Catena Aurea in Lucam Catena Aurea on Luke Prooemium Prologue Isaias 50:3-4 Isaiah 50:3-4 Induam caelos tenebris, et saccum ponam operimentum eorum. Dominus dedit mihi linguam eruditam, ut sciam sustentare eum qui lapsus est verbo. Erigit mane, mane erigit mihi aurem, ut audiam quasi magistrum I will clothe the heavens with darkness, and place a sack as their covering. The Lord gave me an erudite tongue, so that I can sustain the fallen by my word. He awakens me in the morning; in the morning he awakens my ear, that I may hear him as my teacher. Glossa. Inter cetera incarnationis Christi mysteria, quae Isaias propheta diligenter et aperte praenuntiat, dicit induam caelos tenebris etc., ex quibus verbis accipere possumus Evangelii secundum Lucam materiam, modum scribendi, finem et conditionem scriptoris. Gloss: Among the mysteries of the incarnation of Christ, which Isaiah diligently and openly foretold, he says: "I will clothe the heavens" etc. From these words we can gather, for the Gospel according to Luke, the matter, the manner of writing, the purpose and the condition of the writer. Augustinus de Cons. Evang. Lucas enim circa sacerdotalem domini stirpem atque personam magis occupatus videtur, unde per vitulum significatus est, propter maximam victimam sacerdotis. Augustine, On the consistency of the Gospel: For Luke seems preoccupied with the royal lineage and person of the Lord. Therefore he is typified by the bull, because it is the chief victim of the priest. Ambrosius in Luc. Vitulus enim sacerdotalis est victima, unde bene congruit vitulo hic Evangelii liber, qui a sacerdotibus inchoavit et consummavit in vitulo, qui omnium peccata suscipiens pro totius mundi vita est immolatus; et ipsam vituli immolationem Lucas stylo quodam pleniore diffudit. Ambrose, on Luke: For the priestly bull is the victim; therefore this Gospel book fits the bull well, because it starts from priests and finishes in the bull who took the sins of all and was sacrificed for the life of the world. And Luke gave a fuller treatment to the immolation of the bull. Glossa. Quia igitur passionem Christi principaliter exponere Lucas intendit, huius Evangelii materia significari potest in eo quod dicitur induam caelos tenebris, et saccum ponam operimentum eorum; nam ad litteram in passione Christi tenebrae factae sunt, et in discipulis fides obscurata est. Gloss: Because Luke principally intended to treat of the passion of Christ, the matter of this Gospel can be represented by the statement: "I will clothe the heavens with darkness, and place a sack as their covering," for in the passion of Christ darkness literally took pllace, and the faith of the disciples was darkened. Hieronymus super Isaiam. Et Christus despectus erat et ignobilis quando pendebat in cruce; et absconditus est vultus eius atque despectus, ut humano corpore divina potentia celaretur. Jerome, on Isaiah: Christ was despised and without honor when he hung on the cross. His face was hidden and despised, so that the divine power would be hidden by a human body. Hieronymus de viris illustribus. Sermo autem Lucae tam in Evangelio quam in actibus apostolorum comptior est et saeculari redolet eloquentia. Unde subditur dominus dedit mihi linguam eruditam. Jerome, on illustrious men: Luke's narration, both in the Gospel and in the Acts of the Apostles, is refined and full of secular eloquence. Therefore Isaiah adds: "The Lord gave me an eloquent tongue." Ambrosius in Luc. Nam licet Scriptura divina mundanae evacuet sapientiae disciplinam, quod maiore fucata verborum ambitu quam rerum ratione subnixa sit; tamen si quis in Scripturis divinis etiam illa quae imitanda illi putant, quaerat, inveniet. Sanctus enim Lucas velut quemdam historicum ordinem tenuit, et plura nobis gestorum domini miracula revelavit; ita tamen ut omnes sapientiae virtutes Evangelii ipsius complecteretur historia. Quid enim praecellentius ad sapientiam naturalem, quam quod spiritum sanctum creatorem etiam dominicae incarnationis extitisse reseravit? Docet moralia in eodem libro, quemadmodum scilicet amare inimicum debeam; docet etiam rationalia, cum lego quoniam qui fidelis est in minimo, et in magno fidelis est. Ambrose, on Luke: Although Scripture defeats human wisdom, which relies more on a rich vocabulary than on reality, nevertheless, if anyone looks in divine Scripture for what they think should be imitated, he will find it. For St. Luke held to an historical order, and made known to us very many miracles worked by the Lord. At the same time the historical narration of this Gospel embraces all the powers of wisdom. For what could surpass natural wisdom more than that he brought into play the Holy Creator Spirit also for the Lord's incarnation. He teaches morals in the same book, such as that I must love my enemy. He also teaches reasonable things, as when I read that he who is faithful in little things, will be faithful in great things. Eusebius in Eccles. Hist. Is ergo genere quidem Antiochenus, arte medicus, secundum hanc medicinam quam ex apostolorum vel societate vel traditione susceperat, duos nobis medicinales libros, quibus non corpora sed animae curentur explicuit. Unde sequitur ut sciam sustentare eum qui lapsus est verbo. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History: From Antiochene stock, he was a medical practitioner, according to the medicine that he learned from the company of the apostles or from tradtion. He left us two medical books, where he explained how not bodies, but souls are cured. Therefore, Isaiah continues: "so that I can sustain the fallen by my word." Hieronymus super Isaiam. Dicit enim se a domino accepisse sermonem, quomodo lapsum errantemque populum sustentet, et revocet ad salutem. Jerome, on Isaiah: He says that he received from the Lord his account on how to raise up a falling and erring people, and call them back to salvation. Graecus expositor. Cum autem Lucas bonae indolis esset et capacitatis strenuae, Graecorum scientiam consecutus est. Grammaticam siquidem atque poesim adeptus perfecte, rethoricam autem et persuadendi leporem assecutus ad plenum, neque philosophiae muneribus caruit; denique et medicinam acquirit, et quoniam naturae velocitate satis de humana gustaverat sapientia, ad altiorem convolat. Accelerat igitur ad Iudaeam, et visibiliter et verbo tenus Christum adit. Cumque veritatem cognosceret, verus efficitur Christi discipulus, plurimum magistro commoratus. A Greek expositor: Since Luke was well endowed and could work hard, he acquired Greek learning. He fully mastered grammar, poetry, rhetoric and the ability to persuade, nor did he lack philosophical talent. Lastly, he acquired medical science, and since by natural precosity he tasted his full of human wisdom, he flew to a higher level. So he hurred to Judaea, and went to Christ, seeing him and hearing him. Since he knew the truth, he became a true disciple of Christ, staying with his Master for a long time. Glossa. Unde subditur erigit mane, quasi a iuventute ad saecularem sapientiam; mane erigit mihi aurem ad divina, ut audiam quasi magistrum, scilicet ipsum Christum. Gloss: There follows: "He awakens me in the morning," that is, from his youth with secular wisdom. He awakens me to divine things, so that I may hear him as a Master, that is, Christ himself. Eusebius in Eccles. Hist. Tradunt autem quod Evangelium suum ex Pauli ore conscripserit, sicut et Marcus quae ex Petri ore fuerant praedicata conscripsit. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History: The tradition is that he wrote his Gospel from the mouth of Paul, as Mark wrote what Peter preached. Chrysostomus super Matthaeum. Uterque autem eorum magistrum imitatus est; hic quidem Paulum super flumina fluentem, ille autem Petrum breviloquio studentem. Chrysostom, on Matthew: Each of them imitated their master, Luke imitating Paul flowing on the rivers, Mark imitating Peter who kept to brief speech. Augustinus de Cons. Evang. Eo autem tempore scripserunt quo non solum ab Ecclesia Christi, verum etiam ab ipsis adhuc in carne manentibus apostolis probari meruerunt. Augustine, on the consistency of the Gospels: At that time they wrote, they received the approbation no only of the Church of Christ, but also of the apostles who were still living. Et haec prooemialiter dicta sufficiant. And this suffices as an introduction. Caput 1 Chapter 1 Lectio 1 Lecture 1 1 Quoniam quidem multi conati sunt ordinare narrationem, quae in nobis completae sunt, rerum: 1. Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us, 2 sicut tradiderunt nobis, qui ab initio ipsi viderunt, et ministri fuerunt sermonis: 2. Even as they delivered them to us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses, and ministers of the word: 3 visum est et mihi, assecuto omnia a principio diligenter, ex ordine tibi scribere, optime Theophile, 3. It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus, 4 ut cognoscas eorum verborum, de quibus eruditus es, veritatem. 4. That you might know the certainty of those things, wherein you have been instructed. Eusebius Eccles. Hist. Lucas in initio Evangelii sui, causam cur scripserit indicavit, videlicet quoniam multi alii temere praesumpserant enarrare res quae sibi magis erant ad liquidum compertae: et hoc est quod dicit quoniam quidem multi conati sunt ordinare narrationem rerum. EUSEBIUS; St. Luke at the commencement of his Gospel has told us the reason of his writing, which was, that many others had rashly taken upon themselves to give accounts of those things of which he had a more certain knowledge. And this is his meaning when he says, Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of things. Ambrosius in prooem. in Lucam. Nam sicut multi in Iudaeorum populo divino infusi spiritu prophetaverunt, alii autem pseudoprophetae erant potius quam prophetae; sic et nunc in novo testamento multi Evangelia scribere conati sunt, quae boni nummularii non probarunt: et aliud quidem fertur Evangelium quod duodecim scripsisse dicuntur: ausus est etiam Basilides Evangelium scribere: fertur aliud secundum Thomam, et aliud secundum Matthiam. AMBROSE; For as many among the Jewish people prophesied by inspiration of the Spirit of God, but others were false prophets rather than prophets, so now also travel many attempted to write Gospels which the good moneychanger refuses to pass. One gospel is mentioned which the twelve Apostles are said to have written; another Basilides presumed to write; and another is said to have been by Matthias. Beda. Multos ergo eos non tam numerositate quam haereseos multifariae diversitate connumerat, qui non spiritus sancti munere donati, sed vacuo labore conati, magis ordinaverunt narrationem, quam historiae texuerunt veritatem. BEDE; The many who are mentioned, he reckons not so much by their number, as by the variety of their manifold heresies; men who were not endued with the gift of the Holy Spirit, but engaging in a vain work, have rather set forth in order a relation of events, than woven a true history Ambrosius. Qui enim conatus est ordinare, suo labore conatus est, nec implevit suo conatu: sine conatu sunt enim donationes et gratia Dei, quae ubi se infuderit, rigare consuevit, ut non egeat, sed redundet scriptoris ingenium: et ideo bene dicit rerum quae in nobis completae sunt, vel quae in nobis redundant: quod enim redundat, nulli deficit, et de completo nemo dubitat, cum fidem effectus astruat, exitus prodat. AMBROSE; Now they who have attempted to set forth these things in order have labored by themselves, and have not succeeded in what they attempted. For without the assistance of man come the gifts and the grace of God, which, when it is infused, is wont so to flow, that the genius of the writer is not exhausted, but ever abounding. He well says therefore, Of things which have been fully accomplished among us, or which abound among us. For that which abounds is lacking to none, and no one doubts about that which is fulfilled, since the accomplishment builds up our faith, and the end manifests it. Origenes in Lucam. Dicit autem rerum, quia non secundum phantasiam, iuxta haereticos, exercuit Iesus carnalem ipsius adventum; sed cum veritas esset, revera negotium prosecutus est. TITUS BOSTRENSIS; He says, of things, because not by shadows, as the heretics say, did Jesus accomplish His advent in the flesh, but being as He was the Truth, so in very truth He performed His work. Affectum autem suum indicat ex hoc quod ait quae in nobis completae sunt; idest, quae in nobis manifestissimae sunt ostensae: id enim quod Graece legitur peplirophorimenon uno verbo Latinus sermo non explicat: certa enim fide et ratione cognoverat, neque in aliquo fluctuabat. ORIGEN; The effect upon his own mind, St. Luke explains by the expression, of the things which have been fully accomplished among us, i.e. have had their full manifestation among us, (as the Greek word signifies, which the Latin cannot not express in one word,) for he had been convinced of them by sure faith and reason, and wavered not in any thing. Chrysostomus. Evangelista autem non solum testimonio contentus est proprio, sed ad apostolos totum refert, inde robur venatur sermoni; et ideo subdit sicut tradiderunt nobis qui ab initio ipsi viderunt. CHRYSOSTOM; The Evangelist was so far from being content with his single testimony, that he refers the whole to the Apostles, seeking from them a confirmation of his words; and therefore he adds, as they handed them down to us, who were themselves from the beginning eyewitnesses. Eusebius Eccles. Hist. Certus est quod veritatem, vel Paulo exponente, vel aliis apostolis qui ab initio ipsi viderant, vel sibi tradiderant, consecutus sit. EUSEBIUS; Luke is a sure witness, because he obtained his knowledge of the truth either from St. Paul’s instructions, or the instructions and traditions of the other Apostles, who were themselves eyewitnesses from the beginning. Chrysostomus. Dicit autem viderunt, quia hoc maxime robur nanciscitur credulitatis, quod addiscitur ab his qui praesentialiter viderunt. CHRYS. He says, were eyewitnesses, because this is our chief ground for believing in a thing, that we derive it from those who were actually eyewitnesses. Origenes. Palam est autem quod cuiusdam doctrinae finis est in ipsa doctrina, sicut geometriae; alterius vero doctrinae finis in opere computatur, sicut medicinae; et ita est in sermone Dei. Et ideo postquam significaverat scientiam ex hoc quod dixerat ipsi viderunt, demonstrat opera ex hoc quod sequitur: et ministri fuerunt sermonis vel verbi. ORIGEN; It is plain that of one kind of knowledge, the end is in the knowledge itself, as in geometry; but of another kind, the end is counted to be in the work, as in medicine; and so it is in the word of God, and therefore having signified the knowledge by the words were themselves eyewitnesses, he points out the work by what follows, and were ministers of the word. Ambrosius. Nam congruit ista locutio, ut maius mysterium verbi quam auditum esse credamus; sed quia non prolativum verbum, sed substantiale significatur, non vulgare verbum, sed caeleste intelligamus, cui apostoli ministrarunt. AMBROSE; This expression is used, not that we should suppose the ministry of the word to consist rather in seeing than hearing, but that, because by the word was meant not a word that can be spoken by the mouth, but one of real existence, we may understand that to have been not a common, but a Heavenly Word, to which the Apostles ministered.