profit. Hence he says, for whether we be transported in mind, i.e., raised to the state of receiving gifts of graces, and this in order to be united to God, which is done by means of temporal things: I said in my vision (Ps 116:11); Dionysius: divine love causes ecstasy. Or whether we be sober, i.e., adapt ourselves to you by delivering God’s precepts, it is for you, i.e., for your benefit. This sobriety is not opposed to inebriation in wine, which brings wars on earth, but to that inebriation which is from the Holy Spirit and draws men to divine things and about which it is said: eat, O friends, and drink: drink deeply, O lovers! (Song 5:1). For that sobriety is for the benefit of our neighbor, but the inebriation is for the love of God.
Huiusmodi autem descensus, signatus est per descensum angelorum per scalam quam vidit Iacob Gen. XXVIII, 12, et Io. I, 51: videbitis caelum apertum, et cetera.
Such a descent was signified by the descent of the angels on the ladder which Jacob saw (Gen 28:12): you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man (John 1:51).
180. Consequenter cum dicit caritas autem Christi, etc., subiungit Apostolus causam praemissae sollicitudinis, quae quidem est caritas Christi.
180. Then when he says, for the charity of Christ, the Apostle indicates the cause of his solicitude, namely, the love of Christ.
Circa hoc autem duo facit.
In regard to this he does two things.