Remigius Claritatem suae visionis, quam promiserat dominus discipulis suis, in hac transfiguratione habita in monte post sex dies complevit: unde dicitur et post sex dies assumpsit Petrum et Iacobum et Ioannem fratrem eius. Remig. In this Transfiguration undergone on the mount, the Lord fulfilled within six days the promise made to His disciples, that they should have a sight of His glory; as it is said, “And after six days he took Peter, and James, and John his brother.” Hieronymus Quaeritur autem quomodo post sex dies assumpsit eos, cum Lucas Evangelista octonarium numerum ponat. Sed facilis est responsio: quia hic medii ponuntur dies, ibi primus additur et extremus. Jerome It is made a question how it could be after six days that He took them, when Luke says eight. The answer is easy, that here one reckoned only the intervening days, there the first and the last are also added. Chrysostomus in Matth Ideo autem non confestim facta promissione eos sursum ducit, sed post sex dies, ut reliqui discipuli nihil patiantur humanum, idest aliquem invidiae motum; vel ut horum dierum spatio vehementiori concupiscentia repleti, qui assumendi erant, sollicita mente accederent. Chrys. He does not take them up immediately upon the promise being made, but six days after, for this reason, that the other disciples might not be touched with any human passion, as a feeling of jealousy; or else that during these days’ space, those disciples who were to be taken up might become kindled with a more eager desire. Rabanus Merito autem post sex dies gloriam illam ostendit, quia post sex aetates futura est resurrectio. Raban., e Bed. Justly was it after six days that He showed His glory, because after six ages is to be the resurrection Origenes Vel quia in sex diebus totus factus est visibilis mundus; qui transcendit omnes res mundi, potest ascendere super montem excelsum, et gloriam aspicere verbi Dei. Origen Or because in six days this whole visible world was made; so he who is above all the things of this world, may ascend into the high mountain, and there see the glory of the Word of God. Chrysostomus in Matth Ideo autem hos tres assumpsit, quoniam aliis potiores erant. Intende autem qualiter Matthaeus non occultat eos qui sibi praepositi sunt: hoc enim et Ioannes facit, praecipuas Petri laudes commemorans. Ab aemulatione enim et vana gloria mundus fuit apostolorum chorus. Chrys. He took these three because He set them before others. But observe how Matthew does not conceal who were preferred to himself; the like does John also when he records the preeminent praise given to Peter. For the company of Apostles was free from jealousy and vain glory. Hilarius in Matth In tribus autem assumptis, de trium origine: Sem, Cam et Iaphet, futura electio populi ostenditur. Hilary In the three thus taken up with Him, the election of people out of the three stocks of Sem, Cam, and Japhet is figured. Rabanus Vel tres solummodo discipulos secum ducit, quia multi sunt vocati, pauci vero electi. Vel quia qui nunc fidem sanctae Trinitatis incorrupta mente servant, tunc aeterna eius visione laetantur. Raban., e Bed. Or; He took only three disciples with Him, because many are called but few chosen. Or because they who now hold in incorrupt mind the faith of the Holy Trinity, shall then joy in the everlasting beholding of it. Remigius Ostensurus autem dominus gloriam suae claritatis discipulis, duxit eos in montem: unde sequitur et duxit illos in montem excelsum seorsum: in quo docet quia necesse est omnibus qui Deum contemplari desiderant, ut non in infimis voluptatibus iaceant, sed amore supernorum semper ad caelestia erigantur; et ut ostendat discipulis quatenus gloriam divinae claritatis non in huius saeculi profundo quaerant, sed in caelestis beatitudinis regno. Ducuntur autem seorsum, quia sancti viri toto animo et fidei intentione separati sunt a malis, funditusque separabuntur in futuro; vel quia multi vocati, pauci vero electi. Sequitur. Et transfiguratus est ante eos. Remig. When the Lord was about to show His disciples the glory of His brightness, He led them into the mountain, as it follows, “And he took them up into a high mountain apart.” Herein teaching, that it is necessary for all who seek to contemplate God, that they should not grovel in weak pleasures, but by love of things above should be ever raising themselves towards heavenly things; and to show His disciples that they should not look for the glory of the divine brightness in the gulph of the present world, but in the kingdom of the heavenly blessedness. He leads them apart, because the saints are separated from the wicked by their whole soul and devotion of their faith, and shall be utterly separated in the future; or because many are called, but few chosen. It follows, “And he was transfigured before them.” Hieronymus Qualis enim futurus est tempore iudicandi, talis apostolis apparuit. Nemo autem putet pristinam eum formam et faciem perdidisse, vel amisisse corporis veritatem, et assumpsisse corpus spirituale vel aereum; sed quomodo transfiguratus sit, Evangelista demonstrans dicit et resplenduit facies eius sicut sol, vestimenta autem eius facta sunt alba sicut nix. Ubi splendor faciei ostenditur, et candor describitur vestium, non substantia tollitur, sed gloria commutatur. Certe transformatus est dominus in eam gloriam qua venturus est postea in regno suo. Transformatio splendorem addidit, faciem non subtraxit, etsi corpus spirituale fuerit: unde et vestimenta mutata sunt, quae intantum fuere candida, ut alius Evangelista dixerit, qualia fullo super terram non posset facere; huiusmodi autem corporale est et tactui subiacet, non spirituale et aereum, quod illudat oculos, et tantum in phantasmate aspiciatur. Jerome Such as He is to be in the time of the Judgment, such was He now seen of the Apostles. Let none suppose that He lost His former form and lineaments, or laid aside His bodily reality, taking upon Him a spiritual or ethereal Body, How His transfiguration was accomplished, the Evangelist shows, saying, “And his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment became white as snow.” For that His face is said to shine, and His raiment described to become white, does not take away substance, but confer glory. In truth, the Lord was transformed into that glory in which He shall hereafter come in His Kingdom. The transformation enhanced the brightness, but did not destroy the countenance, although the body were spiritual; whence also His raiment was changed and became white to such a degree, as in the expression of another Evangelist, no fuller on earth can whiten them. But all this is the property of matter, and is the subject of the touch, not of spirit and ethereal, an illusion upon the sight only beheld in phantasm. Remigius Si autem facies domini resplenduit sicut sol, et sancti sicut sol fulgebunt, numquid erit aequalis claritas domini et servorum? Nequaquam. Sed quia nihil lucidius invenitur sole, idcirco ad manifestandum exemplum futurae resurrectionis, et facies domini resplendere, et iusti fulgere dicuntur sicut sol. Remig. If then the face of the Lord shone as the sun, and the saints shall shine as the sun, are then the brightness of the Lord and the brightness of His servants to be equal? By no means. But forasmuch as nothing is known more bright than the sun, therefore to give some illustration of the future resurrection, it is expressed to us that the brightness of the Lord’s countenance, and the brightness of the righteous, shall be as the sun. Origenes in Matth Mystice autem, cum aliquis transcenderit sex dies, secundum quod diximus, videt transfiguratum Iesum ante oculos cordis sui. Diversas enim habet verbum Dei formas; apparens unicuique secundum quod videnti expedire cognoverit; et nemini supra quod capit, semetipsum ostendit: unde non dixit simpliciter transfiguratus est, sed coram eis. In Evangeliis enim Iesus simpliciter intelligitur ab eis qui non ascendunt per excitationem verborum spiritualium super excelsum sapientiae montem; eis autem qui ascendunt, iam non secundum carnem cognoscitur, sed Deus verbum intelligitur. Coram his ergo transfiguratur Iesus, et non coram illis qui sunt deorsum in conversatione terrena viventes. Hi autem coram quibus transfiguratur, facti sunt filii Dei, et ostenditur eis sol esse iustitiae; et vestimenta ipsius fiunt candida sicut lumen; quae sunt sermones et litterae Evangeliorum, quibus Iesus est indutus, secundum illa quae ab apostolis dicuntur de eo. Origen Mystically; When any one has passed the six days according as we have said, he beholds Jesus transfigured before the eyes of his heart. For the Word of God has various forms, appearing to each man according as He knows that it will be expedient for him; and He shows Himself to none in a manner beyond his capacity; whence he says not simply, “He was transfigured,” but, “before them.” For Jesus, in the Gospels, is merely understood by those who do not mount by means of exalting works and words upon the high mountain of wisdom; but to them that do mount up thus, He is no longer known according to the flesh, but is understood to be God the Word. Before these then Jesus is transfigured, and not before those who live sunk in worldly conversation. But these, before whom He is transfigured, have been made sons of God, and He is shown to them as the Son of righteousness. His raiment is made white as the light, that is, the words and sayings of the Gospels with which Jesus is clothed according to those things which were spoken of Him by the Apostles. Glossa Vel vestimenta Christi sanctos significant, de quibus Isaias: omnibus his velut vestimento vestieris; et nivi comparantur, quia candidi erunt virtutibus, et omnis vitiorum aestus ab eis remotus erit. Sequitur et apparuerunt illis Moyses et Elias cum eo loquentes. Gloss., e Bed. in Luc. Or; raiment of Christ shadows out the saints, of whom Esaias says, “With all these shalt thou clothe thee as with a garment;” (Isa 49:18) and they are likened to snow because they shall be white with virtues, and all the heat of vices shall be put far away from them. It follows, “And there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with them.” Chrysostomus in Matth Hoc autem multas habet rationes. Et prima quidem est haec. Quia enim turbae dicebant eum esse Eliam vel Ieremiam, aut unum ex prophetis, capita prophetarum secum ducit, ut saltem hinc videatur differentia servorum et domini. Alia ratio est: quia enim continue Iesum accusabant Iudaei tamquam transgressorem legis, et blasphemum, patris sibi gloriam usurpantem; ut ostendatur ab utraque accusatione innoxius, eos qui in utroque fulserunt, in medium ducit. Etenim Moyses legem dedit, et Elias pro gloria Dei aemulator fuit. Alia ratio est: ut discant quoniam mortis et vitae potestatem habet: propter hoc et Moysen, qui morte defecerat, et Eliam, qui nondum mortem passus fuerat, in medium ducit. Aliam causam et ipse Evangelista revelat, scilicet monstrare crucis gloriam, et mitigare Petrum et alios discipulos passionem timentes: loquebantur enim, ut alius Evangelista dicit, de excessu quem completurus erat in Ierusalem: unde eos in medium ducit qui se morti exposuerunt pro his quae Deo placebant, et pro plebe credentium: etenim tyrannis uterque se libere praesentavit: Moyses quidem Pharaoni, Elias autem Achab. Ducit autem et propter hoc eos in medium: volebat enim quod discipuli illorum privilegia zelarent, ut scilicet fierent mansueti sicut Moyses, et zelantes sicut Elias. Chrys. There are inane reasons why these should appear. The first is this; because the multitudes said He was Elias, or Jeremiah, or one of the Prophets, He here brings with Him the chief of the Prophets, that hence at least may be seen the difference between the servants and their Lord. Another reason is this; because the Jews were ever charging Jesus with being a transgressor of the Law and blasphemer, and usurping to Himself the glory of the Father, that He might prove Himself guiltless of both charges, He brings forward those who were eminent in both particulars; Moses, who gave the Law, and Elias, who was jealous for the glory of God. Another reason is, that they might learn that He has the power of life and death; by producing Moses, who was dead, and Elias, who had not yet experienced death. A further reason also the Evangelist discovers, that He might show the glory of His cross, and thus soothe Peter, and the other disciples, who were fearing His death; for they talked, as another Evangelist declares, “of His decease which He should accomplish at Jerusalem.” Wherefore He brings forward those who had exposed themselves to death for God’s pleasure, and for the people that believed; for both had willingly stood before tyrants, Moses before Pharaoh, Elias before Ahab. Lastly, also, He brings them forward, that the disciples should emulate their privileges, and be meek as Moses, and zealous as Elias. Hilarius in Matth Quod etiam Moyses et Elias ex omni sanctorum numero assistunt, medius inter legem et prophetas Christus in regno est: cum his enim Israelem, quibus testibus praedicatus est, iudicabit. Hilary Also that Moses and Elias only out of the whole number of the saints stood with Christ, means, that Christ, in His kingdom, is between the Law and the Prophets; for He shall judge Israel in the presence of the same by whom He was preached to them. Origenes in Matth Si quis etiam intelligit spiritualem legem convenientem sermonibus Iesu, et in prophetis absconditam Christi sapientiam; ille vidit Moysen et Eliam in gloria una cum Iesu. Origen However, if any man discerns a spiritual sense in the Law agreeing with the teaching of Jesus, and in the Prophets finds “the hidden wisdom of Christ,” (1 Cor 2:7) he beholds Moses and Elias in the same glory with Jesus. Hieronymus Considerandum est etiam, quod Scribis et Pharisaeis de caelo signa poscentibus dare noluit; hic vero, ut apostolorum augeat fidem, dat signum de caelo. Elia inde descendente quo conscenderat, et Moyse ab Inferis resurgente: quod et Achaz per Isaiam praecipitur, ut petat sibi signum de Inferno vel de excelso. Jerome It is to be remembered also, that when the Scribes and Pharisees asked signs from heaven, He would not give any; but now, to increase the Apostles’ faith, He gives a sign; Elias descends from heaven, whiter he was gone up, and Moses arises from hell; as Ahaz is bidden (Isa 7:10) by Esaias to ask him a sign in the heaven above, or in the depth beneath. Origenes Quid autem fervidus Petrus dixerit, subditur respondens autem Petrus dixit ad Iesum: domine, bonum est nos hic esse. Quia enim audivit quod oportet eum Hierosolymam ire, adhuc timet pro Christo; sed post increpationem non audet dicere rursus: propitius esto tibi; sed idem occulte per alia signa insinuat. Quia enim videbat multam quietem et solitudinem, cogitavit convenientem ibi stationem esse ex loci dispositione: quod significat dicens bonum est nos hic esse. Vult etiam ibi semper esse; ideo tabernaculorum meminit, dicens si vis, faciamus hic tria tabernacula. Cogitavit enim quod si hoc fieret, non ascenderet Hierosolymam; et si non ascenderet, Christus non moreretur: ibi enim sciebat Scribas insidiari ei. Cogitabat etiam quod Elias aderat, qui in monte ignem descendere fecit, et Moyses, qui intravit nebulam, et Deo locutus est: unde occultari poterant, ut nullus persecutorum sciret ubi essent. Chrys. Hereupon follows what the warm Peter spake, “Peter answered and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here.” Because he had heard that He must go up to Jerusalem, he yet fears for Christ; but after his rebuke he dares not again say, “Be propitious to thyself, Lord,” but suggests the same covertly under other guise. For seeing in this place great quietness and solitude, he thought that this would be a fit place to take up their abode in, saying, “Lord, it is good for us to be here.” And he sought to remain here ever, therefore he proposes the tabernacles, “If thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles.” For he concluded if he should do this, Christ would not go up to Jerusalem, and if He should not go up to Jerusalem, He should not die, for he knew that there the Scribes laid wait for Him. Remigius Vel aliter. Visa domini maiestate et duorum servorum, Petrus adeo delectatus est ut cuncta temporalia oblivioni traderet, et ibi in perpetuum vellet manere. Si autem tunc Petrus sic accensus est, quanta erit suavitas et dulcedo videre regem in decore suo, et interesse choris Angelorum et omnium sanctorum? In eo sane quod ait Petrus, domine, si vis, devotionem subditi et obedientis servi ostendit. Remig. Otherwise; At this view of the majesty of the Lord, and His two servants, Peter was so delighted, that, forgetting every thing else in the world, he would abide here for ever. But if Peter was then so fired with admiration, what ravishment will it not be to behold the King in His proper beauty, and to mingle in the choir of the Angels, and of all the saints? In that Peter says, “Lord, if thou wilt,” he shows the submission of a dutiful and obedient servant. Hieronymus Erras tamen, Petre, et sicut alius Evangelista testatur, nescis quid dicas. Noli tria tabernacula quaerere, cum unum sit tabernaculum Evangelii, in quo lex et prophetae recapitulanda sunt. Si autem quaeris tria tabernacula, nequaquam servos cum domino conferas; sed fac tria tabernacula, immo unum patri et filio et spiritui sancto: ut quorum est una divinitas, unum sit in pectore tuo tabernaculum. Jerome Yet art thou wrong, Peter, and as another Evangelist says, knowest not what thou sayest. Think not of three tabernacles, when there is but one tabernacle of the Gospel in which both Law and Prophets are to be repeated. But if thou wilt have three tabernacles, set not the servants equal with their Lord, but make three tabernacles, yea make one for the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, that They whose divinity is one, may have but one tabernacle, in thy bosom. Remigius Erravit etiam, quia voluit ut regnum electorum constitueretur in terra; quod dominus promiserat dare in caelis. Erravit etiam, quia oblitus est se et socios suos esse mortales; et absque gustu mortis voluit subire aeternam felicitatem. Remig. He was wrong moreover, in desiring that the kingdom of the elect should be set up on earth, when the Lord had promised to give it in heaven. He was wrong also in forgetting that himself and his fellows were mortal, and in desiring to come to eternal felicity without taste of death. Rabanus Et in eo quod caelesti conversationi tabernacula facienda putavit; in qua domus necessaria non erat, cum scriptum sit: templum non vidi in ea. Raban. Also in supposing that tabernacles were to be built for conversation in heaven, in which houses are not needed, as it is written in the Apocalypse, “I saw not any temple therein.” (Rev 21:22) Lectio 2 Lecture 2 5 Adhuc eo loquente, ecce nubes lucida obumbravit eos. Et ecce vox de nube, dicens: Hic est Filius meus dilectus, in quo mihi bene complacui: ipsum audite. 5. While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him.” 6 Et audientes discipuli ceciderunt in faciem suam, et timuerunt valde. 6. And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. 7 Et accessit Iesus, et tetigit eos: dixitque eis: Surgite, et nolite timere. 7. And Jesus came and touched them, and said, “Arise, and be not afraid.” 8 Levantes autem oculos suos, neminem viderunt, nisi solum Iesum. 8. And when they had lifted up their eyes, they saw no man, save Jesus only. 9 Et descendentibus illis de monte, praecepit eis Iesus, dicens: Nemini dixeritis visionem, donec Filius hominis a mortuis resurgat. 9. And as they came down from the mountain, Jesus charged them, saying, “Tell the vision to no man, until the Son of man be risen again from the dead.” Hieronymus Qui carnale e frondibus aut tentoriis quaerebant tabernaculum, nubis lucidae operiuntur umbraculo; unde dicitur adhuc eo loquente, ecce nubes lucida obumbravit eos. Jerome While they thought only of an earthly tabernacle of boughs or tents, they are overshadowed by the covering of a bright cloud; “While he yet spake there came a bright cloud and overshadowed them. Chrysostomus in Matth Cum dominus comminatur, nubem tenebrosam ostendit, sicut in Sina; hic autem quia non terrere volebat, sed docere, nubes apparuit lucida. Chrys. When the Lord threatens, He shows a dark cloud, as on Sinai; but here where He sought not to terrify but to teach, there appeared a bright cloud. Origenes in Matth Lucida autem nubes obumbrans sanctos, est virtus paterna, vel forte Spiritus Sanctus: dicam etiam salvatorem nostrum esse lucidam nubem, quae obumbrat Evangelium et legem et prophetas; sicut intelligunt qui possunt aspicere lumen ipsius in praemissis. Origen The bright cloud overshadowing the Saints is the Power of the Father, or perhaps the Holy Spirit; or I may also venture to call the Savior that bright cloud which overshadows the Gospel, the Law, and the Prophets, as they understand who can behold His light in all these three. Hieronymus Quia vero imprudenter interrogaverat Petrus, propterea domini responsionem non meretur; sed pater respondet pro filio, ut verbum domini: qui me misit, ipse de me testimonium perhibet. Jerome Forasmuch as Peter had asked unwisely, he deserves not any answer; but the Father makes answer for the Son, that the Lord’s word might be fulfilled, “He that sent me, he beareth witness of me.” (John 5:37) Chrysostomus in Matth Neque autem Moyses loquitur, neque Elias, sed pater omnibus maior vocem emittit ex nube, ut discipuli credant quod a Deo vox erat. Semper enim apparere solet Deus in nube, sicut scriptum est: nubes et caligo in circuitu eius; et hoc est quod dicitur et ecce vox de nube. Chrys. Neither Moses, nor Elias speak, but the Father greater than all sends a voice out of the cloud, that the disciples might believe that this voice was from God. For God has ordinarily shown Himself in a cloud, as it is written, “Clouds and darkness are round about Him;” (Ps 97:2) and this is what is said, “Behold, a voice out of the cloud.” Hieronymus Vox quidem patris de caelo loquentis auditur, qui testimonium perhibeat filio, et Petrum, errore sublato, doceat veritatem; immo per Petrum ceteros apostolos: unde subdit dicens hic est filius meus dilectus: huic est faciendum tabernaculum, huic obtemperandum; hic est filius, illi servi sunt; debent et ipsi vobiscum in penetralibus cordis sui domino tabernaculum praeparare. Jerome The voice of the Father is heard speaking from heaven, giving testimony to the Son, and teaching Peter the truth, taking away his error, and through Peter the other disciples also; whence he proceeds, “This is my beloved Son.” For Him make the tabernacle, Him obey; this is the Son, they are but servants; and they also ought as you to make ready a tabernacle for the Lord in the inmost parts of their heart, Chrysostomus in Matth Ne igitur timeas, Petre. Si enim potens est Deus, manifestum quia et filius similiter potens est; si autem diligitur, ne timeas: nullus enim eum quem diligit prodit, nec tu aequaliter eum diligis genitori. Neque autem solum diligit eum quia genuit, sed quia unius est voluntatis cum ipso: sequitur enim in quo mihi complacui; ac si diceret: in quo requiesco, quem accepto, quia omnia quae sunt patris, cum diligentia exequitur, et est voluntas una ipsius et patris: quare et si crucifigi vult, non contradicas. Chrys. Fear not then, Peter; for if God is mighty, it is manifest that the Son is also mighty; wherefore if He is loved, fear not thou; for none forsakes Him whom He loves; nor dost thou love Him equally with the Father. Neither does He love Him merely because He begot Him, but because He is of one will with Himself; as it follows, “In whom I am well pleased;” which is to say, in whom I rest content, whom I accept, for all things of the Father He performs with care, and His will is one with the Father; so if He will to be crucified, do not then speak against it. Hilarius in Matth Hunc esse filium, hunc dilectum, hunc complacitum, sed et hunc audiendum, vox de nube significat, dicens ipsum audite: ut scilicet idoneus ipse praeceptorum talium auctor qui saeculi damnum, crucis voluntatem, obitum corporis, et post haec regni caelestis gloriam facti confirmasset exemplo. Hilary This is the Son, this the Beloved, this the Accepted; and He it is who is to be heard, as the voice out of the cloud signifies, saying, “Hear ye Him.” For He is a fit teacher of doing the things He has done, who has given the weight of His own example to the loss of the world, the joy of the cross, the death of the body, and after that the “glory” of the heavenly kingdom.