Lectio 1 Lecture 1 Instructio et sollicitudo Instruction and care 2:1 Volo enim vos scire qualem sollicitudinem habeam pro vobis, et pro iis qui sunt Laodiciae, et quicumque non viderunt faciem meam in carne: [n. 74] 2:1 For I would have you know what manner of care I have for you and for them that are at Laodicea and whosoever have not seen my face in the flesh: [n. 74] 2:2 ut consolentur corda ipsorum, instructi in caritate, et in omnes divitias plenitudinis intellectus, in agnitionem mysterii Dei Patris et Christi Jesu: [n. 77] 2:2 That their hearts may be consoled, being instructed in charity and unto all riches of fullness of understanding, unto the knowledge of the mystery of God the Father and of Christ Jesus: [n. 77] 2:3 in quo sunt omnes thesauri sapientiae et scientiae absconditi. [n. 81] 2:3 In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. [n. 81] 2:4 Hoc autem dico, ut nemo vos decipiat in sublimitate sermonum. [n. 83] 2:4 Now this I say, that no man may deceive you by loftiness of words. [n. 83] 74. Supra commendavit statum fidelium, qui est gratiae, et actorem, scilicet Christum, hic protegit eos contra contrariantia huic statui, et 74. Above, Paul commended the condition of those who believe, that is, their state of grace, and its author, Christ; here he protects them from what is opposed to this state. primo contra doctrinam corrumpentem; First, from teachings that destroy it; secundo contra perversos mores, III capite, ibi igitur si consurrexistis. and second, from evil habits, at therefore if you be risen with Christ (Col 3:1). Circa primum duo facit, quia In regard to the first he does two things. primo ostendit sollicitudinem de eorum statu; First, he shows his concern over their state; secundo tuetur eos contra malam doctrinam, ibi hoc autem dico. and second, he warns them against evil teachings, at now this I say. Iterum prima pars dividitur in tres particulas. Quia The first part is again divided. primo ponit sollicitudinem; First, he mentions his concern; secundo personas de quibus sollicitatur, ibi pro vobis; second, the persons about whom he is concerned, at for you; tertio de quo sit sollicitus, ibi ut consolentur. and third, the matter which concerns him, at that their hearts may be consoled. 75. Dicit ergo volo enim vos scire qualem habeam sollicitudinem, scilicet magnam. Et hoc pertinet ad bonum praelatum. Rom. XII, 8: qui praeest in sollicitudine. Lc. II, 8: pastores erant in eadem regione vigilantes et custodientes vigilias noctis supra gregem suum. 75. Paul says, for I would have you know what manner of care I have, that is, how great it is; and this is a mark of a good prelate: to govern others with concern (Rom 12:8); and in that region there were shepherds out in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night (Luke 2:8). 76. Et non solum pro a se conversis et sibi praesentibus, sed etiam pro aliis. Unde dicit pro vobis, scilicet quos non vidi corpore, sed mente, et non solum pro istis, sed etiam pro illis qui non viderunt, et cetera. Sollicitus quippe erat pro toto mundo. Sap. VIII, v. 24: in veste poderis Aaron totus erat orbis terrarum, et cetera. Sic in mente apostoli. II Cor. c. XI, 28: praeter ea quae extrinsecus sunt, instantia mea quotidiana sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum, et cetera. 76. His concern is not only for those whom he converted and who were with him, but also for others. And so he says, for you, whom I have not seen in person, but in my mind’s eye. And his concern is also for all whosoever have not seen my face in the flesh. In fact, Paul cared about the whole world: for upon his long robe the whole world was depicted (Wis 18:24); and, apart from other things, there is the daily pressure upon me of my anxiety for all of the churches (2 Cor 11:28). Sed de quibus magis sollicitatur? Respondeo, de non visis, quantum ad aliquid, quia nesciebat quid fieret circa eos, non autem simpliciter. But about whom was Paul most concerned? I answer that in a certain sense he was most concerned about those whom he could not see, because he did not know what was happening to them. But he was not concerned more about them in an absolute sense. 77. Deinde cum dicit ut consolentur, ostendit de quo sollicitus sit, scilicet de eorum consolatione. Et 77. Then when he says, that their hearts may be consoled, he shows what he is concerned about, that is, their consolation. primo hoc ponit; First, he mentions this; secundo, quomodo possit hoc haberi, ibi instructi. and second, he states how it can be brought about, at being instructed. 78. Dicit ergo ut consolentur, id est, per me habeant consolationem spiritualem, cuius consolationis factivum est bonum. Est enim factivum gaudii, ut qui tristatur de aliquo, consoletur de alio aeque bono. 78. Paul says, that their hearts might be consoled, that is, that by means of me they might have spiritual consolation. Such consolation is produced by what is good, for when one is sad over something, it is a source of joy to be consoled by something equally good. Duo autem sunt quae consolantur nos, scilicet meditatio sapientiae, Sap. VIII, 9: erit allocutio cogitationis et taedii mei. Aliud est oratio. Iac. V, 13: tristatur quis in vobis? Oret; aequo animo est? Psallat. Now there are two things that console us: meditation on wisdom: she would give me encouragement in cares and grief (Wis 8:9), and prayer: is any one of you sad? Let him pray (Jas 5:13). 79. Consequenter cum dicit instructi, etc., ponit specialiter sapientiae instructionem. 79. Then when he says, being instructed in charity, he mentions their instruction in wisdom. Duplex est hic littera, scilicet quae dicta est, et quae habetur in Glossa sic: ut consolentur corda ipsorum instructorum, etc., ad cognoscendum, et cetera. Et est idem sensus. There are two versions of this passage. First, the one we have here. Second, the one found in the Gloss: that the hearts of those instructed in love might be consoled, so that they might know the mystery of God, the Father, and of Jesus Christ. But the meaning is the same. Instructio ergo sapientiae consolatur contra mala temporalia. Debet autem hic esse instructus de via, et ideo dicit in caritate, quae scilicet est via ad Deum. I Cor. XII, 31: adhuc excellentiorem viam vobis demonstro, si linguis, et cetera. When one is instructed in wisdom, he is consoled against temporal evils. But here a person should be instructed about the way; and so Paul says, in charity, which is the way to God: I will show you a still more excellent way. If I should speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal (1 Cor 12:31). Instructi ergo in caritate qua Deus nos diligit, et qua nos eum diligimus. Utrumque enim nos consolatur, scilicet et quia dominus diligit nos. Gal. II, 20: vivo ego, et cetera. Et post: qui dilexit me et tradidit semetipsum pro me, et cetera. Eph. II, 4: dives in misericordia, propter nimiam caritatem suam, qua dilexit nos, et cetera. Item quia nos Deum diligimus, nos consolamur, quia consolatio est amici, si pro eo sustineat mala. Eccli. XXII, v. 31: et si evenerint mihi mala, propter illum sustinebo. Having been instructed in charity, that is, in the love with which God loves us, and in the love with which we love him; for we are consoled by each of these loves. We are consoled because God loves us: who loved me and gave himself for me (Gal 2:20); rich in mercy, out of the great love with which he loved us, even when we were dead through our trespasses, he made us alive together with Christ (Eph 2:4). And we are also consoled because we love God, for it is consoling to a friend of God to endure evils for his sake: if any evil happen to me because of him, I will bear it (Sir 22:31). 80. Et subdit et in omnes divitias, id est, in omni capacitate. 80. And Paul continues, and unto all riches, that is, to the extent of their capacity. Intellectus enim noster est in potentia ad aliquid cognoscendum; sed intellectus angeli in sua creatione impletus est scientia intelligibilium. Et ideo oportet quod nostro intellectui humano superveniat scientia, vel per disciplinam: sed haec est insufficiens, quia numquam aliquid tantum potest sciri sic, quod capacitatem eius impleat; vel per revelationem divinam et donum Dei: et haec est sufficiens. Eccli. XV, 5: implevit eum dominus spiritu sapientiae et intellectus, et cetera. Et ideo dicit plenitudinis intellectus, id est, in copiam. Sap. VIII, 5: quid sapientia locupletius? Is. XXXIII, 6: divitiae salutis sapientia et scientia. Our intellect is in potency to know things, while the intellect of the angel was filled at its creation with a knowledge of understandable things. And so our human intellect must acquire its knowledge; and it does this either by study (and this is insufficient, because a thing can never be known so well so that it fulfills the capacity of our intellect); or it acquires its knowledge by a divine revelation and as a gift from God: and this is sufficient. She will feed him with the bread of understanding, and give him the water of wisdom to drink (Sir 15:3). And so he says, of fullness of understanding, that is, of an understanding in abundance: what is richer than wisdom? (Wis 8:5); the riches of salvation are wisdom and knowledge (Isa 33:6). Instructi ergo in copia divinae sapientiae, quae copia implet intellectum. Et hoc habebimus cognoscendo Deum. Et ideo dicit in agnitionem mysterii, etc., id est, ad cognoscendum veritatem sacramenti huius occulti, scilicet quod Deus sit Pater Iesu Christi. Vel mysterii Dei Patris, quod est Christus. In short, they are to be instructed with such an abundance of divine wisdom that it fulfills the capacity of their intellect. We will have this abundance of divine wisdom by knowing God; and so Paul says, unto the knowledge of the mystery of God the Father, that is, to know the truth of this mystery which had been hidden, which is that God is the Father of Jesus Christ. Or, we could say, the mystery of God the Father, which mystery is Christ. Ideo dicitur Matth. XI, 25 de apostolis: abscondisti haec a sapientibus et prudentibus, et revelasti ea parvulis. Vel in agnitione aeternae generationis et incarnationis Christi. Sap. VI, c. 16: cogitare ergo de illa sensus est consummatus. Augustinus: beatus qui te novit, infelix qui te non novit. Per cognitionem Dei habet homo omnem plenitudinem. Io. c. XVII, 3: haec est vita aeterna, ut cognoscant te solum verum Deum, et cetera. And so Matthew says about the apostles: you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding and revealed them to babes (Matt 11:25). Or, we will have this abundance of the divine wisdom by our knowledge of the eternal generation and of the Incarnation of Christ: to fix one’s thought on her is perfect understanding (Wis 6:15). As Augustine says, happy are those who know you, and unhappy those who do not. It is by knowing God that man has all fullness: this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent (John 17:3). 81. Sed numquid per cognitionem Christi impletur intellectus? Respondeo sic, quia in eo sunt omnes thesauri, et cetera. Deus habet omnium rerum notitiam, et haec notitia comparatur thesauro. Sap. VII, 14: infinitus enim est thesaurus hominibus, et cetera. 81. But is our intellect filled by knowing Christ? I say that it is because in him are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. God has a knowledge of all things, and this knowledge is called a treasure: it is an unfailing treasure for men; those who get it obtain friendship with God (Wis 7:14). Thesaurus est divitiae congregatae, sed effusae non dicuntur thesaurus, sed quae in uno sunt. Deus enim sapientiam suam sparsit super omnia opera sua, Eccli. I, 10. Et secundum hoc non habet rationem thesauri, sed secundum quod huiusmodi rationes uniuntur in uno, scilicet sapientia divina, et omnes huiusmodi thesauri sunt in Christo. Sapientia enim est cognitio divinorum, scientia vero est creaturarum cognitio. Quicquid autem de Deo potest sciri pertinens ad sapientiam, totum Deus abundanter in se cognoscit. Item, quicquid potest cognosci de creaturis, cognoscit in se supereminenter. Quicquid autem in sapientia Dei est, est in Verbo suo uno, quia uno simplici actu intellectus cognoscit omnia, quia in eo non est scientia in potentia nec in habitu. Et ideo in isto Verbo sunt omnes thesauri, et cetera. Now a treasure is a collection of riches; they are not called a treasure when scattered about, but only when collected in one place. God has poured out his wisdom upon all his works (Sir 1:10); from this point of view his wisdom does not have the nature of a treasure. But his wisdom is a treasure when the ideas behind all his works are considered collected together, that is, in the divine wisdom. And all such treasures are in Christ. Wisdom is the knowledge of divine things, and science is the knowledge of created things. Now whatever can be known about God, which pertains to wisdom, God knows in himself, and exhaustively. And likewise, whatever can be known about created things, God knows in himself, and in an super-eminent way. Now whatever is in the wisdom of God is in his single Word, because he knows all things by one simple act of his intellect, for in God knowledge is neither in potency nor in a habitual state. And thus in this Word are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. 82. Sed addit absconditi, quia quod mihi aliquid absconditur, contingit dupliciter, scilicet vel propter debilitatem intellectus mei, vel propter velamen oppositum, sicut quis non videt candelam, vel quia caecus est, vel velata est. Ita in Verbo Dei sunt omnes thesauri sapientiae et scientiae, sed absconditi nobis qui non habemus limpidos oculos, sed lippos, Io. XII, 35: adhuc modicum lumen in vobis est, et quia est velatum duplici velamine, scilicet creaturae, quia intellectus noster nunc ad illam cognitionem non potest nisi per similitudinem creaturarum. Rom. I, v. 20: invisibilia Dei per ea quae facta sunt intellecta conspiciuntur, et cetera. Secundo est velatum in carne, Io. I, 14: et Verbum caro factum est. Et si aliquid videmus de Deo, non tamen totum. Is. XLV, 15: vere tu es absconditus. Num. XX, 6: aperi eis thesaurum tuum. 82. He adds that these treasures are hid, because there are two reasons why something might be hidden from me: either because my intellect is weak, or because the thing is somehow covered. Thus, a person may not see a candle either because he is blind, or because the candle has been covered. And so, in the Word of God there are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, but they are hid from us because our eyes are not clear but bleary: a little light is in you (John 12:35); and they are hid because they are covered with two veils: the veil of creatures, because at this time our intellect cannot come to this knowledge except through the likeness of creatures: ever since the creation of the world his invisible nature, namely, his eternal power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made (Rom 1:20); and the veil of the flesh: the Word became flesh (John 1:14). And even if we do know something about God, yet we do not see all: truly, you are a God who hides yourself (Isa 45:15); open your treasure for him (Num 20:6). Ponamus quod aliquis habeat candelam velatam, non quaereret aliunde lumen; sed potius quod habitum ab eo reveletur, et ideo non oportet sapientiam quaerere nisi in Christo. I Cor. II, 2: non existimavi me aliquid scire, nisi Christum Iesum, et cetera. Et I Io. III, v. 2: cum apparuerit, id est, revelabitur, similes ei erimus, scilicet omnia scientes; sicut qui haberet librum ubi esset tota scientia, non quaereret nisi ut sciret illum librum, sic et nos non oportet amplius quaerere nisi Christum. Let us suppose that a person has a candle that is covered; he would not look then for another light, but wait for the light he has to become uncovered. And in the same way we do not have to look for wisdom anywhere but in Christ: for I decided to know nothing among you except Jesus Christ and him crucified (1 Cor 2:2). When he appears, that is, is revealed, we shall be like him, that is, knowing all things (1 John 3:2). In other words, if I had a book in which all knowledge was contained, I would seek to know only that book; similarly, it is not necessary for us to seek any further than Christ.