Purificatio carnis et spiritus
Purification of flesh and spirit
7:1 Has ergo habentes promissiones, carissimi, mundemus nos ab omni inquinamento carnis et spiritus, perficientes sanctificationem in timore Dei. [n. 245]
7:1 Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of the flesh and of the spirit, perfecting sanctification in the fear of God. [n. 245]
7:2 Capite nos. Neminem laesimus, neminem corrupimus, neminem circumvenimus. [n. 249]
7:2 Receive us. We have injured no man: we have corrupted no man: we have overreached no man. [n. 249]
7:3 Non ad condemnationem vestram dico: praediximus enim quod in cordibus nostris estis ad commoriendum et ad convivendum. [n. 250]
7:3 I do not say this to your condemnation. For we have said before that you are in our hearts: to die together and to live together. [n. 250]
245. Monuit Apostolus Corinthios qualiter se in futuro debeant habere, hic commendat eos de bonis praeteritis. Sed ut fiat quaedam continuatio praeteritorum ad futura,
245. Having informed the Corinthians how to behave in the future, the Apostle now commends them on the good they have accomplished in the past. But in order to connect the past with the future,
primo concludit admonitionem;
he first concludes his admonition;
secundo vero commendat eos, ibi multa mihi fiducia, et cetera.
second, he commends them, at great is my confidence.
Circa primum tria facit.
In regard to the first he does three things.
Primo ponit admonitionem;
First, he gives the admonition;
secundo inducit exemplum sui ipsius ad admonitionem servandam, ibi capite nos, etc.;
second, he gives himself as an example to have the admonition obeyed, at receive us;
tertio ponit admonentis intentionem, ibi non ad condemnationem vestram, et cetera.
third, he states his intention in admonishing them, at I do not say this to your condemnation.
246. Circa primum tria facit. Primo ponit motivum ad observantiam admonitionis, et hoc est promissio eis facta. Et ideo dicit has igitur habentes promissiones charissimi, scilicet quod Deus habitet in nobis, et recipiat nos, et cetera.
246. In regard to the first he does three things. First, he gives them a motive for observing the admonition, and this is a promise made to them. Hence, he says, having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, namely, that God may dwell in you, and that you may receive us.
247. Secundo ponit admonitionem, cum dicit: mundemus, et cetera. Et hoc ideo, quia promissiones istae non dantur nisi mundis, et ideo mundemus nos ab omni inquinamento carnis et spiritus, id est carnalium et spiritualium vitiorum. Is. LII, 11: mundamini, qui fertis vasa Domini, et cetera.
247. Second, he gives the admonition, when he says, let us cleanse ourselves, because those promises are given only to those who are clean; and so let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of the flesh and of the spirit, i.e., of carnal and spiritual vices: purify yourselves, you who bear the vessels of the Lord (Isa 52:11).
Ubi sciendum est, quod omne peccatum quod consummatur in delectatione carnis est carnale; illud vero quod consummatur in delectatione spiritus, est spirituale. Et inde est quod peccata carnalia, si considerentur quantum ad sui consummationem, sunt duo tantum, scilicet gula et luxuria, caetera vero peccata sunt spiritualia. Si vero considerentur quantum ad sui originem, sic omnia peccata possunt dici carnalia, quia omnia ex conceptione carnis originem habent, et hoc modo loquitur ad Gal. V, 19: manifesta sunt autem opera carnis, et cetera.
Here it should be noted that every sin which is consummated in carnal delight is carnal, while that which is consummated in spiritual delight is spiritual. That is why carnal sins, if they are considered in their consummation, are two in number, namely, gluttony and lust; but the others are spiritual sins. But if they are considered in their origin, then all sins can be considered carnal, because all of them have their origin in a conception of the flesh. In this sense he speaks to the Galatians: now the works of the flesh are plain: fornication, impurity, licentiousness, idolatry, sorcery, enmity, strife, jealousy, anger, selfishness, dissension, party spirit, envy, drunkenness, carousing, and the like (Gal 5:19).
248. Tertio ponit modum implendi admonitionem, ibi perficientes, et cetera.
248. Third, he mentions how they can fulfill the admonition when he says, perfecting sanctification.
Posset enim aliquis dicere: numquid non sumus mundati in baptismo? Et ideo addit perficientes sanctificationem, id est perficimus emundationem inchoatam in baptismo. Sanctus enim idem est quod mundus. Lev. XI, 44 et XIX, 2: sancti estote, quoniam ego sanctus sum, et cetera.
For someone could say: were we not cleansed in baptism? That is why he added, perfecting sanctification, i.e., let us perfect the original cleansing in baptism. For the same is holy that is clean: be holy, for I am holy (Lev 11:44).
Perficiamus, inquam, quia philosophi conati sunt perficere et non potuerunt, quia non potuerunt omnia peccata vitare: quantumcumque enim aliqua peccata vitarent et exercerent actus virtutum, adhuc tamen remanebat in eis peccatum infidelitatis. Et ideo in vero cultu Dei solum perficitur emundatio, et hoc est quod dicit in timore, id est, in cultu, Dei. Eccli. XXV, 14: timor Domini, et cetera.
Let us be perfect, I say, because philosophers have tried to be perfect and have failed, because they were unable to avoid sins. For no matter how many other sins they avoided or how well they exercised the acts of the virtues, the sin of unbelief remained in them. Consequently, cleanness is made perfect only in the true worship of God. And this is what he says: in the fear, i.e., in the worship, of God: the fear of God has set itself over all things (Sir 25:14).
Sed contra Col. III, 14: super omnia caritatem habentes, quae est vinculum perfectionis. Non igitur perficitur sanctificatio in timore Dei, sed in caritate Dei.
But this seems contrary to Colossians: and above all these put on love, which binds everything together in perfect harmony (Col 3:14). Therefore, sanctification is not perfected in the fear of God, but in the love of God.
Respondeo. Dicendum est quod hic loquitur de timore filiali, qui est caritatis effectus, et non de servili, qui contrariatur caritati. Dicit autem in timore, ut doceat nos habere affectum ad Deum cum quadam reverentia et sollicitudine. Amor enim causat securitatem, quae quandoque negligentiam parit, sed, qui timet, semper est sollicitus.
I answer that he is speaking here of filial fear, which is the effect of charity, and not of servile fear, which is contrary to charity. He says, in the fear, to teach us to love God with a certain reverence and carefulness. For love causes security, which sometimes begets negligence; but one who fears is always careful.
249. Consequenter cum dicit capite nos, etc., in exemplum se praebet, quasi diceret: accipite nos in exemplum. I Cor. XI, v. 1: imitatores mei estote, et cetera. Ego enim mihi cavi ab immunditia per sanctificationem, quia neminem laesi.
249. Then when he says, receive us, he offers himself as an example. As if to say: take us as an example: be imitators of me as I am of Christ (1 Cor 11:1). For I have guarded myself against uncleanness by holiness, because I have injured no one.
Ubi notandum quod tripliciter potest aliquis laedere proximum, et nullo istorum modorum laesit aliquem. Primo in persona, et quantum ad hoc dicit neminem laesimus, scilicet in persona, sicut faciunt mali domini, Mich. III, 2: violenter tollitis pellem eorum, et cetera. Secundo quantum ad famam, inducendo eos, vel exemplo vel persuasionibus, ad malum, et quantum ad hoc dicit neminem corrupimus. I Cor. XV, 33: corrumpunt bonos mores. Tertio quantum ad subtractionem bonorum, et quantum ad hoc dicit neminem circumvenimus, id est in bonis fraudavimus. I Thess. IV, 6: ne quis circumveniat, et cetera.
Here it should be noted that a person might injure his neighbor in three ways, but Paul did not injure them in any of these ways. First, in his person, as to this he says, we have injured no man, namely in his person, as wicked masters do: who tear the skin from off my people (Mic 3:2). Second, in their reputation by inducing them to evil by example and persuasion; as to this he says, we have corrupted no man. Bad company ruins good morals (1 Cor 15:33). Third, by stealing their goods; as to this he says, we have overreached no man: that no man transgress and wrong his brother in this matter (1 Thess 4:6).
250. Consequenter cum dicit non ad condemnationem vestram, etc., aperit suam intentionem, quasi dicat: non dico hoc condemnando vos, sed ut emendemini. Mala enim praeterita propter duo consueverunt commemorari. Aliquando ad condemnationem, et hoc quando non est ultra spes correctionis; aliquando autem ad emendationem, ut scilicet corrigantur, et hoc modo loquitur hic non ad condemnationem vestram, et cetera. I Cor. VII, 35: haec ad utilitatem vestram dico, et cetera.
250. Then when he says, I do not say this to your condemnation, he discloses his intention. As if to say: I do not say this to condemn you, but to correct you. For past evils are wont to be recalled sometimes for condemnation, when there is no further hope of correction; and sometimes for amendment, so that they will be corrected. And this is the way he speaks here: I do not say this to your condemnation: I say this for your own benefit (1 Cor 7:35).
Et ratio huius est, quia gaudeo de bono vestro, praediximus enim quod vos estis, et cetera. Supra III, 2: epistola nostra vos estis scripta in cordibus nostris. Phil. I, 7: eo quod habeam vos, et cetera.
The reason for this is that I rejoice in your good: for we have said before that you are in our hearts (2 Cor 3:2); it is right for me to feel thus about you all, because I hold you in my heart (Phil 1:7).
Estis, inquam, in cordibus nostris, scilicet ad commoriendum et ad convivendum. Quod potest intelligi de morte culpae, et de morte naturali. De morte culpae, ut non intelligatur quod nos simus parati ad commoriendum vobiscum, id est quando vos peccatis, nos volumus peccare, sed quod mortem culpae vestram eo dolore accipimus quo nostram. II Cor. XI, 29: quis infirmatur, et ego non infirmor? I Cor. XV, 31: quotidie morior, et cetera. Et ad convivendum, quia ita gaudeo de bona vita vestra in gratia, sicut et de nostra. De morte vero naturali, ut intelligatur ad commoriendum, id est paratus sum mori pro vobis, infra XII, 15: libentius impendar, et superimpendar, etc., et ad convivendum, id est ut desiderem vos esse socios in vita aeterna, II Tim. II, 11: si commortui sumus, et convivemus.
You are, I say, in our hearts, namely, to die together and to live together. This can be understood of the death of guilt and of natural death. Of the death of guilt, not that we are prepared to die with you, i.e., not that when you sin, we want to sin, but we take your death of guilt with as much pain as our own. Who is weak, and I am not weak? (2 Cor 11:29); I die everyday (1 Cor 15:31). And to live together, because I take as much joy in your good life in grace as in my own. Of natural death: then to die together it taken to mean that I am prepared to die for you: I will most gladly spend and be spent for your souls (2 Cor 12:15); to live together, i.e., I desire you to be companions in eternal life: if we have died with him, we shall also live with him (2 Tim 2:11).
Consolatio Pauli in tribulatione
Paul’s comfort in tribulation
7:4 Multa mihi fiducia est apud vos, multa mihi gloriatio pro vobis: repletus sum consolatione; superabundo gaudio in omni tribulatione nostra. [n. 251]
7:4 Great is my confidence for you: great is my glorying for you. I am filled with comfort: I exceedingly abound with joy in all our tribulation. [n. 251]
7:5 Nam et cum venissemus in Macedoniam, nullam requiem habuit caro nostra, sed omnem tribulationem passi sumus: foris pugnae, intus timores. [n. 256]
7:5 For also, when we had come into Macedonia, our flesh had no rest: but we suffered all tribulation. Combats without: fears within. [n. 256]
7:6 Sed qui consolatur humiles, consolatus est nos Deus in adventu Titi. [n. 259]
7:6 But God, who comforts the humble, comforted us by the coming of Titus. [n. 259]
7:7 Non solum autem in adventu ejus, sed etiam in consolatione, qua consolatus est in vobis, [n. 261] referens nobis vestrum desiderium, vestrum fletum, vestram aemulationem pro me, ita ut magis gauderem. [n. 263]
7:7 And not by his coming only, but also by the consolation with which he was comforted in you, [n. 261] relating to us your desire, your mourning, your zeal for me: so that I rejoiced the more. [n. 263]
7:8 Quoniam etsi contristavi vos in epistola, non me poenitet: etsi poeniteret, videns quod epistola illa (etsi ad horam) vos contristavit,
7:8 For although I made you sorrowful by my epistle, I do not repent. And if I did repent, seeing that the same epistle (although but for a time) did make you sorrowful,
7:9 nunc gaudeo: non quia contristati estis, sed quia contristati estis ad poenitentiam. Contristati enim estis ad Deum, ut in nullo detrimentum patiamini ex nobis.
7:9 Now I am glad: not because you were made sorrowful, but because you were made sorrowful unto penance. For you were made sorrowful according to God, that you might suffer damage by us in nothing.
251. Apostolus posuit supra admonitionem ex praemissis conclusam, hic subdit suam commendationem. Et
251. Having given an admonition derived from what went before, the Apostle now gives his commendation.
circa hoc duo facit.
In regard to this he does two things:
Primo ponit eorum commendationem;
first, he commends them;