Praecepta ad proximos
Precepts towards neighbors
3:18 Mulieres, subditae estote viris, sicut oportet, in Domino. [n. 171]
3:18 Wives, be subject to your husbands, as it behooves in the Lord. [n. 171]
3:19 Viri, diligite uxores vestras, et nolite amari esse ad illas. [n. 173]
3:19 Husbands, love your wives and be not bitter towards them. [n. 173]
3:20 Filii, obedite parentibus per omnia: hoc enim placitum est in Domino. [n. 174]
3:20 Children, obey your parents in all things: for this is well pleasing to the Lord. [n. 174]
3:21 Patres, nolite ad indignationem provocare filios vestros, ut non pusillo animo fiant. [n. 175]
3:21 Fathers, provoke not your children to indignation, lest they be discouraged. [n. 175]
3:22 Servi, obedite per omnia dominis carnalibus, non ad oculum servientes, quasi hominibus placentes, sed in simplicitate cordis, timentes Deum. [n. 176]
3:22 Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh: not serving to the eye, as pleasing men: but in simplicity of heart, fearing God. [n. 176]
3:23 Quodcumque facitis, ex animo operamini sicut Domino, et non hominibus:
3:23 Whatsoever you do, do it from the heart, as to the Lord, and not to men:
3:24 scientes quod a Domino accipietis retributionem haereditatis. Domino Christo servite. [n. 179]
3:24 Knowing that you shall receive of the Lord the reward of inheritance. Serve the Lord Christ. [n. 179]
3:25 Qui enim injuriam facit, recipiet id quod inique gessit: et non est personarum acceptio apud Deum.
3:25 For he that does wrong shall receive for that which he has done wrongfully. And there is no respect of persons with God.
4:1 Domini, quod justum est et aequum, servis praestate: scientes quod et vos Dominum habetis in caelo. [n. 180]
4:1 Masters, do to your servants that which is just and equal: knowing that you also have a master in heaven. [n. 180]
171. Posita generali instructione ad omnes, hic incipit ponere specialem.
171. Having given a general direction to all, Paul now begins to give particular directions.
Primo dat quaedam specialia documenta pertinentia ad singulos status in Ecclesia;
First, he gives special directions which relate to the various states found in the Church;
secundo quaedam communia omnibus statibus respectu certarum conditionum, in IV cap. ibi orationi instate.
second, certain directions which apply to all states in certain conditions, at be instant in prayer (Col 4:2).
Prima in tres secundum tres connexiones ex quibus domus constituitur, secundum Philosophum: quarum
There are three special directions, according to the three kinds of relationships the Philosopher finds in domestic society:
una est viri et uxoris;
that of husband and wife;
secunda patris et filii;
father and child;
alia domini et servi.
and the master and slaves.
Secunda, ibi filii. Tertia, ibi servi.
The second, at children. The third, at servants.
Unaquaeque earum dividitur in duo secundum quod monet subditos ut obediant, superiores ut moderate imperent.
Each of these is divided into two parts insofar as he urges subjects to obey and their superiors to govern with moderation.
172. Dicit ergo mulieres, etc., et dicit sicut oportet, quia haec subiectio est ex lege divina ordinata. Gen. III, 16: sub viri potestate eris, et ipse dominabitur tui. I Cor. c. XIV, 34: mulieres in Ecclesiis taceant, non enim permittitur eis loqui, sed subditas esse, sicut et lex dicit. Et ratio huius est quia regere est rationis; viri autem magis vigent ratione, et ideo praesidere debent. Item addit in domino, quia omnia ordinata ad aliquos fines sunt referenda finaliter in Deum.
172. He says, therefore, wives, be subject to your husbands, and adds, as it behooves, because this has been decreed by God’s law: you shall be under your husband’s power, and he shall have dominion over you (Gen 3:16); the women should keep silence in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be subordinate, as even the law says (1 Cor 14:34). The reason for this is that ruling is a function of reason; and because men’s reason is stronger, they should preside. He adds, in the Lord, because all things directed to certain ends must ultimately be referred to God.
173. Deinde monet viros ut diligant eas, dicens viri, diligite uxores, hoc enim est naturale: quia vir et uxor quodammodo sunt unum. Eph. V, 25: viri, diligite uxores vestras, et cetera. Et prohibet ne eis sint amari. Mich. I, 12: infirmata est in bonum, quae habitat in amaritudinibus. Eph. IV, 31: omnis amaritudo, et ira, et indignatio, et clamor, et blasphemia tollatur a vobis, cum omni malitia.
173. Then, he instructs husbands to love their wives, saying husbands, love your wives; because this is natural, since a husband and wife are in a certain sense one: husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the Church (Eph 5:25). He forbids them to be bitter: she who is bitter becomes weak in doing good (Mic 1:12); let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you, with all malice (Eph 4:31).
174. Deinde cum dicit filii, etc., agit de secundo, et dicit filii, obedite per omnia, scilicet quae non sunt contra Deum. Hebr. c. XII, 9: parentes quidem carnis nostrae habuimus eruditores, et reverebamur eos, et cetera. Si vero praecipiant in his quae sunt contra Deum, sic intelligitur illud quod dicitur Lc. c. XIV, 26: si quis venit ad me, et non odit patrem suum et matrem, et cetera. Et hoc quia hoc est placitum domino, id est, in lege Domini, quia lex caritatis non removet legem naturae, sed perficit. Est autem lex naturalis, quod filius subdatur curae patris. Ex. XX, 12: honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, et cetera.
174. Then he deals with the second relationship, and says, children, obey your parents in all things, that is, everything that is not contrary to God: we have had earthly fathers to discipline us and we respected them (Heb 12:9). But if they command anything which is contrary to God, then we must remember what is said in Luke: if any one comes to me and does not hate his own father and mother and wife and children and brothers and sisters, yes, and even his own life, he cannot be my disciple (Luke 14:26). This is to be done for this is well pleasing to the Lord, that is, it is in the Lord’s law, because the law of charity does not destroy the law of nature, but perfects it. And it is a natural law that a child is subject to the care of his father: honor your father and your mother (Exod 20:12).
175. Deinde cum dicit Patres, nolite, etc., instruit parentes. Eph. VI, 4: et vos, Patres, nolite ad iracundiam provocare filios, et cetera. Et hoc, ut non pusillo animo fiant, id est, ut non pusillanimes fiant. Et huius ratio est, quia homines retinent impressionem quam a pueritia habuerunt. Naturale autem est quod qui in servitute nutriuntur, semper sint pusillanimes. Unde ratio est cuiusdam, quare filii Israel non statim in terram promissionis sunt perducti: quia fuerant nutriti in servitute, et non habuissent audaciam contra inimicos pugnandi. Is. XXXV, 4: dicite pusillanimis, et cetera.
175. Then when Paul says, fathers, provoke not your children, he instructs parents: fathers, do not provoke your children to anger (Eph 6:4). They should not do this lest they be discouraged, that is, faint-hearted. Paul gives this advice because adults keep the impressions they have had as children. And it is natural for those raised in slavery to be always faint-hearted. This is the reason why some say that the children of Israel were not immediately led into the promised land: they had been raised in slavery, and would not have had the courage to fight against their enemies: say to those who are of a fearful heart: be strong, fear not! (Isa 35:4).
176. Deinde cum dicit servi, obedite, agit de tertio; et
176. Then when he says, servants, obey, he considers the third relationship.
primo de servis ponit monitionem;
First, he instructs the slaves;
secundo ostendit rationem, ibi scientes;
second, he gives the reason for what he says, at knowing;
tertio excludit dubitationem, ibi qui enim.
and third, he clears up a question, at for he who does wrong.
Circa primum duo facit: quia
As to the first, he does two things:
primo monet eos ad obedientiam;
first, he tells them to obey;
secundo determinat obediendi modum, ibi non ad oculum.
and second, how to obey, at not serving to the eye.
177. Dicit ergo servi, secundum carnalem conditionem, obedite per omnia, quae scilicet non sunt contra Deum. I Petr. II, v. 18: non tantum bonis et modestis, sed etiam dyscolis, et cetera. I Tim. ult.: quicumque sunt sub iugo servi, dominos suos omni honore dignos arbitrentur.
177. He says, servants, according to your state in this world, obey in all things, that is, in everything that is not against God, those who are your earthly masters: not only to the kind and gentle but also to the overbearing (1 Pet 2:18); let all who are under the yoke of slavery regard their masters as worthy of all honor (1 Tim 6:1).
178. Deinde cum dicit non ad oculum, docet modum obediendi. Et ostendit duos modos obediendi: primo quod simpliciter et sine dolo; secundo ostendit quod voluntarie.
178. Then when he says, not serving to the eye, he teaches them how they are to obey. He shows them two ways to obey: first, with simplicity and without trickery; second, willingly.
Dicit ergo non ad oculum, scilicet quantum potest videri a domino. Eph. VI, 6 simile. Et dicit quasi hominibus placentes, quia non serviunt hoc modo, nisi ut placeant hominibus. Gal. I, 10: si adhuc hominibus placerem, servus Christi non essem. Ideo addit sed in simplicitate cordis, etc., id est, absque dolo, timentes Dominum, sicut Iob I, v. 1: erat vir ille simplex et rectus ac timens Deum. Prov. XI, 3: simplicitas iustorum diriget eos, et cetera.
So Paul says, not serving to the eye, that is, not merely to the extent that they can be seen by their master. This same idea is found in Ephesians (Eph 6:6). He says, as pleasing men, for such persons serve merely to please men. If I were still pleasing men, I should not be a servant of Christ (Gal 1:10). And therefore he adds, but in simplicity of heart, that is, without trickery, fearing God, as in Job: that man was simple and upright, and feared God (Job 1:1); the simplicity of the upright guides them (Prov 11:3).
Item voluntarie; unde dicit quodcumque facitis, ex animo, id est, prompte, operamini. Et hoc sicut domino, quia qui servit alicui propter ordinem iustitiae, facit hoc propter Deum, a quo est hic ordo. Rom. c. XIII, 2: qui potestati resistit, Dei ordinationi resistit. Eph. VI, 6: facientes voluntatem Dei ex animo, cum bona voluntate servientes, sicut, et cetera.
Further, they should serve willingly; and so Paul says, whatsoever you do, do it from the heart, that is, readily. And they are to do this as to the Lord, because one who serves another because it is the right thing to do does this because of God, the source of what is right: he who resists the authorities resists what God has appointed (Rom 13:2); doing the will of God from the heart, rendering service with a good will as to the Lord and not to men (Eph 6:6).
179. Deinde cum dicit scientes, ostendit duplicem rationem huius, et una est ex parte remunerationis, alia ex parte devotionis ad Deum.
179. Then when he says, knowing, he gives two reasons why they should serve this way. The first considers their reward, and the second considers their devotion to God.