Super II ad Timotheum
Commentary on II Timothy
31:40 Die noctuque aestu urebar, et gelu, fugiebatque somnus ab oculis meis.
31:40 Day and night was I parched with heat, and with frost, and sleep departed from my eyes.
1. Verba sunt Iacob ostendentis et commendantis curam pastoralem, ac pastorale officium, in quibus, circa hoc officium, tria ponuntur, scilicet assiduitas, patientia, sollicitudo.
1. These words were spoken by Jacob to commend pastoral care and the pastoral office. In these words three things are mentioned about the pastoral office, namely, assiduity, patience and solicitude.
Primum est, quia sine intermissione debet curam gregis gerere. Unde dicit nocte et die. Nocte orando, die erudiendo. Is. XXI, 8: super speculam Domini ego sum stans iugiter per diem, et super custodiam ego sum stans totis noctibus. Vel per diem, id est, tempore prosperitatis; et per noctem, id est, tempore adversitatis, in quibus praelatus debet respicere curam gregis. II Cor. VI, 7: per arma iustitiae a dextris et a sinistris. Prov. XVII, 17: omni tempore diligit, qui amicus est.
The first is required, because the shepherd must take care of his flock without interruption; hence he says, day and night: praying by night and instructing by day: I am upon the watchtower of the Lord, standing continually by day, and I am upon my ward, standing whole nights (Isa 21:8). Or, by day, i.e., in times of prosperity, and night, i.e., in times of adversity. These are the times when the prelate is obliged to look after the care of his flock: by the armor of justice on the right hand and on the left (2 Cor 6:7); he that is a friend loves at all times (Prov 17:17).
Secundum est, quia maxime praelato patientia necessaria est. Debet enim praelatus propter gregis salutem, omnia sustinere. Io. c. X, 11: bonus pastor animam suam dat pro ovibus suis. Prov. XIX, 11: doctrina viri per patientiam noscitur. Unde dicit aestu, id est fervore instantis persecutionis. Iac. I, 11: exortus est sol cum ardore, et arefecit foenum. Gelu, id est, timore futurorum. II Cor. VII, 5: foris pugnae, intus timores.
The second is required, because patience is especially required of a prelate: for a prelate should endure all things for the welfare of his flock: the good shepherd give his life for his sheep (John 10:11); the learning of a man is known by his patience (Prov 19:11). Hence he says, parched with heat, i.e., by the fever of present persecution: the sun rose with a burning heat and parched the grass (Jas 1:11), and with frost, i.e., fear of the future: combats without; fears within (2 Cor 7:5).
Tertium est, quia praeest in sollicitudine, ut dicitur Rom. XII, 8. Et hoc expellit somnum negligentiae. Unde subditur Gen. XXXI, v. 41: fugiebatque somnus ab oculis meis. Prov. VI, 3: discurre, festina, suscita amicum tuum, ne des oculis tuis somnum.
The third is required, because he rules with care, as it is said: he that rules, with carefulness (Rom 12:8). And this expels the sleep of negligence; hence he continues, and sleep departed from my eyes: run about, make haste, stir up your friend: give not sleep to your eyes (Prov 6:3).
2. Recte ergo haec verba materiae huius epistolae conveniunt. In prima enim instruit eum de ordinatione ecclesiastica. In hac autem secunda agit de sollicitudine tanta pastorali, ut etiam martyrium sustineat pro cura gregis, ut patet in prologo.
2. Rightly, then, do these words suit the subject matter of this epistle. For in the first epistle he instructed him about the Church’s structure; here in this second one he treats of pastoral care so careful as to endure martyrdom for the welfare of the flock, as is clear in the prologue.
1:1 Paulus apostolus Jesu Christi per voluntatem Dei, secundum promissionem vitae, quae est in Christo Jesu, [n. 3]
1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus: [n. 3]
1:2 Timotheo carissimo filio: gratia, misericordia, pax a Deo Patre, et Christo Jesu Domino nostro. [n. 5]
1:2 To Timothy, my dearly beloved son. Grace, mercy and peace, from God the Father and from Christ Jesus our Lord. [n. 5]
3. Dividitur autem haec epistola in salutationem, et narrationem. Secunda ibi gratias ago.
3. This epistle is divided into the greeting and the message, at I give thanks to God (2 Tim 1:3).
Item primo ponitur persona salutans;
In the greeting are mentioned first, the person who sends the greeting;
secundo persona salutata;
second, the person greeted;
tertio bona optata.
third, the good he wills them.
4. Persona salutans describitur ex nomine Paulus, quod sonat modicitatem, quod ei competit propter humilitatem mentis et tribulationem, quae faciunt hominem parvum. In tantum quod Christus dicitur minoratus propter passiones. Hebr. II, 9: eum qui in modico ab angelis minoratus est, et cetera.
4. The person sending the greeting is Paul, a name which suggests moderation, and suits him because of his humility of mind and the tribulations which make a man small in the sense that Christ is said to have been shrunk by his sufferings: but we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of his death, crowned with glory and honor (Heb 2:9).
Item ex dignitate, quam, primo ponit, secundo dignitatis originem, tertio fructum. Dignitas est magna, quia est apostolus Iesu Christi, id est, missus a Christo. Lc. VI, v. 13: elegit duodecim ex ipsis, quos etiam apostolos nominavit. Hanc dignitatem adeptus est, quia plus omnibus laboravit, I Cor. c. XV, 10 et Gal. II, 8: qui operatus est Petro in apostolatum circumcisionis, operatus est et mihi inter gentes.
The name also befits his dignity: first, he mentions his dignity; second, its source; third, its fruit. His dignity is great, because he is an apostle of Jesus Christ, i.e., sent by Christ: he chose twelve of them, whom he also named apostles (Luke 6:12). He earned this dignity because he labored harder than the others: he who wrought in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, wrought in me also among the gentiles (Gal 2:8).
Origo apostolatus est voluntas Dei, unde dicit per voluntatem Dei, quam quidam praeveniunt, quia se ingerunt; contra quos dicitur Hebr. V, 4: nemo assumit sibi honorem, sed qui vocatur a Deo tamquam Aaron. Item quidam permittuntur propter peccata populi. Iob XXXIV, 30: qui regnare facit hominem hypocritam propter peccata populi. Sed hoc est per voluntatem Dei, quod dicit, quia non per voluntatem suam.
The source of apostleship is in God’s will; hence he says, by the will of God, which some men anticipate, because they force themselves on him: neither does any man take the honor to himself, but he that is called by God as Aaron was (Heb 5:4). Or some are permitted on account of the people’s sin: who makes a man that is a hypocrite to reign for the sins of the people? (Job 34:30). But he by the will of God. He says this, because it is not by his own will.
Fructus autem non est aliquid terrenum, sed secundum promissionem vitae, quae est, etc., id est, ad consequendam vitam aeternam promissam a Christo. Hic debet esse finis praelatorum. I Cor. IX, 25: illi quidem ut corruptibilem coronam accipiant, nos autem incorruptam. Dan. XII, 3: qui ad iustitiam erudiunt multos, quasi stellae in perpetuas aeternitates.
But its fruit is not earthly, according to the promise of life itself in Christ Jesus, i.e, it attains to life everlasting promised by Christ. This should be the end of prelates: they indeed that they may receive a corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible (1 Cor 9:25); they that instruct many to justice shall shine as stars for all eternity (Dan 12:3).
5. Persona salutata est Timotheus filius eius ab eo conversus, Act. XVI, 1. Charissimus, quia sibi unanimis. Phil. II, 20: neminem habeo tam unanimem, et cetera.
5. The person greeted is Timothy, his son, converted by him: my dearly beloved son, because he was of the same mind: for I have no man so of the same mind who with sincere affection is solicitous for you (Phil 2:20).
6. Bona optata sunt tria, scilicet gratia, per quam est remissio peccatorum; misericordia, per quam consequimur finale bonum; pax, Glossa: id est, tranquillitas mentis, haec competit praelato, qui ad hoc ponitur ut pacem procuret. Io. dixit Dominus: pax vobis; et praecepit intrantibus domum pacem offerre, ut habetur Matth. X, v. 12. Et hoc a Deo Patre, qui est dator omnis boni Iac. I, 5. Item a Iesu Christo, qui est mediator inquantum homo Dei et hominum. II Petr. I, 4: per quem maxima nobis et pretiosa promissa donavit.
6. The goods he desires for him are three: namely, grace, through which sins are remitted; mercy, through which we obtain the final good; and peace; a Gloss says: that is, tranquility of mind, which befits a prelate, who is appointed to procure peace: the Lord said to them: peace be to you (John 20:19). And he commanded those entering a house to confer peace, as it is stated in Matthew (Matt 10:12). And this from God, the Father, who is the giver of every gift (Jas 1:17); and from Jesus Christ our Lord, who, as man, is mediator between God and man: by whom he has given us most great and precious promises (2 Pet 1:4).
1:3 Gratias ago Deo, cui servio a progenitoribus in conscientia pura, quod sine intermissione habeam tui memoriam in orationibus meis, nocte ac die [n. 7]
1:3 I give thanks to God, whom I serve from my forefathers, with a pure conscience, that without ceasing I have a remembrance of you in my prayers, night and day. [n. 7]
1:4 desiderans te videre, memor lacrimarum tuarum, ut gaudio implear, [n. 9]
1:4 Desiring to see you, being mindful of your tears, that I may be filled with joy: [n. 9]
1:5 recordationem accipiens ejus fidei, quae est in te non ficta, quae et habitavit primum in avia tua Loide, et matre tua Eunice, certus sum autem quod et in te. [n. 11]
1:5 Calling to mind that faith which is in you unfeigned, which also dwelt first in your grandmother Lois and in your mother Eunice, and I am certain that it is in you also. [n. 11]
7. Hic incipit epistolaris narratio, in qua
7. Here begins the epistolary message, in which
primo munit eum contra praesentes persecutiones;
first, he warns him against present persecutions;
secundo contra futura pericula Ecclesiae, III cap., ibi hoc autem scito.
second, against coming dangers of the Church, at know also this (2 Tim 3:1).
Item primo inducit ad instantiam praedicationis, quae tunc erat causa et occasio persecutionis;
In regard to the first he does two things: first, he exhorts him to keep busy with preaching, which was then the cause and occasion of persecution;
secundo hortatur ad sustinendas tribulationes propter Christum, ibi tu ergo, etc., c. II.
second, he urges him to endure tribulations for Christ, at you, therefore, my son (2 Tim 2:1).
Item primo commemorat bona ipsius Timothei;
In regard to the first he does three things: first, he reminds Timothy of his gifts;