Tristitia secundum Deum
Sorrow according to God
7:9 nunc gaudeo: non quia contristati estis, sed quia contristati estis ad poenitentiam. Contristati enim estis ad Deum, ut in nullo detrimentum patiamini ex nobis. [n. 266]
7:9 Now I am glad: not because you were made sorrowful, but because you were made sorrowful unto penance. For you were made sorrowful according to God, that you might suffer damage by us in nothing. [n. 266]
7:10 Quae enim secundum Deum tristitia est, poenitentiam in salutem stabilem operatur: saeculi autem tristitia mortem operatur. [n. 267]
7:10 For the sorrow that is according to God works penance, steadfast unto salvation: but the sorrow of the world works death. [n. 267]
7:11 Ecce enim hoc ipsum, secundum Deum contristari vos, quantam in vobis operatur sollicitudinem: sed defensionem, sed indignationem, sed timorem, sed desiderium, sed aemulationem, sed vindictam: in omnibus exhibuistis vos incontaminatos esse negotio. [n. 270]
7:11 For behold this selfsame thing, that you were made sorrowful according to God, how great the carefulness it works in you: what defense, what indignation, what fear, what desire, what zeal, what revenge. In all things you have showed yourselves to be undefiled in the matter. [n. 270]
265. Posita consolatione Apostoli et Titi de tristitia Corinthiorum, eo quod fuerit ad poenitentiam, et non ad desperationem, hic consequenter huius consolationis ratio assignatur, eorum tristitiam commendando.
265. Having mentioned the comfort the Apostle and Titus experienced at the grief of the Corinthians, because it ended in repentance and not in despair, he now gives the reason for his comfort by commending their sorrow.
Et circa hoc duo facit.
In regard to this he does two things.
Primo enim commendat eorum tristitiam;
First, he commends their sorrow;
secundo ex hoc concludit propositum, ibi et si scripsi vobis, et cetera.
second, from this he concludes to his intent, at although I wrote to you.
Commendat autem Corinthiorum tristitiam ex duobus.
In regard to the first he does two things:
Primo ex causa,
first, he commends their sorrow on the part of its cause;
secundo ex effectu, ibi quae enim tristitia est, et cetera.
second, on the part of its effect, at for the sorrow that is according to God.
266. Causa autem ex qua commendatur eorum tristitia, haec est, quia est secundum Deum. Et ideo dicit: licet ad horam contristaverim vos per epistolam, tamen gaudeo, id est quia contristati estis secundum Deum.
266. The cause on account of which he commends their sorrow is that it was according to God. Therefore he says: although for a time I was sorry for the epistle, nevertheless I rejoice now, because you were made sorrowful according to God.
Ubi sciendum est, quod tristitia et gaudium et communiter omnis affectio, ex amore causatur. Tristatur enim quis, quia caret eo quod amat. Qualis autem est amor, talis est tristitia ex amore causata. Est autem duplex amor. Unus quo diligitur Deus, et ex hoc causatur tristitia quae est secundum Deum; alius amor quo amatur saeculum, et ex hoc causatur tristitia saeculi. Amor, quo diligimus Deum, facit nos libenter servire Deo, sollicite quaerere honorem Dei, et vacare Deo dulciter. Et quia peccando impedimur a servitio Dei et ideo ei non vacamus, nec eius honorem quaerimus, ideo amor Dei causat tristitiam de peccato, et haec est tristitia secundum Deum, quae quidem tristitia non fuit vobis ad malum, nec detrimentum, sed potius ad fructum et meritum. Et ideo dicit ut in nullo detrimentum patiamini ex nobis, quia non solum bona et grata quae vobis impendimus, vobis prosunt, sed etiam hoc ipsum quod vos corrigimus et contristamus. Hebr. XII, 11: omnis disciplina in praesenti, et cetera.
Here it should be noted that sorrow and joy and generally every emotion arise from love; for a person is sad when he lacks what he loves. The kind of love determines the kind of sorrow it causes. But there are two kinds of love: one by which God is loved, and from this arises a sorrow which is according to God; the other is that by which the world is loved, and from this arises a worldly sorrow. The love by which we love God makes us serve him gladly, honor him carefully and set some time apart for God joyfully. But because sin hinders us from serving God, we devote no time to him or seek his honor, the love of God causes sorrow for sin: and this is sorrow according to God. This sorrow was not in you to produce evil and loss, but fruit and merit. Hence, he says, that you might suffer damage by us in nothing, because you profit not only from the good and pleasant things we bestow on you, but also from the fact that we correct and sadden you. For the moment all discipline seems painful rather than pleasant; later it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it (Heb 12:11).
267. Consequenter cum dicit quae enim tristitia, etc., commendat eorum tristitiam ex effectu, qui quidem est praemium vitae aeternae. Et
267. Then when he says, for the sorrow that is according God, he commends their sorrow because of its effect, which is the reward of eternal life.
circa hoc duo facit.
In regard to this he does two things.
Primo enim ponit effectum in generali;
First, he mentions the effect in general;
secundo experimentum specialiter in eis consecutum, ibi ecce enim hoc ipsum, et cetera.
second, what their experience teaches, at for behold this selfsame thing.
Circa primum duo facit.
In regard to the first he does two things.
Primo enim ponit effectum tristitiae, quae est secundum Deum;
First, he mentions the effect of sorrow which is according to God;
secundo ponit effectum tristitiae, quae est secundum mundum, ibi saeculi autem, et cetera.
second, of sorrow which is according to the world, at but the sorrow of the world.
268. Dicit ergo primo: dico quod tristitia nostra non fuit vobis detrimentum, enim, id est quia, tristitia quae est secundum Deum, operatur poenitentiam; poenitentiam autem dico in salutem stabilem, id est sempiternam, quae est salus stabilis, et est beatorum, de qua Is. XLIX: salus autem mea in sempiternum erit. Et hanc operatur poenitentia. Matth. III, 2: agite poenitentiam, appropinquabit enim regnum caelorum.
268. He says, therefore: I say that our sorrow was not a loss for you, i.e., for the sorrow that is according to God works penance, I say, that is steadfast unto salvation, i.e., eternal salvation, which is a steadfast salvation belonging to the blessed: but my salvation will be for ever, and my deliverance will never be ended (Isa 51:6); and this is the work of penance: repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand (Matt 3:2).
Et dicit stabilem, ut excludat salutem temporalem, quae est transitoria et communis ipsis hominibus et iumentis, de qua in Ps. XXXV, 7: homines et iumenta salvabis, Domine, et cetera.
He says, steadfast, to exclude temporal, which is transitory and common to men and beasts: man and beasts you save, O Lord (Ps 35:8).
269. Sed contra hoc quod dicit quod tristitia, quae est secundum Deum, poenitentiam operatur, videtur esse, quia ipsa tristitia secundum Deum est poenitentia. Poenitere enim est tristari de malo, et secundum Deum. Non ergo operatur poenitentiam.
269. But against what he says, the sorrow that is according to God works penance, it seems that the very sorrow according to God is penance. For penance is sorrow over evil and is according to God. Therefore it does not work penance.
Respondeo. Dicendum est, quod poenitentia habet tres partes, quarum pars prima est tristitia, scilicet dolor et compunctio de peccatis; aliae duae sunt confessio et satisfactio. Cum ergo dicit, quod tristitia operatur poenitentiam, intelligendum est, quod compunctio, seu dolor de peccato operetur in nobis poenitentiam, id est, alias partes poenitentiae, scilicet confessionem et satisfactionem.
I answer that penance has three parts, the first of which is sorrow, namely grief and compunction over sins; the other two are confession and satisfaction. Therefore, when he says that sorrow works penance, it is to be understood that compunction or sorrow for sin works penance in us, i.e., the other parts of penance, namely, confession and satisfaction.
Vel dicendum est, quod tristitia secundum Deum est communior quam poenitentia, quia poenitentia est de proprio peccato, sed tristatur quis secundum Deum et de peccatis propriis et de alienis.
Or we might say that sorrow according to God is more common than penance, because penance is about one’s own sins, but one sorrows according to God for his own sins and those of others.
Sic ergo effectus tristitiae, quae est secundum Deum, est salus aeterna. Effectus vero tristitiae, quae est secundum mundum, est mors. Quia enim qui diligit saeculum, inimicus Dei constituitur, ut dicitur Iac. IV, 4, ideo ex amore saeculi mors causatur. Tristatur enim secundum saeculum quis, non quia peccans Deum offendit, sed, deprehensus in peccato, punitur de eo et detegitur. Et haec tristitia est vitanda in peccatis. Eccli. XXX, 24: tristitiam longe fac a te, et cetera.
Thus, therefore, the effect of sorrow according to God is eternal salvation, but the effect of sorrow according to the world is death. For since a person who loves the world is made an enemy of God, as it says in James, the love of the world causes death (Jas 4:4). For a person is sorrowful according to the world, not because he offended God by sin, but because, being caught in his sin, he is punished for it and exposed; and this sadness should be avoided in sins: drive away sadness far from you (Sir 30:24).
270. Consequenter manifestat effectum praedictum per experimentum sumptum in ipsis, cum dicit ecce enim hoc ipsum, etc., quasi dicat: vere salutem stabilem, quia experimento patet quod in nobis multa, quae ad salutem ducunt, operatur.
270. Then he explains this effect from the experience learned from them, when he says, for behold this selfsame thing, that you were made sorrowful according to God, how great the carefulness it works in you. As if to say: truly steadfast unto salvation, because it is clear from experience that it works in us many things that lead to salvation.
Ponit autem sex ad hoc pertinentia, quorum unum est generale, scilicet sollicitudo. Quando enim homo est in laetitia, de facili committit aliquas negligentias; sed quando est tristis et in timore, sollicitatur. Et ideo dicit ecce enim, scilicet in vobis experti estis, hoc ipsum, scilicet secundum Deum contristari vos, quantam in vobis operatur sollicitudinem ad vitandum mala et ad faciendum bona. Mich. VI, 8: indicabo tibi, O homo, quid sit bonum, et cetera. Et infra: sollicitum, et cetera.
He mentions six of these things, one of which is general, namely, carefulness. For when a person is free of care, it is easy for him to become negligent; but when he is sad and fearful, he is careful. Hence he says, for behold i.e., you have experienced in your own case, this selfsame thing, that you were made sorrowful according to God, how great the carefulness it works in you, to avoid evil and to do good: he has shown you, O man, what is good (Mic 6:8); and then, walk carefully with your God.
271. Alia vero sunt specialia, quorum quaedam pertinent ad effectum interiorem, quaedam ad actum exteriorem. Eorum vero quae pertinent ad effectum interiorem, quaedam sunt ad peccati remotionem, quaedam vero ad boni adeptionem. Nam verus poenitens debet recedere a malo et facere bonum.
271. The other five are special: some pertain to internal feeling and some to external action. Of those that pertain to inward feeling, some are for the removal of sin, and some for the attainment of good. For a true penitent should depart from evil and do good.
Quantum autem ad remotionem mali, ponit tria. Primum est, ut desistat facere malum, et quantum ad hoc dicit sed defensionem, contra alios qui nos ad malum inducunt. I Petr. V, 9: cui resistite fortes in fide. Vel, secundum Glossam, ut contra pseudo-apostolos me defendatis. Eph. VI, 13: accipite armaturam Dei, et cetera. Secundum est quod homo indignetur contra se pro peccatis quae fecit, et quantum ad hoc dicit sed indignationem. Indignatio autem sui operatur tristitiam secundum Deum. Is. LXIII, v. 5: indignatio mea auxiliata est mihi. Tertium est, quod sit in continuo timore de futuro, ut caveat, et quantum ad hoc dicit sed timorem, de recidivo, ne scilicet in futuro similiter contingat. Eccli. XXV, 14: timor Domini omnia, et cetera.
In regard to the removal of evil he lists three, the first of which is to desist from evil; as to this he says, what defense, against those who induce us to evil: resist him, firm in your faith (1 Pet 5:9). Or according to a Gloss, to defend me against the false apostle. Take the whole armor of God (Eph 6:13). The second is that a man be indignant against himself for the sins he has committed; as to this he says, what indignation. For indignation at oneself works sorrow according to God. And my wrath upheld me (Isa 63:5). The third is that he live in continual fear of the future, so as to be wary; as to this he says, what fear, namely, that the same thing might happen in the future. The fear of God came upon all (Sir 25:14).
Quantum autem ad hanc boni adeptionem, duo ponit. Primo desiderium, quo ad bonum afficitur, et quantum ad hoc dicit sed desiderium, quo bonum facere affectetis. Prov. c. XI, 23: desiderium iustorum omne bonum. Secundo aemulationem bonam, qua bonos imitari conatur, et quantum ad hoc dicit sed aemulationem, ut scilicet me et alios bonos imitemini. I Cor. XIV, 1: sectamini caritatem, aemulamini charismata meliora.
As to the attainment of good he lists two things. The first is desire for what is good; as to this he says, what desire, by which a man is inclined to do good: the desire of the righteous ends only in good (Prov 11:23). Second, what zeal, by which one strives to imitate those who are good; as to this he says, what zeal to imitate me and other good men: but earnestly desire the higher gifts (1 Cor 12:31)
272. Eorum vero quae pertinent ad exteriorem actum duo ponit.
272. Of those which pertain to outward action he mentions two.
Primum est ut vindicent in seipsis quod peccaverunt: et hoc utile est. Cum enim omne malum necessarium sit puniri, vel ab homine vel a Deo, si hoc non punit, melius est quod homo malum in se puniat quod fecit, quam quod Deus, quia, ut dicitur Hebr. X, v. 31, horrendum est incidere in manus Dei, et cetera. Et quantum ad hoc dicit sed vindictam, id est quia peccantes punitis, et etiam vos ipsos. I Cor. IX, 27: castigo corpus meum, et cetera. Is. XXVI: iustitiam non fecimus, et cetera.
The first is that they take revenge on themselves for having sinned; and this is useful. For since every evil must be punished either by man or by God, if he does not punish it here, it is better that a man punish in himself the evil that he has done than that God do it, because as it is said: it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God (Heb 10:31). As to this he says, what revenge, i.e., because you punish sinners and even yourselves. But I pommel my body and subdue it, lest after preaching to others I myself should be disqualified (1 Cor 9:27); we did not make justice (Isa 26:18).
Secundum est quod totaliter abstineat a malo. Et ideo dicit in omnibus exhibuistis, duce scilicet fide, incontaminatos esse negotio, scilicet Christiano. Supra VI, 4: in omnibus exhibeamus, et cetera. Eph. I, 4: elegit nos ante mundi constitutionem, ut essemus sancti. Ps. c, 6: ambulans in via immaculata, et cetera. Vel negotio de quo scilicet correcti estis, puta de favore quem dedistis fornicatori, sed postmodum, puniendo et condemnando ipsum, ostendistis vos in hoc incontaminatos esse.
The second is that he refrain from sin altogether; hence he says, in all things you have showed youselves, namely, with faith leading you, to be undefiled in the matter, i.e., of being a Christian: in all things let us exhibit ourselves as the ministers of God (2 Cor 6:4); he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and blameless before him (Eph 1:4); he who walks in the way that is blameless shall minister to me (Ps 101:6). Or in the matter about which you were corrected, for the favor you did for the fornicator; but later by punishing and condemning him you showed that you were undefiled in this.