Lectio 3 Lecture 3 Omnia in nomine Christi All in the name of Christ 3:12 Induite vos ergo, sicut electi Dei, sancti, et dilecti, viscera misericordiae, benignitatem, humilitatem, modestiam, patientiam: [n. 157] 3:12 Put on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, the heart of mercy, benignity, humility, modesty, patience: [n. 157] 3:13 supportantes invicem, et donantes vobismetipsis si quis adversus aliquem habet querelam: sicut et Dominus donavit vobis, ita et vos. [n. 161] 3:13 Bearing with one another and forgiving one another, if any have a complaint against another. Even as the Lord has forgiven you, so do you also. [n. 161] 3:14 Super omnia autem haec, caritatem habete, quod est vinculum perfectionis: [n. 162] 3:14 But above all these things have charity, which is the bond of perfection. [n. 162] 3:15 et pax Christi exsultet in cordibus vestris, in qua et vocati estis in uno corpore: et grati estote. [n. 164] 3:15 And let the peace of Christ rejoice in your hearts, wherein also you are called in one body: and be thankful. [n. 164] 3:16 Verbum Christi habitet in vobis abundanter, in omni sapientia, docentes, et commonentes vosmetipsos, psalmis, hymnis, et canticis spiritualibus, in gratia cantantes in cordibus vestris Deo. [n. 165] 3:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you abundantly: in all wisdom, teaching and admonishing one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual canticles, singing in grace in your hearts to God. [n. 165] 3:17 Omne, quodcumque facitis in verbo aut in opere, omnia in nomine Domini Jesu Christi, gratias agentes Deo et Patri per ipsum. [n. 170] 3:17 All whatsoever you do in word or in work, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, giving thanks to God and the Father by him. [n. 170] 157. Supra Apostolus induxit fideles ad vitandum mala, hic inducit eos ad operandum bona, et 157. Above, the Apostle urged the faithful to avoid evil, and here he urges them to accomplish what is good: primo ad opera particularium virtutum; first, he urges the acts of the particular virtues; secundo ad opera virtutum principalium perficientium animas, ibi super omnia. Et and second, the acts of those principal virtues that perfect the others, at but above all. primo commemorat eorum conditionem; First, he reminds them of their present condition; secundo subdit virtutum connumerationem, ibi viscera misericordiae. second, he gives a list of the virtues, at the heart of mercy. 158. Dicit ergo: si induistis novum hominem, debetis induere novi hominis partes, scilicet virtutes. Rom. XIII, 12: abiiciamus ergo opera tenebrarum, et induamur arma lucis, quibus induimur, quando quicquid exterius apparet, est virtutibus ornatum. 158. Paul says: if you have put on the new self, you should put on the parts of the new self, that is, the virtues: let us then cast off the works of darkness and put on the armor of light (Rom 13:12). We put these on when our exterior actions are made pleasing by the virtues. Sed quibus virtutibus? Aliter induuntur milites, aliter sacerdotes. Ergo induite vobis convenientia vestimenta, sicut electi Dei sancti. Et quod dicit electi, pertinet ad remotionem a malo; quod dicit sancti, ad donum gratiae. I Cor. VI, 11: abluti estis, sed sanctificati estis. Lev. XI, 44 et XIX, 2: sancti estote, quia ego sanctus sum Dominus Deus vester. Quod dicit dilecti, pertinet ad praeparationem futurae gloriae. Io. XIII, 1: in finem dilexit eos, scilicet vitae aeternae. But which virtues? Some things are appropriate for soldiers, other things for priests. Put on then what is appropriate for yourself, as the elect of God, holy and beloved. When he says elect, this refers to the taking away of evil; and holy refers to the gift of grace. But you were washed, you were sanctified (1 Cor 6:11); you shall be holy; for I the Lord your God am holy (Lev 19:2; 11:44). When he says beloved, he is referring to their preparation for future glory: he loved them to the end, that is, of eternal life (John 13:1). 159. Et describit hic vestimenta quae protegunt nos in adversis et prosperis, II Cor. c. VI, 7: per arma iustitiae a dextris et a sinistris. Et 159. Then, he describes what we are to put on and which will protect us in good times and in bad times: with the weapons of righteousness for the right hand and for the left (2 Cor 6:7). primo quae habenda in prosperis; First, he mentions what we must have in prosperity; secundo quae in adversis, ibi patientiam. and second, in times of adversity, at patience. 160. In prosperis aliquid debemus, et, primo, proximo misericordiam. Et ideo dicit viscera misericordiae. Lc. I, 78: per viscera misericordiae Dei nostri, et cetera. Phil. II, v. 1: si qua viscera miserationis, etc., id est, misericordiam ex affectu procedentem. 160. When times are good we owe compassion or mercy to our neighbor; and so Paul says, the heart of mercy: through the tender mercy of our God, when the day shall dawn upon us from on high (Luke 1:78); if there is any affection and sympathy (Phil 2:1), that is, compassion springing from love. Ad omnes vero consequenter est habenda benignitas, quae est quasi bona igneitas. Ignis enim liquefacit et effluere facit humida. Si in te est bonus ignis, liquefacit quicquid humiditatis habes, et dissolvet. Hanc facit Spiritus Sanctus. Sap. I, 6: benignus est spiritus sapientiae. Eph. IV, 32: estote autem invicem benigni, misericordes et cetera. Second, we must show benignity to all. Benignity is like a good fire. For fire melts and thaws what is moist, and if there is a good fire in you it will melt and thaw what is moist. It is the Holy Spirit who does this: the Spirit of wisdom is kind (Wis 1:6); be kind to one another (Eph 4:32). In corde debes habere humilitatem. Eccli. c. III, 20: quanto magnus es, humilia te in omnibus, et cetera. Lowliness or humility should be found in your hearts: the greater you are, the more you must humble yourself (Sir 3:20). In exterioribus debes modestiam, quae ponit modum ne in prosperis excedas. Phil. III: gaudete in domino semper, iterum dico, gaudete; modestia vestra nota sit omnibus hominibus. In external matters you should practice modesty, which consists in a certain limit, so that you do not go to extremes in times of prosperity: let all men know of your moderation (Phil 4:4-5). 161. In adversis tria sunt arma habenda, scilicet patientia, quae facit quod animus propter adversa non amoveatur ab amore Dei et rectitudine iustitiae. Lc. XXI, 19: in patientia vestra possidebitis animas vestras. 161. In the bad times of adversity three kinds of armor are necessary. First, patience, which keeps the soul from giving up the love of God and what is right because of difficulties: you will save your souls by patience (Luke 21:19). Sed quia quandoque contingit quod aliquis a iustitia non declinat quantum est de se, tamen aliorum mores sunt ei importabiles, ideo dicit supportantes invicem. II Petr. II, 8: habitans apud eos qui de die in diem iustam animam iniquis operibus cruciabant. Rom. XV, v. 1: debemus nos firmiores imbecillitates infirmorum sustinere. Sometimes it happens that a person does what is right if he alone is involved, yet he finds that the traits of other persons are insufferable; and to these he says, bearing with one another: for by what that righteous man saw and heard as he lived among them, he was vexed in his righteous soul day after day with their lawless deeds (2 Pet 2:8); we who are strong ought to bear with the failings of the weak, and not to please ourselves (Rom 15:1). Tertio condonationem, ibi et donantes, etc., id est parcentes. II Cor. II, 10: nam et ego quod donavi, si quid donavi, propter vos in persona Christi. Condonat autem quis iniuriam, quando non habet rancorem ad eum, nec malum contra ipsum procurat. Sed quando necessitas puniendi est, tunc puniendus est. Third, the armor of pardon is necessary, and so he says, forgiving one another: what I have forgiven, if I have forgiven anything, has been for your sake in the presence of Christ (2 Cor 2:10). One forgives an injury when he does not hold a grudge against the person who did it to him, and does not injure him in return. Still, when punishment is necessary, the person committing the injury must be punished. Et addit rationem sicut et Dominus donavit vobis. Eccli. XXVIII, 3: homo homini servat iram, et a Deo quaerit medelam, et cetera. Matth. XVIII, 32: omne debitum dimisi tibi, etc.; et post: nonne ergo oportuit et te misereri conservi tui, sicut, et cetera. Paul adds the reason why they should forgive, even as the Lord has forgiven you: does a man harbor anger against another, and yet seek for healing from the Lord? (Sir 28:3); I forgave you all that debt because you besought me (Matt 18:32), and then he continues, and should not you have had mercy on your fellow servant, as I had mercy on you? 162. Deinde cum dicit super omnia, etc., inducit ad principales virtutes perficientes alias. Et principalior est caritas inter virtutes, sapientia vero inter dona. Caritas quidem informat omnes virtutes, sapientia vero dirigit. 162. Then when Paul says, but above all these things have charity, he urges them to practice the principal virtues, which perfect the others. Among the virtues, the love of charity holds first place; while among the gifts, wisdom is first. For love is the soul of all the virtues, while wisdom directs them. Primo igitur inducit ad primum; First, he leads them to the practice of love; secundo ad secundum, ibi verbum Christi. and second to wisdom, at let the word of Christ. Primo inducit ad caritatem habendam, First, he urges them to possess the love of charity; secundo ad caritatis effectus, ibi et pax. second, to possess the effects of this love, at and let the peace. 163. Dicit ergo: super omnia induatis caritatem, quae omnibus praedictis maior est, ut dicitur I Cor. XIII, 13. Super omnia, id est, magis quam omnia, quia est finis omnium virtutum. I Tim. I, 5: finis autem praecepti est caritas, et cetera. Vel super omnia debemus habere caritatem, quia est super omnia alia. I Cor. XI: adhuc excellentiorem viam vobis demonstro, et cetera. Et hoc quia sine ipsa nihil valent alia. Et haec caritas figuratur per tunicam inconsutilem Io. c. XIX, 23. 163. So Paul says, but above all these things have charity, which is greater than all the virtues mentioned above (1 Cor 13:13). Above all these things, that is, more than all the others, because love is the end of all the virtues: the end of the commandment is love (1 Tim 1:5). Or we could say, above all these things we should have love, because it is above all the rest: I will show you a still more excellent way (1 Cor 12:31). Love is above all the rest because without it the others are of no value. This love is the seamless tunic mentioned by John (John 19:23). Et ratio huius quare est habenda, subditur, scilicet quia est vinculum. Secundum Glossam per omnes virtutes homo perficitur, sed caritas connectit eas ad invicem, et facit eas perseverantes, et ideo dicitur vinculum. Vel ex natura sua est vinculum, quia est amor, qui est uniens amatum amanti. Os. c. XI, 4: in funiculis Adam traham eos, in vinculis caritatis, et cetera. Sed addit perfectionis, quia est unumquodque perfectum, quando adhaeret fini ultimo, scilicet Deo, quod facit caritas. The reason we need this love is because it is the bond of perfection. According to the Gloss, all the virtues perfect man, but love unites them to each other and makes them permanent; and this is why it is said to bind. Or, it is said to bind because it is the bond of its very nature, for love unites the beloved to the lover: I led them with cords of compassion, with the bands of love (Hos 11:4). He says, perfection, because a thing is perfect when it holds firmly to its ultimate end; and love does this. 164. Deinde cum dicit et pax, etc., monet ad actus caritatis. Et ponit duos actus, scilicet pacem et gratitudinem, et tertium innuit, scilicet gaudium. 164. Then when he says and let the peace, he urges them to acts of love. He mentions two of these acts, peace and thankfulness, and implies a third, joy. Dicit ergo et pax Christi, et cetera. Ex caritate mox oritur pax quae est, secundum Augustinum, tranquillitas ordinis, sibi a Deo instituti, quod facit caritas. Qui enim aliquem diligit, concordat cum eo in voluntate. Ps. CXVIII, 165: pax multa diligentibus legem tuam. He says, and let the peace of Christ rejoice in your hearts. An immediate effect of the love of charity is peace, which is, as Augustine comments, that composure or calmness of order produced in a person by God. Love does this, because when one loves another he harmonizes his will with the other: great peace have those who love your law (Ps 119:165). Exultet, quia caritatis effectus est gaudium, quod sequitur ex pace. Prov. XII, 20: qui pacis ineunt consilia, sequitur eos gaudium. Sed non dicit simpliciter pax, quia est pax mundi, quam Deus non venit facere, sed Christi, quam fecit inter Deum et hominem. Mc. IX, 49: pacem habete inter vos; quam annuntiavit Lc. ult. stetit Iesus in medio eorum, et dixit eis: pax vobis. Et debetis habere, quia in ista vocati estis. I Cor. VIII: in pace vocavit nos Deus. Et hoc est quod subdit in uno corpore, id est, ut sitis in uno corpore. He says rejoice, because the effect of this love is joy, and this joy follows peace: joy follows those who take counsels of peace (Prov 12:20). Paul does not merely say peace, because there is a peace of this world which God did not come to bring. He says, the peace of Christ, the peace Christ established between God and man. Have peace among you (Mark 9:49), which he announced: Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them: peace to you (Luke 24:36). And you should have this peace, because it is the peace wherein also you are called. God has called us to peace (1 Cor 7:15). He adds, in one body, that is, that you may be in one body.