Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Ambulate in Christo Walk in Christ 2:5 Nam etsi corpore absens sum, sed spiritu vobiscum sum: gaudens, et videns ordinem vestrum, et firmamentum ejus, quae in Christo est, fidei vestrae. [n. 86] 2:5 For though I be absent in body, yet in spirit I am with you, rejoicing, and beholding your order and the steadfastness of your faith which is in Christ. [n. 86] 2:6 Sicut ergo accepistis Jesum Christum Dominum, in ipso ambulate, [n. 89] 2:6 As therefore you have received Jesus Christ the Lord, walk in him: [n. 89] 2:7 radicati, et superaedificati in ipso, et confirmati fide, sicut et didicistis, abundantes in illo in gratiarum actione. 2:7 Rooted and built up in him and confirmed in the faith, as also you have learned: abounding in him in thanksgiving. 2:8 Videte ne quis vos decipiat per philosophiam, et inanem fallaciam secundum traditionem hominum, secundum elementa mundi, et non secundum Christum: [n. 90] 2:8 Beware lest any man cheat you by philosophy and vain deceit: according to the tradition of men, according to the elements of the world and not according to Christ. [n. 90] 2:9 quia in ipso inhabitat omnis plenitudo divinitatis corporaliter: [n. 95] 2:9 For in him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead corporeally. [n. 95] 2:10 et estis in illo repleti, qui est caput omnis principatus et potestatis: [n. 99] 2:10 And you are filled in him, who is the head of all principality and power. [n. 99] 86. Supra monuit ne per aliquam fallaciam sermonis decidant a fide, hic ponit rationem monitionis, quae sumitur ex bonis quae in istis erant, quae non debebant perdere, sed proficere in eis. Et 86. Above, he warned them against falling away from the faith as a result of some deceptive language; here he gives the reason for this advice, which is based on the good things they have and should not destroy, but allow to grow. primo commemorat bona habita; First, he calls to mind the goods which they have; secundo ostendit quomodo in eis proficiant, ibi sicut ergo. and second, he shows how these should grow within them, at as therefore. Circa primum duo facit; quia In regard to the first, he does two things. primo ostendit qualiter sunt sibi nota bona eorum; First, he shows how he happens to know about the good things they have; secundo quae bona in eis sunt, ibi gaudens. second, he mentions what these goods are, at rejoicing. 87. Dicit ergo nam et si, etc.; quasi dicat: licet non praedicaverim vobis, nec vestra facta oculis videam, tamen spiritus vobis intersum per affectionem gaudens de bonis vestris. I Cor. V, 3: absens quidem corpore, praesens vero spiritu. Prov. X, 1: filius sapiens laetificat patrem, et cetera. Et hoc quia revelabatur sibi per Spiritum Sanctum, et ideo dicit sed spiritu vobiscum sum. IV Reg. V, v. 26: nonne cor meum in praesenti erat, quando reversus est homo de curru in occursum tui, et cetera. 87. Paul says, for though I be absent in body. He is here saying, in effect, that although I have not preached to you, nor do I see with my own eyes what you have accomplished, yet I am with you in spirit through my love, rejoicing in your blessings: for though absent in body I am present in spirit (1 Cor 5:3); a wise son makes a glad father (Prov 10:1). And this because it was revealed to him by the Holy Spirit; and so he says, yet in spirit I am with you. Did I not go with you in spirit when the man turned from his chariot to meet you? (2 Kgs 5:26). 88. Gaudens, inquam, sum, quia videns sum ordinem, id est, ordinatam vestram conversationem. I Cor. XIV, 40: omnia honeste et secundum ordinem fiant in vobis. Iud. V, v. 20: stellae manentes in ordine et cursu suo, et cetera. Et firmamentum, et cetera. II Tim. II, v. 19: firmum fundamentum Dei stat, et cetera. Et hoc in Christo. Eph. III, 17: habitare Christum per fidem in cordibus vestris, et cetera. Ecclesia enim est spirituale aedificium. Eph. c. II, 21: in quo omnis aedificatio constructa crescit in templum sanctum in domino. Huius autem bonitas consistit in debito fundamento, quod est fides, et in debita superaedificatione. Et ideo haec duo posuit. 88. Rejoicing, I say, because I am beholding your order, that is, your well-ordered way of life: all things should be done decently and in order (1 Cor 14:40); the stars remaining in their order and courses fought against Sisera (Judg 5:20). And the steadfastness of your faith: God’s firm foundation stands (2 Tim 2:19). And this in Christ: that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith, rooted and founded in love (Eph 3:17); in whom the whole structure is joined together and grows into a holy temple in the Lord (Eph 2:21). The goodness of this temple consists in its firm foundation, which is faith, and in a proper superstructure; and that is why he mentioned these two. 89. Deinde cum dicit sicut ergo, etc., monet eos ad haec servanda. Et primo ad proficiendum, secundo ad persistendum, tertio ad gratias agendum. 89. Then, when he says, as therefore, he urges them to protect these goods: first, by advancing in them; second, by their perseverance; and third, by giving thanks. Dicit ergo sicut accepistis Christum dominum nostrum, non pervertendo, in ipso ambulate. Rom. XII, 9: adhaerentes bono. Ecclesia quandoque comparatur spirituali aedificio. I Cor. III, 17: templum Dei sanctum est, quod estis vos. Quandoque arbori, quia fert fructum. Et eadem est comparatio fundamenti ad domum, et radicis ad arborem, quia utriusque firmitas est radix et fundamentum: Christus. Is. XI, 10: erit radix Iesse quae stat in signum populorum. I Cor. III, v. 11: fundamentum aliud nemo potest ponere praeter id quod positum est, quod est Christus Iesus. So he says, as therefore you have received Jesus Christ our Lord, not in a distorted way, walk in him. Hold fast to what is good (Rom 12:9). Sometimes the Church is compared to a spiritual building: God’s temple is holy, and that temple you are (1 Cor 3:17). At other times it is compared to a tree, because it produces fruit. Now the foundation of a building is related to the building as the roots of a tree are related to the tree, because the foundation and roots are the source of strength; and this source is Christ. In that day the root of Jesse shall stand as an ensign to the peoples (Isa 11:10); for no other foundation can anyone lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ (1 Cor 3:11). Ideo dicit radicati, scilicet sicut boni rami, et superaedificati in ipso, et confirmati, scilicet sicut boni lapides, hoc est si perstiteritis in fide eius. I Petr. ult.: adversarius vester, etc., et post: cui resistite fortes in fide, et cetera. Et hoc sicut didicistis, scilicet in vera fide. Gal. I, 9: si quis vobis evangelizaverit praeter id quod accepistis, anathema sit, et cetera. Abundantes in illo in gratiarum actione, id est, gratias agentes abundanter. I Thess. ult.: in omnibus gratias agite. II Mach. c. I, 11: de magnis periculis a Deo liberati, magnifice gratias agimus ipsi, et cetera. So Paul uses the expression, rooted, like good branches, and built up in him and confirmed, like good stones. And they will be like this if they persevere in the faith. Your adversary, the devil, prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour (1 Pet 5:8); and the text continues: resist him, firm in your faith. They are to live in Christ just as also you have learned, that is, in the true faith: if any one is preaching to you a gospel contrary to that which you received, let him be accursed (Gal 1:9). Abounding in him in thanksgiving, giving many thanks: giving thanks in all circumstances (1 Thess 5:18); having been saved by God out of grave dangers, we give him great thanks (2 Macc 1:11) . 90. Deinde cum dicit videte, monet ne decipiantur per vanam sapientiam. Et 90. Then, when he says, beware, he warns them not to be deceived by an empty wisdom. primo ponit monitionem, First, we see his warning; secundo rationem, ibi in ipso. and second, the reason for it, at for in him. Circa primum, primo docet vitare quod potest decipere; In regard to the first, he first teaches them to avoid whatever can deceive them; secundo ostendit quare illud decipiat, ibi secundum traditionem. and second, the source of this deception, at according to the tradition. 91. Sed quod aliquis decipiatur per sapientiam saecularem, dupliciter contingit, scilicet quandoque per principia realia philosophiae, quandoque per sophisticas rationes. Et utrasque docet cavere. Unde dicit ne quis, etc., id est, per philosophica documenta. Is. c. XLVII, 10: sapientia tua et scientia haec decepit te. Multi enim sunt propter philosophiam decepti a fide deviantes. Ier. X, 14: stultus est factus omnis homo a scientia sua. 91. A person can be deceived by worldly wisdom in two ways, that is, sometimes by the real principles of philosophy, and sometimes by fallacious arguments. And Paul teaches them to beware of both: beware lest any man cheat you by philosophy, that is, by philosophical teachings: your wisdom and your knowledge led you astray (Isa 47:10). For there are many who have turned from the faith after having been deceived by philosophy: man has become foolish in his knowledge (Jer 10:14). Quantum ad secundum dicit et inanem fallaciam, quae non fundatur nisi super apparenti involutione verborum. Eph. V, 6: nemo vos seducat inanibus verbis. As regards to the second way to be deceived he says, and vain deceit, which is based on the way words are used: let no one deceive you with empty words (Eph 5:6). 92. Sed quomodo seducens? Qui seducit, oportet habere aliquid apparens, et aliquid non existens. Ideo primo ponit principium apparentiae; secundo defectum existentiae. Principium apparentiae est duplex, id est, auctoritas philosophorum et quantum ad hoc dicit secundum traditionem hominum, id est, secundum ea quae aliqui tradiderunt propria ratione. Ps. XCIII, 11: Dominus scit cogitationes hominum, quoniam vanae sunt. 92. But how are they being deceived? One who deceives another must have something which seems reasonable, and something which is not really so. So first Paul shows the basis of this seeming reasonableness. It is based on two things, the first being the authority of the philosophers. And about this he says, according to the tradition of men, that is, according to what is handed down by some, basing themselves on their own judgment: the Lord knows the thoughts of man, that they are but a breath (Ps 94:11). Aliud est adinventio rationis, quando scilicet aliquis vult metiri ea quae sunt fidei, secundum principia rerum et non secundum sapientiam divinam. Ex hoc enim multi decipiuntur. Et ideo dicit secundum elementa mundi, et cetera. Sap. XIII, 1: neque operibus attendentes cognoverunt quis esset artifex, et cetera. The second source of an apparent reasonableness are the contrivances of reason, that is, when a person wishes to measure or judge about the things of faith according to the principles of things, and not by divine wisdom. And many are deceived in this way. And so Paul says, they should not be deceived by those judging according to the elements of the world and not according to Christ: they were unable from the good things that are seen to know him who exists (Wis 13:1). Quanto enim causa est altior, tanto habet superiorem effectum. Unde qui voluerit considerare effectus superiores secundum causas inferiores, decipitur; ut si quis consideret motum aquae secundum virtutem aquae, non potest scire causam refluxus maris, sed sic, si consideret eum secundum virtutem lunae. Unde multo magis decipitur qui considerat proprios Dei effectus secundum elementa mundi. Et haec est causa apparentiae. Now the higher a cause is, the more superior is its effect. And so those who wish to investigate certain effects in terms of causes that are inferior are deceived. For example, if one were to consider the movement of water in terms of the power of water, he would not be able to know the cause of the tides of the sea; to do this he would have to consider water in terms of the power of the moon. Thus, those people are even more deceived who consider the proper effects of God in terms of the elements of the world. And this is the reason for the seeming plausibility of what they say. 93. Sed numquid sunt semper respuendae traditiones hominum et rationes? 93. But are not the traditions and reasonings of men always to be spurned? Respondeo: non, sed tunc quando procedit physica ratio secundum illas, et non secundum Christum. Infra eodem: non tenentes caput ex quo totum corpus per nexus et coniunctiones subministratum et constructum crescit in augmentum Dei. I respond: no, but only when natural reasoning proceeds according to them, and not according to Christ. As it says below: and not holding the head, from which the whole body, by joints and bands, being supplied with nourishment and compacted, grows into the increase of God (Col 2:19). 94. Vel potest exponi secundum elementa mundi, mensurando scilicet veritatem fidei secundum veritatem creaturarum. Vel hoc dicit propter idololatras colentes idola, et dicentes Iovem caelum. Vel secundum Iudaeos, ut sit sensus per philosophiam, id est, per rationem volentium trahere ad legalia, secundum elementa mundi, id est secundum observationes corporales. Gal. IV, 3: sub elementis mundi eramus servientes. Sed prima expositio est melior. 94. Or, we could say that according to the elements of the universe means, by measuring the truth of faith according to the truth of creatures. Or perhaps Paul said this referring to the idolaters who were worshiping idols and saying that Jupiter was the heavens. Or, Paul was referring to the Jewish people, and then the text is understood this way: by philosophy, by the reasoning of those who were trying to convince them to observe the ceremonies of the law, and these, according to the elements of the world, that is, according to the bodily observances: we were slaves to the elements of the world (Gal 4:3). But our first explanation is better. 95. Deinde cum dicit quia in ipso, etc., ponit rationem praedictorum, dicens: quidquid non est secundum Christum, respuendum est. Sed numquid est Christus tantus, ut pro eo omnia respui debeant? Et respondet quod ita: quod ostendit tripliciter. 95. Then when he says, for in him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead corporeally, he gives the reason for what he has just stated, saying that whatever is not according to Christ should be rejected. But is Christ so good that all things should be rejected for him? He answers that he is, and shows it in three ways: Primo per comparationem ad divinitatem; first, by considering his divinity; secundo per comparationem ad fideles, ibi et estis; second, by his relationship to those who believe, at and you are filled; tertio per comparationem ad angelos, ibi qui est caput. and third, by his relationship to the angels, at who is the head.