Reconcilatio per Christum
Reconcilation through Christ
5:18 Omnia autem ex Deo, qui nos reconciliavit sibi per Christum: et dedit nobis ministerium reconciliationis, [n. 194]
5:18 But all things are of God, who has reconciled us to himself by Christ and has given to us the ministry of reconciliation. [n. 194]
5:19 quoniam quidem Deus erat in Christo mundum reconcilians sibi, non reputans illis delicta ipsorum, et posuit in nobis verbum reconciliationis. [n. 198]
5:19 For God indeed was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, not imputing to them their sins. And he has placed in us the word of reconciliation. [n. 198]
5:20 Pro Christo ergo legatione fungimur, tamquam Deo exhortante per nos. Obsecramus pro Christo, reconciliamini Deo. [n. 199]
5:20 For Christ, therefore, we are ambassadors, God as it were exhorting by us; for Christ, we beseech you, be reconciled to God. [n. 199]
5:21 Eum, qui non noverat peccatum, pro nobis peccatum fecit, ut nos efficeremur justitia Dei in ipso. [n. 201]
5:21 Him, who knew no sin, he has made sin for us: that we might be made the justice of God in him. [n. 201]
194. Postquam Apostolus in superioribus tractavit de praemio sanctorum et de praeparatione ad susceptionem eius, hic consequenter agit de causa utriusque.
194. After discussing the saints’ reward and how they prepared themselves to receive it, the Apostle now treats of the cause of both.
Et circa hoc tria facit, quia
And concerning this he does three things.
primo, ostendit auctorem omnium praedictorum esse Deum;
First, he shows that the author of all these things is God;
secundo, commemorat beneficium a Christo collatum, ibi qui reconciliavit, etc.;
second, he recalls the benefit conferred by Christ, at who has reconciled;
tertio, beneficii usum, ibi pro Christo ergo legatione, et cetera.
third, the use of the benefit, at for Christ, therefore, we are ambassadors.
195. Dicit ergo: dixi quod intendimus salutem proximorum, et vetera transierunt, sed haec omnia sunt nobis ex Deo Patre, vel ex Deo auctore. Rom. XI, 36: ex ipso, et in ipso, et per ipsum sunt omnia. Iac. I, v. 17: omne datum optimum, et cetera.
195. He says, therefore: I have said that we intend the salvation of our neighbor and that the old things are passed away; but all this is of God the Father, or of God as author. For from him and through him and to him are all things (Rom 11:36); every good endowment and every perfect gift is from above (Jas 1:17).
196. Sequitur beneficium susceptum a Deo, ibi qui reconciliavit, etc., ubi
196. Then he mentions the benefits received from God, at who has reconciled:
primo, ponit ipsum beneficium collatum;
first, he mentions the benefit received;
secundo exponit, ibi quoniam quidem Deus, et cetera.
second, he explains it, at for God indeed.
197. Commemorat autem duplex beneficium per Christum collatum: unum commune, aliud speciale.
197. He recalls two benefits conferred by Christ: one is common and the other is special.
Commune quidem toti mundo, scilicet reconciliationis ad Deum, et hoc est quod dicit: qui, scilicet Deus Pater, reconciliavit, id est pacificavit, nos sibi, et hoc per Christum, id est per incarnatum Verbum. Homines enim erant inimici Dei propter peccatum, Christus autem hanc inimicitiam abstulit de medio, satisfaciens pro peccato. Et fecit concordiam. Col. I, 20: pacificans per sanguinem crucis eius, sive quae in terris, sive quae in caelis, et cetera. Et ideo dicit per Christum. Rom. V, 10: reconciliati sumus Deo per mortem, et cetera.
Common to the whole world was reconciliation to God. And this is what he says: God, namely, God the Father, who has reconciled us to himself, i.e., made peace between us and God. And this is by Christ, i.e., by the incarnate Word. For men were enemies of God because of sin, but Christ removed this enmity from their midst, satisfying for sin and producing harmony: whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross (Col 1:20). Therefore he says, by Christ: we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son (Rom 5:10).
Speciale autem beneficium est apostolis collatum, scilicet quod ipsi sint ministri huius reconciliationis. Unde dicit et dedit nobis, apostolis, vicariis Christi, ministerium huius reconciliationis. Supra III, 6: ministros nos elegit, et cetera. Ps. LXXI, 3: suscipiant montes, id est apostoli, pacem populo, scilicet a Domino.
But a special gift was conferred on the apostles, namely, that they are ministers of this reconciliation. Hence he says, and has given to us, the apostles and vicars of Christ, the ministry of reconciliation: who has also made us fit ministers of the New Testament (2 Cor 3:6); let the mountains, i.e., the apostles, bear prosperity for the people (Ps 72:3), namely, from the Lord.
198. Consequenter cum dicit quoniam, etc., exponit quae dixit: primo, primum; secundo, secundum, ibi posuit in nobis, et cetera.
198. Then when he says, for, he explains what he has said. First, the first thing; second, the second, at he has placed in us.
Dicit ergo. Dico quod Deus reconciliavit nos sibi, hoc modo: inimicitiae enim inter Deum et hominem erant propter peccatum, ut dictum est, secundum illud Is. LIX, 2: peccata vestra diviserunt, et cetera. Destructo ergo peccato per mortem Christi, inimicitiae iam solutae sunt. Et hoc est quod dicit quoniam quidem Deus erat in Christo, per unitatem essentiae, Io. XIV, 10, 11: ego in Patre, et Pater in me est. Vel Deus erat in Christo per Christum mundum sibi reconcilians, Rom. c. V, 10: reconciliati sumus Deo, et cetera. Et hoc non reputans illis delicta ipsorum, id est non habens in memoria illorum delicta, tam actualia quam originalia, ad puniendum, pro quibus Christus plene satisfecit. Et secundum hoc dicitur nos reconciliasse sibi, inquantum non imputat delicta nostra nobis. Ps. XXXI, v. 2: beatus vir cui non imputavit Dominus peccatum.
He says, therefore: I say that God reconciled us to himself in this way. For there were enmities between God and man on account of sin, as has been said: but your iniquities have made a separation between you and your God (Isa 59:2). Therefore, sin being destroyed by the death of Christ, the enmities were dissolved. And this is what he says: for God indeed was in Christ by oneness of essence: I am in the Father and the Father in me (John 14:11). Or in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, through Christ: we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son (Rom 5:10). This he did, not imputing to them their sins, i.e., not retaining in his memory their sins, actual or original, to punish them, for which Christ fully satisfies. According to this he is said to have reconciled us to himself, inasmuch as he does not impute our sins to us: blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputes no iniquity (Ps 32:2).
Consequenter cum dicit et posuit in nobis, etc., exponit secundum, scilicet de beneficio apostolis collato. Quasi dicat: hoc modo dedit nobis ministerium reconciliationis, quia posuit in nobis verbum reconciliationis, id est dedit virtutem et inspiravit in cordibus nostris, ut annuntiemus mundo hanc reconciliationem esse factam per Christum. Et hoc faciendo inducimus homines, ut conforment se Christo per baptismum. Ier. I, 9: ecce dedi verba mea, et cetera.
Then when he says, and he has placed in us the word of reconciliation, he explains the second thing, namely, the benefit conferred on the apostles. As if to say: he has given us the mystery of reconciliation in this way, namely, that he has placed in us the word of reconciliation, i.e., he has given the power and has inspired in our hearts to announce to the world that this reconciliation was made by Christ. By doing this we induce men to conform themselves to Christ by baptism: behold, I have put my words in your mouth (Jer 1:9).
199. Consequenter cum dicit pro Christo ergo legatione, etc., ostendit usum beneficii. Et primo quantum ad secundum beneficium collatum apostolis; secundo, quantum ad primum collatum omnibus, ibi obsecramus pro Christo, et cetera.
199. Then when he says, for Christ, therefore, we are ambassadors, he indicates the use of the benefit. First, as to the second benefit conferred on the apostles; second, as to the first benefit conferred on all, at for Christ, we beseech.
Dicit ergo: ex quo Deus posuit verbum reconciliationis, debemus eo uti. Et hoc est ergo quod fungimur legatione pro Christo, id est sumus legati Christi. Eph. VI, 20: pro quo legatione fungimur in catena ista, et cetera.
He says, therefore: since God has established the word of reconciliation, we ought to use it. This is why we are ambassadors for Christ: for which I am an ambassador in chains; that I may declare it boldly, as I ought to speak (Eph 6:20).
Et idoneitas ad hanc legationem est nobis ex virtute Dei, quae est in me. Et ideo dicit tamquam Deo exhortante per nos, quia Deus, qui in nobis loquitur, dat nobis idoneitatem ad hanc legationem. Matth. X, 20: non vos estis qui loquimini, et cetera. Infra XIII, v. 3: an experimentum quaeritis eius, qui in me, et cetera.
Our fitness for this ambassadorship is from God’s power, which is in me. Hence he says, God as it were exhorting by us, because God, who speaks in us, makes us fit for this ambassadorship: for it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you (Matt 10:20); do you seek a proof of Christ who speaks in me? (2 Cor 13:3)
200. Consequenter cum dicit obsecramus, etc., subdit quantum ad usum primi beneficii. Et primo inducit ad usum; secundo ostendit unde adsit nobis facultas ad ipsum usum, ibi eum qui non, et cetera.
200. Then when he says, we beseech you, he describes the use of the first benefit. First, he exhorts to its use; second, he shows the source of his power to reconcile to God, at him, who knew no sin.
Dicit ergo: ex quo Deus fecit reconciliationem, et nos sumus legati Dei in hoc, obsecramus, et cetera. Blande alloquitur, cum posset imperare. II Tim. ult.: argue, obsecra, increpa, et cetera. Ad Philem. 8: potestatem habens imperandi, et cetera. Obsecramus, inquam, pro Christo, id est propter amorem Christi, reconciliamini Deo.
He says, therefore: inasmuch as God has produced a reconciliation and we are ambassadors of God in this, we beseech you, be reconciled to God. He speaks gently, even though he could have commanded: convince, rebuke, and exhort, be unfailing in patience and in teaching (2 Tim 4:2); accordingly, though I am bold enough in Christ to command you to do what is required, yet for love’s sake I prefer to appeal to you (Phlm 1:8–9). We beseech you, I say, for Christ, i.e., for the love of Christ, be reconciled to God.
Videtur autem hoc esse contrarium ei quod dicit, quod Deus reconciliavit nos sibi. Si ergo ipse reconciliavit, quid necesse est ut nos reconciliemur? Iam enim reconciliati sumus.
But this seems contrary to his statement that God has reconciled us to himself. Therefore, if he reconciled us, what need is there to be reconciled? For we are already reconciled.
Ad hoc dicendum quod Deus reconciliavit nos sibi, ut causa efficiens, scilicet ex parte sua, sed, ut sit nobis meritoria, oportet etiam quod fiat reconciliatio ex parte nostra. Et hoc quidem in Baptismo et in poenitentia, et tunc cessamus a peccatis.
I answer that God reconciled us to himself as efficient cause, namely, on his part, but in order that it be meritorious for us, it is necessary that reconciliation be made on our part, namely, in baptism and in penance. And then we cease from sins.
201. Unde autem adsit nobis huiusmodi facultas reconciliandi Deo, ostendit ex hoc scilicet quod dedit nobis potestatem iuste vivendi, qua possumus abstinere a peccatis, et, hoc faciendo, reconciliamur Deo. Et ideo dicit eum qui non, et cetera. Quasi dicat: bene potestis reconciliari, quia Deus, scilicet Pater, eum, scilicet Christum, qui non noverat peccatum, I Petr. II, 22: qui peccatum non fecit, etc.; Io. VIII, 46: quis ex vobis arguet me, etc., pro nobis fecit peccatum. Quod tripliciter exponitur. Uno modo, quia consuetudo veteris legis est ut sacrificium pro peccato, peccatum nominetur. Os. c. IV, 8: peccata populi mei comedent, id est oblata pro peccato. Tunc est sensus fecit peccatum, id est hostiam, vel sacrificium pro peccato. Alio modo, quia peccatum aliquando sumitur pro similitudine peccati, vel pro poena peccati. Rom. VIII, 3: misit Deus Filium suum in similitudinem peccati, etc., id est de similitudine peccati damnavit peccatum. Et tunc est sensus fecit peccatum, id est fecit eum assumere carnem mortalem et passibilem. Tertio modo, quia aliquando dicitur hoc esse hoc vel illud, non quia sit, sed quia opinantur homines ita esse. Et tunc est sensus fecit peccatum, id est fecit eum reputari peccatorem. Is. LIII, 12: cum iniquis reputatus est.
201. Where we get the faculty to reconcile to God is indicated by the fact that he gave us the power to live justly and abstain from sins. By doing this we are reconciled to God. Hence he says, him, who knew no sin, he has made sin for us, as if to say: you can be reconciled to God because him, namely, Christ, who knew no sin: he committed no sin; no guile was found on his lips (1 Pet 2:22); which of you convicts me of sin? (John 8:46); he, namely, God the Father, has made sin for us. This can be explained in three ways. In one way because it was the custom of the old law to call a sacrifice for sin: they feed on the sin of my people (Hos 4:8), i.e., the offerings for sin. Then the sense is: he has made sin, i.e., the victim of sacrifice for sin. In another way, because sin is sometimes taken for the likeness of sin, or the punishment of sin: God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh (Rom 8:3). Then the sense is: he has made sin, i.e., made him assume mortal and suffering flesh. In a third way, because one thing is said to be this or that, not because it is so, but because man considers it such. Then the sense is: he has made sin, i.e., made him regarded a sinner: he was numbered with the transgressors (Isa 53:12).
202. Et hoc quidem fecit, ut nos efficeremur iustitia, id est ut nos, qui peccatores sumus, efficeremur non solum iusti, imo ipsa iustitia, id est iustificaremur a Deo; vel iustitia, quia non solum nos iustificavit, sed etiam voluit quod per nos alii iustificarentur. Iustitia, dico, Dei, non nostra. Et in Christo, id est per Christum.
202. He did this, that we might be made the justice of God in him i.e., that we, who are sinners, might be made not only just, but justice itself, i.e., that we might be justified by God. Or justice, because he not only justified us, but also willed that others be justified by us. The justice, I say, of God, not ours. And in him, i.e., through Christ.
Vel, aliter, ut ipse Christus dicatur iustitia. Et tunc est sensus ut nos efficeremur iustitia, id est ut inhaereremus Christo per amorem et fidem, quia Christus est ipsa iustitia. Dicit autem, Dei, ut excludat iustitiam hominis, quae est qua homo confidit de propriis meritis. Rom. X, 3: ignorantes Dei iustitiam, etc. in ipso, scilicet Christo, id est per Christum, quia ipse factus est nobis iustitia, I Cor. I, 30.
Or another way, that Christ himself be called justice. Then the sense is this: that we might be made the justice of God, i.e., cling to Christ by love and faith, because Christ is justice itself. But he says, of God, to exclude man’s justice, by which a man trusts in his own merits: for, being ignorant of the righteousness that comes from God, and seeking to establish their own, they did not submit to God’s righteousness (Rom 10:3). In him, namely, in Christ, i.e., by Christ, because he was made justice for us (1 Cor 1:30).
Ministri divini in tribulatione
Divine ministers in tribulation
6:1 Adjuvantes autem exhortamur ne in vacuum gratiam Dei recipiatis. [n. 203]
6:1 And we helping do exhort you not to receive the grace of God in vain. [n. 203]